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Full text of "Hebrew is Greek"

JOSEPH YAHUDA, LL.B. 



Hebrew 
is Greek 

PREFACE 

by 
Professor Saul Levin 

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Published by 

Becket Publications 

Oxford 

19B2 



>> 



IX 



xni 



XXV 



I o 






Preface 

Prologue 

i. Hebrew and the Hebrews 

n. Modus Operandi 

in. The Foundations 

iv. Phonetics **-• 

v. Morphology ^ 

vi. Grammar ' D 

vn. General Propositions "-' 

viii. Verbal Adjectives ■-- 

ix. Proper Nouns : -' 

X. Initial 1 

xi. Greek Prepositions 

xii. The SufHx -£cu 

xni. Classified Homologies 



r? ; 



1 63 



2^0 






xiv. Concatenation of Homologies - J 5 

xv. Monographs ~-3 

Mahatma— The Cherubim— Moloch-Worship 
—Understanding Greek— The New Testament 
— The Koran 

xvi. Tests of Accuracy 3-° 

xvii. Complete Homologies 355 



[[MISSING PAGE]] 



IT b*Oi P. TCAK1PK 

XI 
TABLE OF PROPOSITIONS 

i. The Alphabets jo 

n. Vocalization no 

hi. Pronunciation of Hebrew oo 

rv- Interchange of Letters in the Bible 27 

v. Dialectal Changes 37 

vi. Classified Consonants 42 

vii. Similarities 

viii. Dissimilarities 



ix. Interchange of Letters peculiar to one Alphabet or 
to the other 



43 



^53 






5 1 



3D 



x. Interchange of Letters common to both Alphabets _;6 

xi. The Rough and the Smooth Breathings 49 

xii. Double-consonants 

xiii. Double-letters 

xiv. Aphesis and Aphercsis 

xv. Syncope ^5 

xvi. Apocope zt 

xvii. Letters which drop out ^8 

xvm. Prosthesis 66 

xix. Terminal Letters 67 

xx. Metathesis 69 

xxl Suffix and Prefix 6g 

xxn. Greek Patterns 73 

xxiii. The Definite Article 

xxiv. Same and Opposite Genders 

xxv. Different Genders 



i 3 



79 

xxvi. Neuter Gender 79 

xxvii, Common Gender 81 

xxviil Nouns in ~t? 81 

xxix. The Genitive Homology 82 

xxx. The Construct 82 

xxxi. The Dative Case 83 



zu 



PROPOSITIONS ^ J - 1 



xxxii. The Future 84 

xxxiii. The Aorist 84 

xxxiv. The Middle Voice 65 

xxxv. The Subjunctive Mood 85 

xxxvi. The Optative Mood 86 

xxxvii. Simple and Compound Verbs 87 

xxxviii. Compound Words (Hybrids) 89 

xxxix. Identical and Equivalent Komologues 91 

xl. Complete and Incomplete Homologues 92 

xl 1. Multihomologics 93 

xlii. Atavisms 94 

xliii. Arabic Homologues of Greek Words 99 

xliv. Arabic and Hebrew Homologues of Greek Words 99 

xlv. Arabic Homologues of Hebrew Words 101 

xl vi. Verbal Adjectives to 2 

xlvii. Proper Nouns I21 

xlviii. The Middle Voice 3 r 35 

xlix. Greek Prepositions it>3 

l. Verbs in -ecu 2 4° 

li. Kindred Homologies 257 

li 1. Concatenation 285 

mi. Mahatma 295 

liv. Cherubim 3 01 

lv. Moloch 3°4 

lvi. Understanding Greek 313 

lvii. Words in the New Testament 320 

lviii. Words in the Koran 3 22 

lix. Tests of Accuracy 33 2 

lx. Complete Homologies 355 

lxi. Unreliability of Authorities 375 



LXII. 



General Homologies 4-8 



ZIII 
PREFACE 



The connections between Semitic (or Afro- Asiatic) and Indo- 
European languages are being investigated more methodically 
nowadays, but the researchers are still too few and isolated. 
Every so often I hear of a scholar in Poland or Brazil or Israel 
who has been studying a certain extensive set of comparative 
data and working out a theory. Some of these men and women 
are at a university; others are in a different profession but expert 
in many languages. There is no learned society or journal for us 
to share our findings in brief instalments, and thus to profit from 
mutual criticism and supplementation. But the subject itself is 
rich, and the individuals attracted to it are impelled to write 
long monographs; that is the only way to satisfy' themselves and 
to present the sceptical world with a coherent statement of their 
research. To keep it unpublished, for fear that it may contain 
errors, would be a disservice all around. Once it is made avail- 
able, any competent reader can extract for himself all that :s 
profitable to him. 

Mr. Joseph Yahuda is in a class apart. He wrote to me from 
London in 1977, after seeing my book on The Indo-European end 
Semitic Languages', and thac opened up a fruitful correspondence, 
interrupted only by periods of illness. He was my senior by many 
years and (in the midst of a legal career) the author of several 
books on subjects of Jewish interest, beginning with La Palestine 
revisiiee in 1928 and including the highly relevant Law and 
Life according to Hebrew Thought (published in 1932). His latest 
book is the outcome of an extended sabbatical, which he has 
taken from his profession in order to devote himself, fully and 
vigorously, to a systematic investigation of the vocabulary and 
grammar of the Hebrew Bible, and its linkage to Greek. 

These are facts which I learned gradually as our friendship 
developed, though we have never had an opportunity to meet. 
He offered, from the outset, to send me the galley proofs of the 
present book, which was already in the printer's hands. His 
cordial manner and my own curiosity would not allow me to 



xiv PREFACE 

refuse such a preview. It turned out that we often disagreed; 
but as I read on, I found more and more of truly great value — 
:ndeH, some of it astonishingly helpful for problems thai had 
baffled me for years, 

To illustrate this I shall make a few observations about 
particular pages, while commending the book as a whole for 
careful study by all who have a fair knowledge of Greek and 
Hebrew or Arabic, the chief languages treated by Mr. Yahuda. 
Furthermore, those who are expert in Sanskrit, Avestan, 
Armenian, or Hittite on the Indo-European side, or Akkadian 
on the Semitic, can from their several perspectives elucidate 
many of the phenomena noted by Mr. Yahuda, When the 
recently excavated texts from Ebla are published, they are also 
bound to have a great bearing on the pre-history of Hebrew. 

i . I was most gratified to learn from hhrt-^p. 256, 427, 663, 

on the homology of fcOp 5 and xpdcu) that nK*Hp, \vhich occurs 
nowhere in BibliciPHebrew except fon-Jruw^r 3: 2, means 
specifically an 'oracular or prophetic proclamation'. Indisputable 
as that is in the context of Jonah's mission to Nineveh/THln- 
blocked for me the relation between the Hebrew roo/frOp and 
the Greek xPV, xf*{ l )~- Ever since I had disco verecr^rirSt the 
Homeric expression at XPV £ >" ou need, you must 3 has the same 
structure as a Semitic verb-root with a prefix and siaiive vocali- 
zation — e.g-,(pDnnVyou lack, you will lack' (Deut. 8: 9) — I 
kept trying in vain ^^s^abluh tzrhtch Semitic root is cognate to 
Xprq- The meaning o^X*K?)'caIF seemed too distant from 'neeji^ 
or *must\ Besides, the emphatic' qualiry of the consonant p 
corresponds usually to the non-aspirate k, not to x [^ b ]- This 
left me with an uncomfortable surmise that there was no Semitic 
cognate to XPV, anc * that notwithstanding the impressive cor- 
respondence in structure the root itself was unparalleled in any 
known language apart from Greek, 

Now, however, I am satisfied that/KTjT^nd xpv are indeed 
cognate, and anchored in the most basic stratum of the Hebrew 
and Greek vocabulary. The phonetic problem can be eased, if 
not quite solved, by noting an affinity between the 'emphatic' 

1 See Tfu Indo-European and S&titic Languages : An 2-~pU;-:L.* ~J Si.-Ltuiai Sunt- 
taritits Rdaltd to Accent, Chiefly in GfM, Sanskrit, and Hebrew (Aibany, 1971), pp- 5 1 6— 
25; cf. pp. 241-57. 



PREFACE xv 

pjand the glottal stop(VUn the one hand and possibly between 

^ and 7} on the othcr/Trom the morpliologica! point of view 

a stativeintcrpr«ation of ae XP tj fits very well: 'you are called 

u pon ' An p_ A ( *nj7 n )from its form could be st^tiwL b\ 




fas* is^aTfive: 'you (or she) call(s), will call' 
however, is stative: 'you are (or she is) afraid, aforfid^ Wthe 
difference in vocalization between active and stative is neutral- 
ized in the imperfect tejis£_pf Hebrew verbs that end in £w 

The derived noui( filp~)?}s of a type that was origmalJv 
participial: < somethtag--pFdclaimed , ; with the internal vocal- 
ization [-i>--] it is a passive rather than a stative formation. 
Occurring in a relatively late text, it typifies a trend away from 
the stative [-e-] and toward the passive [-i- r -], which has pre- 
vailed enormou^4n_post-BibIical Hebrew. It corresponds not 
quite so well a^*nklfHvouId to the Greek noun xp*{l)"> which 
means 'need' ofteR-trTHomcr and 'oracular pronouncement 5 in 
the Alexandrian poet Apollonius {Argonautica i. .191 }, The latter 
meaning can be safely posited as early as Homer; for he uses 
XP*o>: XP € '°s in both meanings ('oracular pronouncement' in 
Od. 1 1. 479). Greek has very few feminine nouns in -d» that aix 
synonyms or near-synonyms^frre^ter nounsifl-^r; btrt Hebrew 
has many feminines lik/ TOKVJi-i*-} rhbx; 
5: 3) 'something asked forVAt least one^^uTthemJ 
'something stolen', corresponds riead^-to atAi-Vc* in every del_... 
The imperative form of the verfeTK~)Pjcall, proclaim' (to so- 
and-so) is addressed by God to apf^phtt in Isaiah 40: 6, 58, 
Jeremiah 1 1 : 6, Jonah 1 : 2, 3: 2, Zechariah 1:14, 17. The Greek 
active imperative, * XP d in Ionic or * XP ^ in Attic, is not 
attested but can be inferred from the indicative xpa, Xfr fj 'he 
or she) pronounces oracularly'; the subject is 'usually the 
Pythia, Apollo's prophetess, but it can be any prophet or the 
prophetic god himself (Herodotus 1. 55. 2^2. 4,4. -67. 2, 7. 141. 
2, etc.; Sophocles, EUctra 35). Whereas(KTJ?)*in itself conveys 
nothing extraordinary about the voice except loudness, the 
Greek X pd > XPTi ma y have suggested an unearthly tone. 

1 Sec my article in the Festschrift for Wxnfrtd P. Lthmann (Amsterdam Studies In 
the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, series IV, vol. iv, 1977), pp. 317-39. 




xvi PREFACE 

Offhand we would take the circumflexed a for a contraction 
of de t the « being a 'thematic' attachment to the end of the root; 
but the rj does not lend itself to this sort of analysis. So X~ip : is 
structurally, not just phonetically, very close to the Greek word 
for 'proclaim* in an oracular setting. 1 

2. By comparing T\\ 'this' with the -Be in o&c, Mr. \ahuda 
(p. 76) has enableckme^to clarify two long-standing perplexities: 
What are the affinities of this ubiquitous Greek particle, which 
has no evident Indo-European cognates? And why does the 
striking syntactical parallel of article-noun-article-adjcctive, so 
peculiar to Greek among the Indo-European languages and to 
* Hebrew (including Phoenician and Moabke) and Arabic 
"among the Semitic, not exten d to arti cle-noun-article-demon- 

strative? For example,Q^^iT?J?^/ thc S 1 "^ 1 Un ^ matchcs 
o £aaiAfO? 6 peyas with the arucle~fcpeated (II Kings 18 : 19 
= Is. 36: 4), but only Hebrew has the repeated article ii^*C23H 

Kinil/o TTpojrfj-rqs ««iw? 'that prophet' (Deut. 18: 
\6 povyps-jwros 'this mound' (Gen. 31 : 48 = 46). 
it ii/iliri XijJwere translated 6 3ow6s o&c (instead of 
the— nrStch — both morphological and syntactical — 
would become palpable. In one respect 68c even behaves more 
likc( miH) than an ordinary adjective such as 6 jte'ya? behaves 

likefVnim the normal position of oS* is after the noun (e.g., 
Eunptdcs^TUctra 43, Pkoen. 920, Heracles 849), whereas most 
attributive adjectives in Greek and the demonstratives ovroc 
and oceiVo? precede the noun more often than not (except in 
the Septuagint, where the translators adhered to the order of 
words in the Hebrew original). 

I visualize a pointing gesture to accompany [de] or [ze]. : In 
sound these two syllables are similar, although -Be lacks an 

» The middle forms of the Greek verb occur much oftener/jhanlfcc active forms, 
not only to mean "have someone pronounce an oracle' (cfJ nXT^/J^" 111 - 2 4 : ') 
but more generally 'have recourse to, make use of. \^^^y 

* See "The Connective "Panicies ' ol" Clascal Creek DiscoSrsc, CL'XT fanm, 
5-6 (1978-9), 55-7. Both «&« and ©vr«« correspond to 'this' In English; but SS< 
points to one being noticed for the first time, ovtoj to 00c noticed before. 





PREFACE xvii 

accent. However, o Be exists also, but limited to an^iiiitial 
position; with that accent it cannot follow a noun as HiiT^oes. 

3. Another problem of Greek syntax, which Mr. Yahuda's 
book throws unexpected light on, is the rule that a god's name, 
in prose (and comic verse), will be preceded by the article: 
6 Ztik> t} Arjfirp-rjp. The name of a man or a woman takes the 
article only when it recurs- 1 The Hellenists of modem times 
have explained that the article marks the person as already 
known to the listener or reader, because of a previous mention 
if the person is human, whereas a god is already known when- 
ever he is mentioned. 

\fr^Xafa4ada in no way undermines this by equating 6 Ztvs 

with ^vD *?*> jpp. 4> 38, 1 ii), which is conventionally translated 
-AkB^fity\ But he brings out what no one has ever suspected 
before: thatPXrGod' in the Hebrew expression is functioning 
like the definite article in the Greek. To grasp the syntactical 
parallel, Wt need not adopt his phonetic argument that the 
Hebrew sounds are just a modificationpf the Greek sounds. It 

is onlv necessary to remark fa) that(7X)is. bevend ouesrio 

— l / z.L± 

phoftcmciUy close to the .Arabic article Jl, and 'h) thaj * T?> 

without ^Xj is characterise^ of Hebrew poetry like Zzvs, 
out a, irn^re ^^oetn/ ]r^UJ < higto^oi^ highMt\ when ref er- 
ring to God, is also prtc*d^byr7^n prose (Gen. 14: 18, 19, 
20, 22) but not in poetry (exceptlor Ps. 78: 35)- 1 

So the problem is now to find the meaning originally common 

td /K/and JL Was it something like 'the famous'? Ille in Latin 
often had that sense — e.g., magnus UU Alexander (Cicero, Pro 
Archia z 10 [24]) — when it was just beginning its devolution into 

1 Details in B. L. Gildersleevc and C W. E, Miller, Sjntix of CUssiecl Grt£< 7 :i 
(Ne w York . 191 1 } > 229-36, 

- ^ilVxVp. 67), occurring only in Zzck. 13: 11, 13, seems :o incorporate the 

anicfeTiflnoihcr Semitic language- Although in this high-flown prophetic passage 
it has commonly been taken to mean 4 haiT, an alternative and pro g a bl y ^a_betterf 

interpretation is 'gypsum* or 'plaster, cement' (yif^oj). In Job 28: ^8 E^2i} nV2KTj 
'corals and crystal*, the element [*tl-] is absent. See W, Muss-ArnbitT 'Qn S<:cri krc( 
Words in Greek and Latin', Transactions of the American Phil^logiail Association, 23 
{1892), 70, and earlier scholarship cited by him. 



xviii PREFACE 



the definite article of the Romance languages. Putting Hebrew 
and Greek usage together I wnnld conclude that in pin:-* 
speech the essential mark of divinities was their glory. 




^4^My initial reaction to Mr. Yahuda's derivation of HjlT 
(ojr rI3t)l 'harlot' from ywr^ 'woman* (pp. 463 425) was sharply 
adverse : c could be taken for a calumny against the whole female 
sex', I noted in a letter dated March 20 1978. But later I reflected 
that the Old English word cwene \voman' (related to yu^r 
though not an exact cognate) was often used disparagingly 

served to translate the Latin meretrix. 1 So I can envisag 
developing from yvmj (or a dialect form such as ywa) in a a 
sense, as it designated an unmarriageable woman, one presented 
to the Hebrews through commerce and not one of their own. 

5- Tr raiiJiaTdlv^b^n accident that the word for 'yesterday' 

— xBes in Greek/7i£Tyin Hebrew — is among the very fewia 
either language tHat sometimes have the souod [E^-pfefixed 

without any change of meaning: cy^cVjT /i?DrX/(p. xxix). In 
Greek the *- is reminiscent, semanticallv a^vrenas phonetically, 
of the prefix attached to verbs to show past time, but optionally 
omitted in poetic narratives, i^dis occurs only in prose or comic 
texts, where the i- is obligatory with past verbs. 

6. In a belated discovery, as important as any taken up in rpy 
book or more so, I find that Mr. Yahuda has partly^jau^r^ated 
me* I paid no particular heed to his citation afinD Xadaipu) 
(pp. 44, 59), but most recently I have realized tha*-*Kere is an 
excellent structural match, not only in the consonantal root but 
in the vowels within it and the suffix. The feminine form of the 
adjective (nominative singular) that means 'pure' or 'clean' is 

1 It is the source of quear^ which is now virtually obsolete, whereas q^eri is from 
the Old English czvtn *( ting's) wife'. Over many centuries, however, the superior 
and the inferior word were commonly confused in spelling and no doubt in pro- 
nunciation. After 1800, though the distinction in spelling was finally standardized, 
the two words were irremediably homophonous ; 

This modern Amazon and queen of queans 

(Byron, Don Juan 6. 96) 

During the long reign of the beloved and respected Victoria people stopped using 
the pejorative quean. 



PREFACE xix 

KoBapd in Attic (Aristophanes, Aues 214, etc.), xadaw) in Ionic 
(Herodotus 2. 38. 2), but Kodapd m other dialects, actually 
attested in an inscription of Heraelea (southern Italy) : KPIOAH 
KOBAPAIAOKIMAH 'pure choice barley' (genitive singular; 
Inscription^Qraecae 14. 645. 1. 103). The Hebrew form closest to 

this i/nnnDJthe feminine singular form of the stative verb in 
the perf ecTtens e '(she) is pure' (Lev. 15 : 28; also the 'converted 

perfect'Ai^LiDn'and then she is pure 1 , 12: 7). The term is 
fundame^naTmooth Greek and Hebrew religion. 

Ko& xp- Kadap- has no satisfactory Indo-European etymology, 
butQTK^has Arabic (including Soqotri) and Ethiopic cognates, 
possibly borrowed from Hebrew after the Biblical period. The 
correspondence between the consonants [k-t h -r] : [t-h^r] is sur- 
prising but, upon reflection, very attractive. If we expected the 
Hebrew counterpart to K-B-p to be ^Ilj^/ because^ \s usually 
transliterated by k in the Septuagint and/hjby 6, romethin ^m 
the phonology of Hebrew would still blocxthe sequence *(^P^) 
which is not found in any Hebrew root; thus the Hebrew (and 
Aramaic) cognate of , \zj 'kill* i43V\?}- The asoiration in 8, how- 
ever, is maintained in thef yotQTw^ and the [t] component of 
B turns ud at the be^innin^ of the Hebrew root. 

The Hebrew vowels {-D-a-5^} are best matched by the -o-c-<£ of 
Greek dialects outside of Attic and Ionic. For these dialects we 
lack evidence whether the short o was pronounced open (which 
the phoneticians now symbolize by [0] or [0]} or closed (which 
they symbolize by [o] or [0]). The short o in Attic and Ionic 
was evidently the latter; so the Attic and Ionic a in the first 
syllable of this word is still as close as possible phonologically to 
the Hebrew [d], a sound intermediate between [a] and [o]. 1 
The shortness of the o in Ko8ap- is established at least for one 
diaiect, Lesbian, by the meter of Alcaeus (fragment 38[B6]. 33 
Lobel-Page). I am not able to relate the Greek dialect variation 
xodap- : KaBap- to the Hebrew morphological altenjadoo-between 
{o-a-} in the stative perfect and {-a-a-} in th«/*7y^)('inteasi.y^ 
or rather causative) imperative and imperfect; e.g.f ^3^9 
'purify me' (Ps. 51 : 4). Greek has, for example, KadapoOpTv l \vt 

1 The English word cot has [a] (in the American pronunciation), caught has 
[3], indcoal [o]. 



ix PREFACE 

will purify 1 (Xenophon, Ouonomiats 18. 6) ; but the verb happens 
not to occur in what little survives of the dialects that show the 
adjective as Kodap-. 

The correspondence of -a (-77 in Ionic and sometimes in 
Attic) to the Hebrew feminine suffix {-5 K } remains somewhat 
problematical in regard to the quality of the i^wcl (see above, 

p. xv) ; hut-at^any rate it recurs : dyopd, dyopy: n^y/assembly' ; 
dyaTnjf. Pill ri ft /lov e' ; feminine ethnics such^ss^ALyvrrrtd (-17) 

'EgN-pj^E^TPS^OEp 'Moabite', etc. The accent on the last 
lost momentous feature of all, because it allows 
us to throw a flood of light upon the original or principal 
function and placement of Greek descriptive adjectives. k<£ 

xadapa, KaSap-j resembles the Hebrew non-terminal forn/npnC 
much more than the terminal form, which has a different vowel 
trued in the previous syllable. Only the 'converted perfect' 
n"jnDl i^-ccorded (Lev. 12:8); and in general the final position 
sely recorded for stative verbs. In their function as a pre- 
dicate — 'is pure', 'has become pure' — such verbs are normailv 
folloused by a subject rather than preceded. So it was originallv 
(as I infer) in Greek with the adjectives that are most like stative 
verbs: they served primarily as predicates, followed typically by 
a noun. In the classical Greek language, although the order of 
words is remarkably free on the whole, still that collocation is 
favoured (with the copulative verb ion 'is' optional and very 
often absent) ; e.g. Kc.8a.pd. -rj Kplois 'the decision is pure, untainted' 
(Aristotle, Rhetorica 3. 12. 1414*13-14; cf. Euripides, Cyclops 
562; Plato, Menexenus 243d, etc.). 

The alternation of vowel and accent, depending upon the 
position of a word in a phrase or sentence, is (in mv considered 
opinion) an archaic characteristic of Hebrew. In particular the 
shifting of the accent, when the word is initial or non-terminal, 
to the last syllable — so that it comes on a suffix — gives us an 
idea of what developed in the prehistory of Greek, and perhaps 
other Indo-European languages. Such an accent on the 
syllable is unstable. In Hebrew it will bejJisplaccA^£"tne*"next 
word has an accent on the first syllable ffli HX^^'the wine- 
press is full' (Joel 4: 13; cf. Ps. 26. loj^hr-ereelfthe vowel- 
and-accent pattern of any given word is stable, or stabilized, no 



PREFACE xxi 

matter where it happens to be placed in the sentence or how it 
functions : whether the adjective KoOapd is predicative '(is) pure* 
or attributive '(a) pure*, nothing will displace the accent to 
*Ko8apd J l nor can there be a terminal form *Kod<Epd. But this 
accent on the last syllable, to judge from all die ancient evidence, 
is weak, unlike the firm accent — a raised pitch — on the pen- 
ultimate or antepenultimate syllable of words such as Sexrrepd 
'second* (feminine), Sctrr^por (masculine), rtrdpn}, rerapros 
'fourth', and other adjectives that are not primarily descriptive 
or predicative. The marking of an acute accent on the last 
syllabic, before a pause, is a medieval convention, though trace- 
able to the doctrine of the Greek grammarians early in the 
Christian era; it scarcely counts as evidence of a raised pitch 
there, rather than a stress. The grave accent, which we find 
actually written in any other environment {<c3apa or Ka0ap7j), 
is somewhat better attested than the acute [Kzoapd, Kadap-q) ; 
but what sound it stands for is most uncertain. 

My accentuation of <o6apd (or Kodapa, for that matter) is 
conventional, in that our ancient sources give little definite 
information about accents in the dialects anart from Attic and 
Ionic. Lesbian alone is amply reported to have had recessive 
accent in all words — i.e. never on the las: syllable. The other 
dialects, so far as the indications go, agreed on the whole with 
Attic and Ionic in the accentual part of their phonology, but 
disagreed on some details. There is nothing contrary to my citation 
of the feminine form of the adjective as xodcpd in the dialect of 
Heraclea; what we have for certain is KOGAPA. 

The IndoEuropeanists, attempting to reconstruct the order of 
words in the prehistoric ancestral language, are frustrated by the 
exceedingly flexible order in classical Greek, which defies any- 
simple formulation. But in view of my inference that the vowel- 
and-accent pattern o^Kodapd illustrates how descriptive adjectives 
arose out of stative verbs followed by a subject, we can reasonably 
posit a type of sentence in which the predicate came first. 

1 Only if it becomes the name of a person does the accent then recede toward 
the beginning of the word: dyatrj 'noble/ fa&pd * radiant/ bet the princesses 
AyavT} and <£ai5p£. The central function of a name is vocative, for addressing the 
person; and in Greek (as in Sanskrit) the vocative is associated with an accent 
of raised pitch on the first syllable, or as close to it as the phonology of the 
language allows. 



aarii PREFACE 

7. All this is far from an exhaustive enumeration of what I 
personally have gained from Mr. Yahuda's long and detailed 
book. But let it serve, since my part is onlv to contribute a 
preface. Each reader can surely find for himself the points 
throughout the book that are most pertinent to his scholarly 
interests. I would, however, call attention briefly to a few 
etymologies that strike me as original, ingenious, and often 
relevant to a comparison between the Scptuagint and the 
original Hebrew text: 1 

(a) avoxj 'stopping, postponement, relief (p. 78} :/t\T\^\ 
'remission' (only in Esther 2: 18). 

(b) dpa (in Attic), d/wj (in Homer) / rPKjcurse' (p. 39). The 
full vowe]_M remains in the first syllabie^ev en when a suffix is 

added r T''?*?) my curse* (Ezek. 17: ig; cf. 17: 16, Gen. 24: 41, 
Deut. 2§>-f-r; 20). 

(c) Safidcu, 8apd£<jj 'I tame, I overcome'(: ri/D"7j jhe is overcome' 
(p. 360). The thematic (so-called 7\"b) vertroT Hebrew is most 
closely paralleled by the Greek thematic noun or adjective 
iTrTro'Saftos' 'horse-tamer, horse-taming', whose vocative case ends 
in -e. 



(d) St'i/fo/HK^ (this noun only in Jer. 2: 25, although the 
root is frequent) 'thirst' (p. 402). Such a metathesis and modifi- 
cation of consonants would be unusual but credible. 






(e) ZSva, ZeSva. 'bridal gifts' (p. 349)S "^ HSn lOTiy* these 
are a gift [onovSj-KLme' (Hosea 2: 14; ci". [d 'give') 

\T) evA^ny?1^n3;7iry\vorm, maggot' (pp. 51, 109). The 
[t-] would thrrToe a"prefix. 

(g) Kara (rarely kc.tc.1 in poetry)(: "'7.? ^according to* (Deut. 
25: 2, etc., p. 171). V^y 

(h) tcv4j>as 'darkness, twilight 1 (p. 365)/: ^i^jhe will be 
hidden' (Is. 30: 20). This raises the question whether the familiar 

1 Some of them were first proposed to me in handwritten memoranda from Mr. 
Yahuda, responding lo the points that I brought up in my letters. Not everything 
that figured in our correspondence has found 3 pUr<* in the book (which was 
virtually finished before our acquaintance began). But in any case I am here in- 
cluding etymologies that arc too good to leave unmentioned. 




PREFACE xxiii 

noun ^33 'wing' was originally perceived as a shadow from a 
Iargfivbipcrin the sky. 

Splap (ph <f>pidra 7 in epic (fyp^idrajf: "1X3, (pL construct 

fSjGcn. 14: 10) { a weir (p. 81). 

Among the issues of linguistic methodology which this book 
is bound to raise, an important one concerns the occasional, 
sporadic, or spontaneous deviants from the normal form — i.e. 
the normal pronunciation — of a particular word or words. Have 
such deviants had, in the long run, a major or only a minor role 
in the gradual transformation of lan^ua^cs? The linguistic oro- 
fession is far from a consensus. But in the examoles I have cited, 
the relation between the known Greek and Hebrew forms can 
be exolained without a need to posit anv hiehlv anomalous 
change. 

I have unbounded admiration for Mr, Yahuda's energy, 
enthusiasm, and thoroughness. As shown in the foregoing pages, 
I have profited greatly from scrutinizing his book, and particu- 
larly from certain inspired passages. Some of his boldest 
thoughts are the best; and if we criticize him, we ought in 
fairness to acknowledge that a sternlv cautious method would 
have inhibited those valuable flashes. Once, in 1979- I wrote to 
him, 'Your book will be here for a long time, after both of us 
are in our graves.' This preface is intended, in a small way, 
to help toward the fulfilment of that expectation. 

SaulLevin 




PROLOGUE 

XXV 
restores to the Greeks the twenty-four books of 
fstament, which were written in their language — an 
adventitious reward for their having preserved the parts of the 
Hebrew heritage enshrined in the Septuagint, the New Testa- 
ment, and the books by Josephus and Philo. At the same time 
and in precisely the same way, rjSe 17 ypa$rj offers to the Jews 
the forty-eight books of Homer, together with the rest of the 
literature of Hellas — a kind of compensation for the sufferings 
endured by them at the hands of the Greeks. Lastly, t_jL5Gl lit 
gives orientalists a peep into pre-Islamic -Arabia that invites 
further research. 

This oecumenical work should have been undertaken by a 
team of at least three seasoned scholars : each an accomplished 
expert in one of the three languages immediately involved, and 
having more than a nodding acquaintance with the other two. 
It is not my fault that I have done it single-handed. 

.As a matter of fact, I repeatedly tried to get others to join me 
in the venture, without success. Thus early on, at the end of a 
two-hour session with one of the prospective collaborators, he 
exclaimed : 'All this is rubbish, and we've wasted each other's 
time.' My response was: *2~ou, as well as I, will be judged by 
these words which I shall quote whenever I discuss my work 
again.' There was no animus or acrimony in this exchange; 
indeed, as the research progressed, I tried twice more to interest 
him in it, but in vain. 

Shortly after the aforesaid encounter, I quoted the disparaging 
remark uttered at its conclusion to the late Christodoulos Hour- 
mouzios, a graduate of the University of Athens and an expert on 
Homer, who said to me : 'But / think you are one of the greatest 
glossologists I know.' He readily promised his full co-operation v 
but unfortunately died before we could settle down to working 
together. 

There were those who confessed to being persuaded that there 
was 'something* in my theory, yet thought that my claim about 
the identity of Hebrew with Greek was rather exaggerated. They 



xxvi PROLOGUE 

maintained that I was 'aiming too high*, and suggested that, in 
my own interest, I should lower my sights and adopt a 'less un- 
compromising attitude'. One of them was the late Sir Leon 
Simon, an acknowledged classicist who knew Hebrew. In fulfil- 
ment of his promise — in spite of the thick fog and his heavy 
cold — the old man came a long way on the evening of 14 January 
! 959 to preside at my first lecture on the subject. He introduced 
me briefly and with caution, expressly reserving his comments to 
the end of my address- Then, before calling for questions, he said 
the following which I noted down immediately after the meeting : 

'I don't suppose everybody will agree with everything Mr. Yahuda 
has told us, assuming we have all understood him all the way. But 
whatever the doubts about it may be, of one thing I for one am certain. 
He has solved a mystery which has puzzled scholars for over two 
thousand years. Because if he is right — that several Greek words with 
<jk are transformed in Hebrew as if vx were a digraoh or one of the 
two letters dropped — then Homer did not nod when he left the short 
vowel preceding EKapavZoov short, in the famous line: 

On the other hand, I had a fruitful interview with a scholar of 
world-wide repute, which was followed by an exchange of long 
memoranda. But for some reason he put an end to the corre- 
spondence with a curt communication in which he wrote : 'You 
might as well derive the English "ball" from the Gr. $dX\w "to 
throw' 1 or seek a connection between "chow" and "show" 
because chows are exhibited at shows! 7 

In the result, I had to fall back on mv own resources and relv 
solely on my efforts, devoting to this research much of my leisure 
over a period of more than thirty years. Two things kept me 
going: the unflagging moral support of my beloved wife, and the 
thrills we both experienced at every major discover)*. I also re- 
ceived encouragement from Professor Cyrus H. Gordon, of 
Brandeis and New York Universities; and the Revd. Rabbi 
Solomon D. Sassoon, of Jerusalem. 

One day, in the course of a social conversation with a friend, 
darling Cecile became more than usually enthusiastic — in fact, 
exuberant— over my research. Whereupon her friend said : 'You 
don't know Greek or Hebrew, how can you be so sure?* To which 
Cecile replied : 'But I know my husband. He hates guessing and 



PROLOGUE 



XX vu 



always insists on evidence. As a lawyer, he can weigh up evi- 
dence. He tells me that he has plenty of convincing evidence, and 
I believe him.' Have I? 

The following pages will show, in logical classification and 
due detail, to what extent, if any, I have such evidence. Here I 
shall only give a bird's eye view of the evidence which, I submit, 
justifies my Uncompromising attitude' that Hebrew is Greek. 
It is fourfold, that is to say: the number of homologies and their 
Quality, the grammatical similarities, and the interpretation of 
enigmatic words. The number of homologies is vast, and their 
percentage of the biblical vocabulary is very high: I estimate ic 
at go per cent. Witness the long lists set out in support of the 
Propositions- As to the grammatical similarities, they are dealt 
with in Chapter VI ; while the enigmatic words are encountered 
everywhere. Let me, then, advert briefly to the quality of the 
homologies. 

The high quality of Graeco-Hebraic homologies — which in- 
estimably enhances the value of their large proportion and great 
number, as proof of the identity of one language with the other — 
is manifested bv several imoortant features, that is to sav: 



eanmgs}, 



i . Ptcdliarity of Meaning. There are commonplace Greek 
which, in addition to their ordinary meaning 
bear a peculiar one that makes them tvpi^aiivureek- Some of 
them have demonstrably genuinej^ofnologues which beapbpth- 
-nteanings, the peculiar asw£#as die ordinary, e.g. ^TjpTj^nX*???-, 
6dp77^L<t/Xi?7?J dpdpovfi*?Yli y ipyaOTTjptovj ajU^ 
an adjectH^noun derjj 

of whicl 




trAritii. The Adjective 




the homologue 



the feminine, 



shares with irXypjjs All its nteanings, including: 'of wine, full- 
bodied, with a persistent favour 1 Ex 22. 28 Nu 18. 27. It is absolutely- 
clear from the contexts, especially in the latter verse, that wine 
is indicated ; but Hebrew does not provide the reason for referring 
to wine by *fulF or 'fulness'. For that, one must go to Greek. 

A footnote to Ex 22. sg in the N.E.B, reads: 'the first . . . 
> $vi&e^mng. of Heb. words imcrrtain\ In Nu 18. 27, however, 
nK^!&4s rendered by^^^ce'. 

^7 KfittJ Mderives frorrf XE7LJ the homologue of olativ ^nd/or non- 
expnft cvc/iccj, the twp alternative verbs to ^poj^iWljbclongs to 



nvui 



PROLOGUE 



the class of verbs with tfse~MicidtrVoice 2, and/shares with ^>oj 
many of its meanings/Kt?0 equalizes with J&pwa through the 
suffix-prefix phenomeW*r*nd shares with kthree meanings: thfit 
which is carried, load Ex 23. 5 ; metaph., tofden, had Nu 1 1. 1 1 ; of 
a harp I Ch 15. 22, 27. The last tw^ve^es occur in a paragraph 
entirely devoted to music, and/OTTD/refers to an instrument 
played by skilled strummers. YWneither Greek nor Hebrew 
provides an explanation for such a strange nomenclature. 

No difficulty seems to have been encountered by the editors 
of the N.E.B. in translating (or rather mistranslating) ICh 15. 
22, but a footnote to verse 27 reads: 'the precentor: prob. rdg.; 
Heb. obscure 1 . I sympathize with them, especially as I offered to 
put my experience at their disposal. 



Here is the complete homology of dpdpov: jomi 



±£l 



a[~-Y. ; esp. the socket [of the ankle-joint] *JL-, ^JjJkII of join(/ 

merally, oflimbs, etc., esp. in pl/jjj* ; of die le 
Gn 32. 33 .iijjpyvjb 18. 4 Ex 21. 2-i/n*/nB^Ruth 
Dan 2. 4 
Ex i_5 




r* 



b 7. j. , U< ; lines i-; -i a. genital f^) 
... ^ D iu. r ,Wb 4. 25 Jud 3. 24 IS 24. 4Jes 6. 2, 7. 20. 

Sure enoH|^,(5n) bears both the ordinary and the peculiar 
meanin^oTapt?pov ; in the sing, it means 4 Ieg\ and in the pi. it 

eans 'genitals' as well as 'legs'. 

According to the X.E.B., the seraphim in Jes 6. 2 covered 
their feet; and in the later verse, Isaiah is mistranslated as pre- 
dicting that the 'body', not the 'pubicjiairj^^i^-^^hav^cr 
The Septuagint has feet in both versesQT) however, bears both 
meanings in the sing. (Ex 1. 5 Jud 3rT5;. 

cpyoo-rqpiov means any place in which ncrk is done: workshop, 
manufactory. Strangely enough, it also means brothel. It is a 
compound made up of ipyaa- {epydCoua.:, 'jcork; c -pyaoeta>, long to 
it-ork; epyov, work) and -rrpiov, suffix denoting piece. It has two 

homologues: Juijj (which bears the hrst meaning) and jJU^ 
(which bears both meanings). This is an Arabicized Persian 
compound which breaks down into: fg, 'work', standing for 
ipyaa- {ipyov) ; and aJU, 'place', the possible homologue of 
Xw/hov. If this is right, then it is cogent evidence that die Pro- 
positions of my theory logically apply beyond the so-called 
Semitic languages, e.g. dyopd[forum, ai8u>s;pudor, ^daKtujpubesco. 



PROLOGUE 



XXIX 



2. Identical Phrases. The similarity of certain Hebrew words to 
their Greek counterparts establishes an identity of expression in 
botljjanguages beyond the words concerned. 
_ JPu^tljcre are three words in Hebrew for Yesterday* /27QKJ 
MQn^(7T0n^which respectively relate to the Greek phraSCsof 
rords~each : rjficpa x$*Sj *X&** lP*P a > X&*$ Vh^P^ — an< ^ tvv0 
in Arabic: _J and jl^jUI, both of which^JiomdTogize with 
the first phrase. It is remarkable that(^10n)is augmented with 
Q^)when i is added to lengthen x&*$ I an d that only the phrase 
^tf5*0« Vpepa is known. Moreover, it is not less significant that 
the suffix-prefix phenomenon — by reversing the order of the 
last two wordSjjj^ra x0& — should account for three homolot 
(one HebrewnZ7D£y, anc * the two Arabic), two of which 
and _J) aj^quasi-homophones, 

AgairL^Crf)in Jes 27. 2 is the homologue of ifcepiV, fern, of 
i7/i epos-; as SuEst., fipcpts (sc. aft-^cAoy), 77, the cultivated vine 0<J* 5. 
69. The bibhx^l^text^howcver, actually expresses whatHomcr 
implies, i.e. (iQn D^5*Vls usual, Driver'^agsro^^ 

should 'rd. her* inn n^y) I dread to 




asset 




think what would have happened to our Scriptures if they had 
been effectively subjected to such^jidaliefn: 

Yet a noth er word is(iu27Q } n IS 14. 14. According to the 

textnere also is 



exzeon, Ulll/ft) is a 'field for ploughing' 
corrupt and the meaning dubious. In fact( i"ttI7ti)'is the homologue 
of f}plovo$, mule; the text, as almost always, is qui te sound (al^ 
though^Jia^^ order in_a L con^nj£^ 

ruyp i^jUk^p^iEpib u. 7; cfn^n]Dg)iud 

13- 14); ancT - EKe s 'T^tainty of tfierneaning is votldlScTTor by 
Homer himself: 'a field about as broad as half the area of a day's 
ploughing by a pair of mules*. Cf. Ps 129, 3, IL 10, 35 1, Od. 3. 
124- Therefore, I feel I am entitled to assert not only that Hebrew 
is Greek, but also that it is as Greek as Homer. 

3. Complete Series. Graeco-Hebraic homologies are not formed 
of disconnected words picked up here and there at random. Most 
of the homologues are consistently inter-related, belonging as they 
do to various series of kindred words which afford evidence as 
conclusive as it is massive, e.g. names (a) of parts of the anatomy, 
(b) of members of the family, (c) of weapons, (d) of military 



PROLOGUE 

formations ; and words relating to (e) numbers, and especially to 
(/) worship, since Israel was intended to be *a kingdom of priests 
and a holy nation' Ex 19. 6. If all the Hebrew words in these 
six lists (which will be found in Chapter XIII) arc Greek/it 
would be difficult to imagine the rest of the language being 
other than Greek. 

Indeed, there is 'plenty of convincing evidence*, and I have 
attempted to make it available not only to the technical experts, 
but to the ordinary student as well. For this is a self-contained, 
comprehensive and speaking book : one that is so arranged as 
readily to provide answers to the relevant questions which might 
confront its users. Thus in the second chapter I relate how my 
theory evolved and the way I embodied my principal discoveries 
in a series of Propositions, each of which — like an ordinary 
theorem — is capable of being tested and demonstrated individu- 
ally and in conjunction with the others. Here I shall reverse the 
process and point out to the reader the way he can relate a 
particular homology to any and all the Propositions which govern 
it. In this way he will be able to understand thoroughly the 
homologies herein mentioned, to detect the false ones — for there 
must be a few which have slipped past my scrutiny — and to 
discover new genuine ones o[ his own. For there still remain 
many such to discover in Hebrew, and innumerable ones in 
Arabic — not to speak of other so-calied Semitic languages with 
which I am unacquainted. What is more, there are further Pro- 
positions to be formulated. 

Now there are several keys to this crammed book : aoart from 
the Table of Contents, the Table of Propositions, and the Index, 
there are several lists of explained homologies, the main one 
being the Catalogue of General Homologies-^^^x 

Take, for instance, the homology -At^/mX^, ideal t with 
above. First, dear reader, vou consult this S^taie^ue and vou 
find, inter alia, that the whole family of -ox-Ai^u, from which 
rrAjjpTjs is derived, happens to be fully dealt with on pp. 343-^- 
Then you notice that the syllable -prj? is missing and that fa 
replaces tt. Accordingly, you look up the Index, s.v. interchanges, 
and find several examples of such replacement. Next, you refer to 
the Table of Propositions, and find out the one on apocope, which 
wiU provide you with other words of similar elimination. Finally, 



PROLOGUE 






you consult, inter alia, the LXX, the AcV., and the N,E.B. In this 
way you would test for yoursclptne validity of any homology 
and find out whether or npruie Propositions which govern it 
are supported and-coAfijsmed thereby. 

But the rrX^prj^lpK/'D ^homology is accompanied above by its 
meaning and the relevant texts. Letjn^_take--ene~f^ 
of the book, which is^ccompatrTeSTby neither: ScpasjU^K) At 
first, you wijJ^proSably react with traumatic incredulitvj^btf^ 
cause(pl)means blood, the Greek word for 'blood' k^rfuo7 and 
you have never before met with a homonym of (pj) Besides, fro; 
what you know of S*7xa9, it could not conceK^oI^Jw^^^ 
nection wath 'blood'. \VVl^yoiLxrHtst^e^pre pared for surprises ; 
this book is full ofUhertCTh ere fore, you look ud the Catalogue 
^aiid hndj^arfone of the meanings of Se^as* is \ m lnC'Skoot\ that 
D^liomologizes with S^as* in that meaning, andjhat^tfre text 
relerred to is actually concerned with^h^^TYeT^o aftgj^aH; sense 
and sound combine to rend^--rffe^su5p a safe one. 

However, no^soeri^ryou bourne ^reconciled to it, than t^e 
^UierJjofnSlogue of S^ig^mE^J attracts your 



j^ljhomologizes with dtuti? in rcspett-orits meaning 'corpse', 

"^rrc you ha\j^l\vavsj ^^a^ ]Q"uto mean 'dung' — as -^ does in 

.Arabic- YetfjQTJinvariably refers to dead human beings whoji^ 



un- 



rtnermore, 



contempt a 




aun 




upon in^AiCt 
burief^^a prey . 
p"pis associated 
ing or stench ( 
cf Od. 3.258- 
Hebrew-fel 

V T 

which occurs in 



mg any context ot ]-j \j—tx£Q 
Zeph r. 17 (where TfTei^GTTTT) Kpe'as, would be cast lik* b*?*) 
which may be compared with Jer 9. 21. Again wXj o ccurs in 
Jou r other verses — including th£_only one in whidQTD^)appcars 
— yet none of them mentions(jbl)(IR 14. 10 £24. 12, 15 Job 20. 
7}- Lastly, is it without significance that Alexander Rhetor uses 
SoutJ for SZ/ia?? 

If nevertheless you remain unconvinced, I should not hold 
it against you. Clearly, when — as in the circumstances of this 
particular instance — the validity of any homology is not proved 



XXXU 



PROLOGUE 



with complete objectivity, so thtit subjective influences come 
openly into play, an individual's scepticism would not be alto- 
gether unjustified. (Cf.(ul)S^^:fai Ez 44. 7; *~r R ™ «*?, v 

Consistently witli this principle, occasionally — when there was 
a large measure oflikelihood of an homology being sound on the 
balance of probabilities, and it could not be further and better 
tested by means of my technical tests — I have included it in this 
book, notwithstanding that the persuasive character of the 
evidence was not compelling to a degree of certainty. This, for 
two reasons : first, to give students an opportunity to advance 
further facts and arguments for or against it ; secondly, to let them 
distinguish for themselves between incontrovertibly sound homo- 
logies and such as should be accepted subject to reservations. 
At all events, the number of such homologies is quite small, 
while my theory stands four-square on what I have established 
beyond doubt by means of tried technical tests. 

Finallv, this book could be useful even to those who have 
no Greek and know neither Arabic nor Hebrew. For all the 
homologies are explained and referred to texts; so that one 
may read the explanation, refer to the indicated text or texts 
in any biblical translation, and decide for oneself as to the 
merit of the explanation — and, inferentiaily, as to the validity 
of the homology concerned. 

A word about Arabic- This book does not deal with Arabic 
in its own right, but merely as an invaluable auxiliary language 
in the ascertainment and confirmation of Graeco-Hebraic 
homologies. Accordingly, several Propositions are devoted to 
the characteristics of this tripartite relationship; but they also 
constitute a valid general guide to Graeco-Arabic homology. 

Lastly, no account is taken of the difference between classical 
Arabic and the vernacular, nor of the date or of the document in 
which any Greek word first appears ; for the simple reason that 
I am only concerned with undoubted phonetic, morphological, 
and semantic similarities wherever I find them together — not 
as isolated phenomena, but as inter-related examples in a 
systematic survey of what I try to prove is an unsuspected and 
forgotten branch of Greek literature: the Hebrew Bible. 

The Temple 1982 



1 

I. HEBREW AND THE HEBREWS 

Greek and Hebrew have lived check by jowl since their existence 
as such — that is, over three thousand years ago — when they 
settled, one at the junction of Asia and Europe and the other at 
that of Asia and Africa near by. They have each made a major 
contribution to civilization, yet until the advent of Alexander they 
scan to have influenced each other not at ail; though there had 
been intercourse between them (Jer 10. 9 Joe: 4. 6 Ob 20 Jon 
1. 3 Zach 9. 11-13), Can it be — as I think, contrary to all ac- 
cepted scholarship — that they are intimately related by race and 
religion as well as by language? 

Accounts differ as to the racial affinity of the people of Israel 
to other peoples of antiquity. According to the a:I too brief gco- 
cthnical survey in the tenth chapter of Genesis, seme of the tribes 
of Hellas descended from Japhet, die Philistines and the Phoeni- 
cians — like. the Hittues and the Amorites — descended from Ham, 
while the Hebrews and the Arabian clans derived from Shem. 
Ezekiel ■ 16. 3), however, asserts that the Israelites are a cross- 
breed of mixed Hittite and Amorite origin — which makes diem 
descendants of Ham. Lastly, if the ignored epistle set out in the 
First Book of die Maccabees (12. 19-23; ci" ib. 14. 16-23, H- 
Macc 5, 5-9) and in the Antiquities (xn. i\\ 10) is to be trusted/ 
the Jews must have descended from Japhet! Here it is in its con- 
text, followed by a translation : 

At this time [i.e. circa 180 B.C.] Seleucus, who was called Philo- 
pator, the son of Antiochus the Great, reigr.ee over Asia, And 
Hvrcanus' father,- Joseph, died. . . . His uncle Orias also died, and 
left the high priesthood to his son Simon. And when he also died 
Onias his son succeeded him in that dignity, :o whom Areus, 
king of the Lacedemonians, sent an embassage with a letter a copy 
whereof follows : r 

tVOOflCV <JJ? ££ €VQ$ €UV ytVOVS * IovBatOt Kal /lcxcScilUDl'lOl KO.L tK T7JT 

rrpos* lASpapov oijcciottjtos. BtKaiov ouv icrrtv cScApci/? ufidj arras 
SiarrtpTrtodai rrpos ^pdj rt€pl <Lu av fiouXrjad* ?to<~<jcu€v 5* Kal Tjpcts 
roi/ro, Kal ra t€ vfitrtpa iSia vojj.iov}£€v Kai ra avrtLv KQtva rrpos u/xus* 
*fojx€v. Ji7/iOT€'Aijff o $<p<DV ra ypdfifiara Stairc/irci rd? ortoroAcr. 
6634 err B 



2 I. HEBREW AND HEBREWS 

ra yeypapfidva icrrl TtTpd'/wva* r) a^payts €onv a^ros SpaVorros 

'Areus, King of the Lacedemonians, 10 Onias, gret?ip£. We have 
come upon a certain document from which we have discovered that 
both the Jews and Lacedemonians arc of one race, and originate 
from the kindred of Abraham. It is but just, therefore, that you, who 
are our brethren, should send to us messages about any of your 
concerns as you please. We will also do the same to you, and esteem 
your concerns as our own, and will look upon our concerns as yours. 
Demotcles, who brings you this letter, will bring your letter back. 
This writing is square, and the seal is an eagle holding fast a 
serpent.' 

'Such 1 , adds Josephus with unwonted neutrality and dryness, 
'were the contents of the letter which was sent by the king of the 
Lacedemonians.* As a matter of fact, it is difrxuk to find any- 
where else in his works a note so bare, so non-committal — not to 
say indifferent — especially having regard to the novelty of the 
suggestion. One is therefore forced to the conclusion that although 
Josephus did not doubt die genuineness of the diplomatic letter — 
or he would not have reproduced it in extenso — he may have felt 
rather sceptical about the authenticity of the 'document 1 referred 
to therein. But perhaps his priestly background and anti-Hellenic 
Droclivitv unconsciously Dreiudiccd him aeainst die apparently 
spontaneous Greek protestations of common ancestry with the 

Jews. 

To return to the Bible, the first mention of 'Hebrews' occurs in 
Genesis (14. 13), where Abraham — when informed of Lot's cap- 
ture bv the sackers of Sodom — is described as a 'Hebrew'. 

Now were Abraham and his nephew die only Hebrews in 
the region at the time? It does not look like it, for three reasons. 
First, Joseph refers to it about an uneventful century later as 'die 
land of the Hebrews' [Gn 40. 15). Secondly, boih Potiphar's 
wife (lb 39. 17) and Pharaoh's chief butler (lb 41. 12) refer to 
Joseph as a 'Hebrew* slave or youth, in much die same way — 
one imagines — as the Greeks used to refer to one of the familiar 
Phoenicians in their service as a 'Phoenician' woman (Odyssey 
i=j. 417). Thirdly, the Egyptians would not eat at the same table 
with the Hebrews (Gn 43. 32}, including diem in the taboo against 
the abominated Shepherds (lb 46. 34). None of these references 
is consistent with the Hebrews being an isolated family of nomadic 
herdsmen roaming about in the land of Canaan. 



I. HEBREW AND HEBREWS 3 

Later, the word 'Hebrew'— in juxtaposition with aliens— un- 
doubtedly means one of the people of Israel, without tribal 
specification. Thus it is used to distinguish Israelites from Egyp- 
tians (Ex 2. 11), Israelite citizens from the denizens in dieir 
midst (Dt 15. 12 Jer 34. 9, 14), Israelites from Philistines (IS 14. 
11), and generally Israelites from other nationals (Jon 1.9). 

Clearly, therefore, one cannot depend on Jewish sources for 
a reliable account of the ethnic identity of the Hebrews. 

An investigation into their language, on the other hand, meets 
with an initial obstacle: the extraordinary fact chat in ancient 
times it was not called after their name — as if thev never existed 
as a distinct ethnic or national unit. Isaiah (19. 18) refers to it 
as 'the language of Canaan'; while Rabsha'keh, who spoke 
. Aramite, called it 'Judean' (Jes 36. 1 1) ; as indeed did Nehemiah 
(13. 23-4) to distinguish it from 'Ashdcci:e : , a relic of the 
language originally spoken by the Philistines. But in Jer 31. q, 
Judean' and 'Hebrew' are interchangeable rerms. 

Besides, we do not know in what language or ianguaees the 
Patriarchs spoke to their various neighbours .-"Abraham in^Egyot 
or in the popular assembly of Hebron, Lot in Sodom, Isaac' in 
the course of his transactions with the king of Gerar, Jacob in 
Gn 29. 4-8, he and his sons in their controversy with Hamor. 
Much later, die Israelite spies and Rahab seem to have under- 
stood each other perfectly well. One thing is certain, die 
Gibeonites who were Hivites conversed with Joshua in a language 
which was spoken both locally and in distant parts (Jos 9. 7-1 on 
h it without significance that die Bible mentions the interposition 
of an interpreter on one occasion only, when Joseph pretended 
to his brothers to be an Egyptian (Gn a2. 23; ? 

In this connection it is vital to identify by mv theory the dif- 
ferent peoples who inhabited Canaan a: the time of Joshua, 
namely: the Amorites {Kiwtpiai), the Canaanites {Gowkm), 
the Gergashites (7>a:*oi'), the Hittites [I^dcn], the Hivites 
(.-l :c c;ot), the Jebusites (Bo*un-oi'), the Perizzites ' (<P P vyot)— be- 
sides the Caphtorim (Kvrrpioi) and the Philistines (n<\aoyoi): 
These inhabitants were by no means exterminated, and then- 
survival and ultimate assimilation must have influenced the 
Israelites in various ways, including lingually (Jud 1. 17--6, 
3. t-6). It is a fact that the Jebusites preserved their identity till 
the reign of David (Jos 15. 63 Jud 1. 21, 19. 10-12 IIS 5. 6-8, 24. 



4 I. HEBREW AND HEBREWS 

18-24), while the semi-assimilated descendants of the Philistines 
continued to speak a distinct dialect down to the time of the 
Second Temple. 

At the end of this quest one is merely left under the impression 
that the language of the Patriarchs must have been somewhat 
modified by reason of the contact of their descendants with the 
colonists of Canaan, as it must have altered slightly in the course 
of the Israelites' sojourn in Egypt. Wc still do r.ot know by whom, 
other than the Patriarchs, their language was spoken. 

There remains yet one more track to follow. The Hebrews are 
supposed to derive their name from Eber whese numerous pro- 
geny is said to have settled in the region covering Syria, Meso- 
potamia, Eastern Asia Minor, and the .A^t^i^J*£nmsuiiL_tG» 
io. 30). Traditionally, however, the wordMlSJEs said to refer to 
Abraham's migration south-westward ccrob-iheiiuphrates : *\ our 
forefathers settled on the other side of the River from of old— Terah, 
the father of Abraham and the father of Xahcr— and they wor- 
shipped other gods' (Jos 24. 2). 

This general reference to 'other^gedf', coupled with the specifi- 
cation of two of them— T"^ '"7Kko'ZcL : > ;rS«ii. wcrshiDDj 
the three Patriarchs ;GnT7777"28. 3, 48. 3' -fc~^)c-r OolSo^ ac- 
ln^llyrecognized by Isaac and Jacob Tb 3 : . 42, 53; ; together 
with thefC'D^mor rpl-ov$, die sacred trappings associated with 
Laban's worship (lb 31. 34) — gives, through my philological re- 
search, a sure clue to the identity of the Hebrew race as well as to 
the essentially Hellenic character of its religion and language. 
For the written word is like a fossil or an artefact: its form, 11 
not its pronunciation, is fixed and permanent and lends itsei: 
to repeated scrutiny. So that philology can be the handmaid 

of archaeology. 

I maintain that biblical Aramaic and Hebrew are demon- 
strablv Greek, in grammar as well as in vocabulary. 

True, distinct phonetic and morphological cinerences exist 
between almost all biblical words and their respective Greek 
homologues, but they are superficial and diaphanous. By con- 
trast, the Hebrew homologues fully preserve their semantic 
identity with their Greek ccAiatcrparts, notwithstanding tha: 
biblical Hebrew and ancient Greek developed apparently in- 
dependently of each other during two eventful millennia. As 



I. HEBREW AND HEBREWS 



for grammar, there are one or two minor similarities which are 
obvious, whereas several fundamental resemblances have gone 
unsuspected. 

If my theory be correct, it would automatically follow that the 
sister languages, Arabic and Aramaic, are affiliated to Greek; 
similarly, English and French — among other European 



IU1I 



— must somehow be related to Hebrew. In faa, iny^theorv 
establishes precisely that^JXhus, Latin ad an43xjEnglish over 
andn 2 Vj French jtfrjmj^TST} are identical, two by two; and they 
are_ajh^aiily-tra^eable to Greek. Beyond cavil, the segregation 
of the Semitic from die Indo-European languages flies in the 
face of the philological facts and principles which I am about to 
prove. Indeed, it will emerge that just as knowledge of Greek is 
essential to the thorough understanding of the Bible, a better 
understanding of Greek would be achieved through knowledge of 
Arabic and Hebrew. 

Admittedly, the logical conclusions of my philological 
theory — geographical, historical, racial, religious, and social — 
are far-reaching and revolutionary indeed. Yet their apparent 
strangeness is due to generations of neelect and oreiudice and 
snould not deter scholars from apprehending the oerceDtible 
reality which sparkles in the brilliant light shed by my conclu- 
sive demonstration. It is positively astonishing that no one has 
hitherto suspected the identity of these two languages— a fact which 
raises a strong presumption against the soundness of my theory — 
especially as, a common alphabet apart, there have been in the 
course of the past twenty-three centuries many a favourable op- 
portunity for discovering any resemblance which might exist 
between them, that is to sav : 

i- Over two thpusand years ago Jewish scholars translated the 
Scriptures into Greek, producing the Septuagint which has 
remained unchallenged as an authentic source of biblical 
exegesis. 

2. About that time, as we have seen, the Spartans claimed kin- 
ship with the Jews. 

3. Jews played a leading part in the development of the 
Hellenistic culture in Alexandria. 

4. In the last two centuries of the Jewish State, many well-born 
and educated Jews affected Hellenism and tried to spread the 
Greek way of life among their countrymen (IMacc 1. 11-15). 



6 I. HEBREW AND HEBREWS 

5. Joscphus wrote his autobiography, the tract against Apion, 
the Jewish War^ and the Antiquities in Greek — as well as in 
Aramaic or Hebrew — the Greek versions being the only ones 
extant. 

6. The Apostles who introduced the Messianic creed into 
Greece and the Asiatic-Greek or Continental settlements dis- 
cussed the Pentateuch and the Prophets in Greek, provoking 
widespread interest in the Scriptures among the Greeks. 

7. A large number of Talmudic words were borrowed from 
Greek, and many of them have kept their original form and 
exotic flavour, rendering obvious the existence of a mixture or 
amalgam. 

8. Jewish scholars have learned Greek in order to gain direct 
access to the Septuagint and the works of Joscphus, and the 
better to understand the Talmud. 

9. Jewish scholars, well-versed in Hebrew, ushered in the 
Renaissance by translating the Greek classics into Arabic. 

10. At that time Muslim scholars, whose mother tongue was 
.Arabic, studied Greek. 

11. Since then countless classical scholars of a!! nationalities 
have spent all their academic lives at the universities of Europe 
and America in the study of Arabic and Hebrew. 

12. Homer and the New Testament have been translated into 
Arabic and Hebrew. 

None of these thousands upon tens of thousands of learned men 
in different climes and succeeding ages has ever ventured to sug- 
gest that these three languages are genetically interrelated, let 
alone that Hebrew is identical with Greek. 

There were those who — like W. Muss-Amok — discovered a 
limited number of Greek words with Semitic affinity, and 
prompdy classed them as borrowed (On Semitic Words in Creek and 
Latin, 1893). This, in deference to the time-hallowed dogma 

which has erected a barrier — not less forbidding because bogus 

between the Semitic and the Aryan languages. 

At the opposite pole stood Revd. John Parkhurst, author of An 
Hebrew and English Lexicon without Points. He lived two hundred 
years ago and supported the untenable Rabbinical theory that 
Hebrew was the lingua primaeva, the mother of all tongues, 
including Greek (Midrash Rabba Bereshith, chaps. 1 3 and 3 1 ; 
Yerushalmi, Megilla 1. 11). Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 



I. HEBREW AND HEBREWS 7 

— a scholar of the Ahmadiah sect — on the other hand, contends 
that all languages — including Chinese and Greek— derive from 
Arabic, the language of the Koran. 

There exists a third school which has attempted to build a bridge 
between the Chamito-Semitic and Indo-European languages — 
one of its foremost exponents being A. Cuny, author of Invitation 
a r etude comparative des langues indo-europiennes et dis iangues chamito- 
semitiques. 

Lastly, Professor Cyrus H. Gordon — a scholar of broad vision 
and deep understanding — holds that the Hebrew and the Hellenic 
cultures were twins. 

On going to print, I learnt of Professor Saul Levin, of Harper 
College, State University of New York. Binghamton, New York, 
author of The Indo-European and Semitic Languages — an exploration 
of structural similarities related to accent, chieflv in Greek, 
Sanskrit, and Hebrew. On p. 8 he writes : 

. . . many things still puzzled me— above all, why were the corre- 
spondences closer between Greek and Hebrew than between any 
other Indo-European and Semitic languages i 3 Just because I knew 
these better 3 Slowly I discovered that in many resnects Sanskrit 
rather than Greek affords the more cogent parallel to Hebrew. 

Thus, I venture to submit with hesitation 'not knowing Sans- 
krit;, was this courageous scientist shunted off ttJj cLX-qdeias 6S6$ 
'the way to truth) and away from the reality that Hebrew is 
Greek; although he broke free of the shackles of traditional 
linguistics, refused to join in the wild goose chase of proto Indo- 
European and proto Semitic, and tackled directly Greek and 
Hebrew texts. 

My research over thirty years has been conducted in- 
dependently of others. Starting from scratch, I have consistently 
investigated the language of the Bible by the language of the 
Bible, with the assistance of Arabic and the Semua?int. I have 
worked autonomously throughout, fashioning and re-fashioning 
my own laws as I went along. In the result, I have been led 
irresistibly to the following conclusions : 

I. That about four thousand years ago the whole of the Middle 
East was overrun, colonized, and controlled by Greek and allied 
tribes. 



I. HEBREW AND HEBREWS 

II. That the Hebrews were Asiatic Greeks — aBpol and fjTreipu)- 
roi, probably the Khabiru and Hcpiru of Syrian and Egyptian 
annals — and that their language was Continental Greek, 

III. That, judging by the proportion oi epic and poetic homo- 
logues, and by the primitive grammatical structures to be found 
in the Bible, one is impelled to the conclusion that the ancestors 
of the Jews must have been among the noblest and /or the most 
ancient of the Hellenes, and that they spoke a language far 
more ancient than classical Greek. 

IV. That the Philistines were colonists, continuously flowing 
in from the mainland of Greece and the adjoining islands, 
who s ettled on the southern shore of Canaan — 77 -dpcu\o$ yTj 9 
nE?7DJ the Asiatic IleXaaytij — and were consequently called ot 

aayol^^IW^^ as distinct from the^n^y^^-etpc^Tat). 

That when the Hellenic affinity of the Phoenicians had 
long been forgotten, it was assumed that the identity of the 
Greek with the Phoenician alphabet was simply a matter of 
borrowing (Herodotus 5. 58). 

VI. That the inhabitants of Iraq [dpyos), Syria, and Arabia 
(JpT]/sla) are mainly of Scythian and Cimmerian origin. 

VI L That the Helots were Israelites 'Ob 20*:. 

VIII. That the Hebrews worshipped Greek goes and followed 
Greek customs, 

IX- That Hebrew has a multiplicity of unsuspected dialects 
and homonvms. 

X. That many proper nouns in the Bible — whether divine, 
ethnic, geographical, or personal — resemble Greek proper 
nouns, while others have Greek adjectives and common 
nouns as homologies. 

XL That certain Greek words, pronounced by Continental 
Greeks differently from their European brethren, found their 
way back to Greek in a spelling conforming to their Continental 
pronunciation. I call them atavisms. 

XIL That certain non-biblical words found in Rabbinical 
writings can be proved to have been used in biblical times. 

XIIL That the Ashkcnazi and Yemenite pronunciations — like 
the Baghdadi and the Sephardi— are as old and as genuine as 
Greek itself. 



I. HEBREW AND HEBREWS 9 

XIV. That Judcan and Ashdoditc were not more different one 
from the other than Hebrew is from Arabic or Aramaic. 

XV. That only by my theory is it possible to establish securely 
the true meaning of obscure biblical words, and the right inter- 
pretation of puzzling passages. 

XVI. That only through the knowledge of Hebrew and 
Arabic is it possible to attain a finer understanding of Greek, 

XVII. That the Jewish, the Christo-European, and the Is- 
lamic cultures — the triple aspect of modem civilization — all 
originate from Hellas. 



10 



II. MODUS OPERANDI 

From early age I have been familiar with the Bible, Hardly a day 
passes by but I quote it or read it. Indeed, it is pari of my make up 
and the very texture of my thinking. My learned and wise father , 
Isaac Benjamin Ezckiei Yahuda, taught us, — my younger brother 
Solomon, my two eider sisters, and myself — the whole Old Testa- 
ment when we were children. My brother Solomon and I learned 
the New Testament by stealth from a Hebrew translation in my 
fathers private bookcase. 

For vears the distant biblical pas: was vividlv present in mv 
mind ; I actually lived in it within sight of the Pyramids. So much 
so that, together with a passion for the Bible, I developed a 
natural animosity towards the Greeks and the Romans, on 
account of their cruelty to my persecuted ancestors, within our 
beloved land and outside it, the consequences of which arc iel: 
to this day. Strangely enough, that aversion d\d not extend to the 
Egrotians who were cur hosts, as their ancestors had been ihc 
bests of our forefathers during three periods of their h is tor-' 
■ J Dt 23. 3). 

Mv feelings were so strong that it d:c not even occur to me to 
ieam Greek, although I knew that it played an important role 
in our civilization, and that it had influenced deeply post-bibheai 
Hebrew. Nor could I bring myself to pick up more than the 
minimum of Latin necessary for my legal education and practice. 
Thev are forcibly expressed in the following passage; 

Ce qui le revoke comrr.c intolerable cans ccs parages historiques, 
ces vestiges sacrcs d'un temps glorieux. c*cs; cue deux des rro:s 
colonnes pures [of the Caparnaum synagogue] ont ete profanees par 
des textes, Tun grec, d'une vingtainc c'anr.ces. 1'aucrc latin, tout 
recent, incises dans le corps des co!o::ncs. Du grec ct du latin — 
rien de plus insullant' [Li Palestine Reiiziut, p. 50, Tangier, 1928.; 

I still resent die inscriptions referred to, and consider them 
now — as I did when I first saw them over hftv years ago — to be 
sheer vandalism. But not because they are in Greek and Latin; 
I would not react differently if by some misfortune the third 
column were similarly outraged in Hebrew. However, my feel- 



II. MODUS OPERANDI 



1 1 



ings towards the Greeks and the Romans have altered radically 
since. I realize now that our differences were fratricidal — as 
fratricidal as die siege of Troy — because I am convinced that the 
Jews are of Hellenic descent. This is how the revolutionary 
change has come about. 

In the early thirties, after the publication of Law and Life accord- 
ing to Hebrew Thought, I began to be interested in biologv as a 
hobby. In the course of my desultory study of the subject, I came 
across a few Greek words which bore a striking resemblance to 
biblical Hebrew, and I jumped to the conclusion that the Greeks 
had borrowed them from us. So I toyed with the idea that one 
day I might make a systematic comparison berween the two 
languages. In those days I was still under the spell of traditional 
scholarship and, like everybody else, implicitly believed diat 
Semitic languages were Semitic and Aryan languages were 
Aryan, and that never the twain could mix. Vet I thought it 
would be interesting to compile and explain an exhaustive list 
of similar words, if only to show how little or how much Hebrew 
had influenced Greek before the advent of Alexander, seeine 
chat die influence the other way about was considerable in the 
wake of his conquests. Little did I know what the actual results of 
my research would show. 

I was so ignorant of Greek then that I only knew the first few 
letters of its alphabet, which I had picked up incidentally in the 
course of my elementary mathemades and geometry. I remember 
asking my friend, Mr. Gerald Emanuel, in a City tea-shop to 
write the full alphabet for me at the bottom of a partlv used 
sheet of paper. This was in 1932-3. 

The years rolled by during which the project remained in 
abeyance. But when I had published New Biology and Medicine 
'1951), I was able to devote my leisure hours almost entirelv to die 
random links which I suspected existed between biblical Hebrew 
and Greek. After acquiring a smattering of grammar, I plunged 
straight into the Septuagint, relying exclusively on my memory 
of the original for the meaning of the numerous passages I 
selected to read. Then I read Homer in conjuncdon with the 
Bible: about one page of Greek and its transladon, line by line 
and sentence by sentence, and a chapter from the Old Testa- 
ment — starting with Genesis and the first book of the Iliad, and 
finishing up with the last book of the Odyssey and the Second Book 



12 



II. MODUS OPERANDI 



of Chronicles. Day by day the list of similar words lengthened until 
they topped six hundred, including words relating to various 
aspects and activities of life, which could not be accounted for 
by the ubiquitous and abiding factor of borrowing. Besides, 
history affords no evidence of the existence of circumstances 
which might have favoured borrowing of such high quality and 
on such a huge scale. 

I became convinced that the limit of borrowing had been 
crossed, and that I stood on the borders of a genetic relationship. 
But the gate to the family homestead was shut before me, and it 
-was~ng _use attempt in g to force ^ii-ef-tQ^ climb over it. It had 
to be opened freely and widely (b^ *72pJ and the key to it was 
grammar. So far, however, the^tMrfT^grammatical features I 
knew Greek had in common with Hebrew were the dual number 
and the definite article, which sometimes attached to both die 
adjective and the noun it qualified. I stopped reading and 
started thinking and reviewing the results of my crude research. 
I used the material at hand : analysing it, classifying it, noting 
the various exchanges between the Greek and die Hebrew letters, 
comparing thern with biblical variations and the dialectal inter- 
changes among the Greek letters, selecting special homologies 
for comparison. 

This is how mv theorv beean to evolve : for insjutnee, I found 
that — as regards their consonants — lho$ and yp'Tru differed 
each other in their terminal letters only. Suroiarly, rt'Ao? 
and/orruA^ andTD^FuTherefore (in accordance^iitfrBrT9.*i5), 
I tentatively formulated the rule — whjch^mlght or might not be 
~justifte^b^LJurdier experience — that\S)is a Hebrew terminal in 
Graeco-HebraicTior?iek>g\\ In fact^ this is confirmed, hy tl^e 

homologies !iT§) {v. p. 86Vdk) oim/ax^ J/V, i^rvix/Dx; 

j 1/^1, and many others. (2) is another terminal letter, he^cej^ 

ake another example : Xtlx*** has more than one homologue 

in both Arabic and Hebrew — some of chem beins* Tjny,fI773/) 3 

j), U ^*J, ,JmJ — in which the diphthong is respectivlHyreplaeed 

and c.. Again, among the homologues of ociw are 



__ t 

'and J,j, wherein the diphthong is replaced by(jf and ^. 
:cordingly, I provisionally concluded that a dipfythong may 





exchange wi 
three of the 



otxroy 



IT. MODUS OPERANDI i 3 

■ / / 

th a guttural. /This will actually be/confirmed /by 
five homologies in the ncx/cxamnlt. / 

Thirdly, Certain Greek /letters dialectally exchange one/with 
the other — e.g. < with ri o with a 'a withr 5 — a phenomenon 
reflected inl the following- Graeco/Hebrew homologi 

Lastly, mark the strange metamorphosis injhe^Bebrew' words, 
whereby the suffix in Greek mrns~4frto"~a~prerbc in Hebrew, e.e:. 

Jpa^c^ TiKlg ) avXiGp-ofyyOfij aJAta^d^rni l 70/'p I 7^— respectively 
from opaairffXT^nd ab^^a^fjf^f^^^jjF^ 
^^EaTtyTn my research I Iooke3~1bT tests whereby to check the 
accuracy of homologies and to assess their significance. As the 
number of tests discovered increased, so did the emcacy of their 
application and my confidence in my theory. From the beginning 
I leaned heavily on Arabic; occasionally the Septuagint came in 
useful. Two examples will suffice here^__^ 

According to my phonetical rules,( fl7v% /is a safe homologue of 
CTeXXw. This_iicorroborated grammatically by me fact that die 
compound (n*7^) is homologous with the comoounds d-oorcXXaj, 
e-t- and e^a-o-. Yet what confirms these homologies beyond 
a peradventure, and at the same time lends strong suDport to 
my theory, is that drro<rrcAAa; means dojfzs well as send away, and 

that r-S-. ; bears the former meaning. The significance of this 
iombined homology lies in its semantic variation, coupled with, 
pnonetic similarity. But for their correlation to Greek (as afore - 
said\there would be no reasonable explanation why these two 

words (rr/g? and «JL_t — so closely homophonous that they might 
well be taken for homonyms — should bear such din^ritrnean- 
ings, especially as they belong to two sistej>k^guages^-SiicR 
confirmadon and support are reinfori^^oy oxhefcombined 
homologies; one of diem — Kox^i^ff^m^al^. — is dealt with 
elsewhere in detail; another is (Zpaffi^fif^^ ^ 

Again acco rding to my rules of phone tics,(jg^V- as well as its 
vananX-Ql^jV- homologizes with 17770x05-, the genitive of rj-ap, 

whereaiC3]3Sis_tJ} c truc homologue of kvSos. Now the Septua- 
gmt rcj^er>( TDZ)j in Gn 49. 6 by Jj-nap. This is justified by the 
usage of reduplication, as part of the general context. But it 
looks as if the translators read the word in Genesis !^"75^\ and 



'4 /-,_^ II. MODUS OPERANDI 

\, , .... ./ 



not(nDD>— Ashkcnazi fashion— as rcdiipIicatingPCDL) Because 
the same rendering is not maintained ii a similartext— that is, 
Ps 16. 9-^heie TDD is u-accountai >|v rcr.Jcrcrf by :\<Zooa t 
although (^J]^ hcre reduplicates (^) Elsewhere (tS) is 

rendered bySofa (instead of kGSos), where — it is submitted 

the context demands r^ap. However, it is highly significant that, 
through my theory, it is possible to correct the Scptuagint by 
the Septuagint, and to understand the Bible by the Bible. 

It is such discoveries that cured me of Graeco-Hebraic dyslexia 
and enabled me, by the formulation of a series of simple rules of 
phonetics and morphology, to read a Hebrew word as if it were 
its own variant, e.g. HTI and mi7, 211 and Ti:, 2X and "2X, 
122 and "1133, uf?ri and T\H172, HXT2 and HX**!-:, *7X: and 
/!n, ^Ub and ppb, ]2Vg and ]1K70. Looking at such words, 
pair by pair, I began to find it natural that they should prove to be 
identical — despite differences in literal composition, pronuncia- 
tion, scale, or gender. To me, WHS] GTPX "Tir.Dj not onlv 
means \1Eri 1 ?] DVT'/K r.VirT??!, but also reeds it. Again, I can- 
not imagine 1V1, meaning an eagle, blowing a horn (Hos 8. i), 
but rather a herald \ so my thoughts rush to x-Fjpv^, KrjpvKtvu*'. 
an d j-iJ. On the other hand, I detected new homonyms, and 
learned to distinguish between words of close similarity, e.?. 
sptfj and rjpff, «-pn and Y? -p~> K2 and X^H. In other 
words, familiarity with the Bible ceased to breed oversight, and 
taught me to see the Greek word through its Hebrew disguise, and 
vice versa; e.g. opa^TiX""), dpa-/*a/n$n~a; ow/Ih, opos;6pop;' 

Tin; orrAoiz/^^O, 07t\ov'"722 ] dsTw/nDZ-, c^rw.'JaT, drrrw/ 
^Jui ; OTTTdviov/D^n, 6-zTdvt-ov;T)2Q'~l2, 6rrrdvt-ov'\J^ ; dyAci£w' 
l /it, ayAait,aj/U /.i;, cyAct^ar f /y. 

Indeed, there are quite a few words in die Bible that are written 
and pronounced in more than one way, and we know of one 
occasion where a mere lisping cost many lives 'Jud 12. 6). But the 
significance of these differences and of die differences in the names 
of several peoples and places has eluded the exegetes (Gn 14. 2, 
3, 28. 5 Dt 2. n, 20, 3. 9,4.48). 

Hunting for homclcgues was, ''$, a^d will ever remain a mosr 

exhilarating exercise. It has all the excitement of the chase 

and its hazards. It is never dull or fruitless; for even if one gets 



II. MODUS OPERANDI , 5 

off the trail, one is more likely than not to gain some incidental 
or adventitious benefit. Indeed, often enough you look for China 
and discover America; phlogiston may elude you, but you come 
upon oxygen; you arc prospecting for diamonds and uncover 
a nugget. Occasionally, the process is precipitate, one genuine 
homologue leading to another with the succession of a chain 
reaction. Let me give an example which I vividly recall. 

In my desultory reading of the Septuagint a: random, I came 
across the plu*asc Sfppis -pi.\^ for 117 £? "IIX ;Zach 13. 4). It 
occurred to me — not for the first time or the las: — that here was 
a word, &<ppis, which approximated die Hebrew HllX so closelv 
that the similarity must have struck the translators as odd. In fact, 
I had dien and have time and again since wondered whether the 
authors of the Septuagint had sensed or known that a relationship 
of sorts existed between die two languages. However, as usual, 
I placed myself in their position and reached for ll-'oodhouse, to 
find out the range of synonyms from which the translators had 
picked out this particular word. Which led me to Sopd. In a 
flash the passage in Esther 1. 6 — jlinbl ITi Zr^~^n2 .1231 '^V 
— sprang to mind. Without much delay, I formed the homo'ioo-ics : 
-1 1- wftc^oj, l/^'/^uctoV, 11/Sopu, rnnc/yooci-. Accordinglv, 
some floors were paved with polished stone, ethers were matted 
or covered with rugs. This is far from the gaudy and fantastic 
emeralds and pearls of the Septuagint — even as far as factual 
reality can ever be from wild fiction — although the actual floor- 
coverings must have been as precious as anv ever produced in 
Persia, to match the couches of gold and silver provided for the 
royal guests. 

However, diree out of the four homologies soon led to diree 
other genuine homoiogues, and ETC? in our context Droved to be 
a variant of ETC?. Thus : rnno/yc'ppof automatically suggested 
ycppav:7\~)TiD Ps 91. 4; the quasi-homophonous neighbour of 
£w7to\- yielded the homology fucrriV/CTZ? Gn 41. .12; and when I 
looked up Sopa in the Dictionary, I saw the phrase Sopa aarvpov 
which I preferred to Seppis rp<xiVi? for "JS72? HI IK, having regard 
to the homology IdrvposrvyJD Lev 17. 7. So once more I 
corrected the Septuagint by the Septuagint! 

.Another example springs to mind. Once I discovered that 
X270, the homologue of <^6p^fxa t must have meant 'harp' in ICh 



i6 IL MODUS OPERANDI 

15. 22 and 27, I automatically and spontaneously leapt to the 
conclusion that the verbs "HO (lb 15. 22) and "HE? (lb 15. 27) 
were homologues of ^raAA^. How could I react otherwise ? All the. 
ten verses of the passage concerned (19-28) deal exclusively with 
music, and nothing could be simpler or more natural than to 
conjure up strumming. Turning to the N.E.B., it is understand* 
able that the translators should have found the ohrases XE?7D3 HCT 

k T - - T 

and X^TpH H&H c obscure\ In fact, I offered to put my discoveries 
at their disposal, but the offer was not accepted. 

To resume the narrative, the grammatical issue still eluded 
me. Gradually, I collected valuable data; for instance: that the 
dative case exists in Hebrew; that die masculine plural is the 
same in Hebrew and in Greek — save that in Hebrew it has a ter- 
minal Q, and the last syllable is pronounced as the diphthong 01 
is pronounced in modern Greek; that, generally, a Greek com- 
pound verb is a homologue to a Hebrew compound verb ; that, 
generally, a verb ending in -£oj is equivalent to a compound 
verb in Graeco-Hcbrew homology, i.e. that the suffix -£cj is 
equivalent to a prefixed preposition; that sometimes a verb in 
the Middle Voice is a homologue of a verb in the construction 
7UDrtil; and so on. 

Suddenly, I realized that the MV existed in Hebrew. It struck 
me that, to indicate the reflexive character of the MV, its ter- 
minations in the singular (-/icu, -oai y -rat) should read dialectally : 
-yiotj -ooi y -rut (for auT(L) y in conibrmiry widi the peculiar Hebrew 
phenomenon of occasionally adding to the verb the personal 
pronoun in the dative case. It then occurred to me that die 
terminal -/xt might be a variant of -pot, as is *12 in IIS 18. 12 
a variant of ^7 (cf. lb 18. 5). Another sudden realization was 
that the ^2V in Hebrew is equivalent to the Aorist and the 

Imperfect in Greek, with the omission of the syllabic augment — 
as often happens in Homer. 

But the real break through came when I discovered that many 
of the verbs beginning with 1 are homologues to verbs in -/n or 
in the MV. This was followed by two interconnected discoveries : 
that the formation of the Future and the Construct is but an 
example of the suffix/prefix phenomenon which I discovered 
earlier; and diat the Aorist exists in Hebrew — the ^IDHn '1 

being the counterpart of the augment — since the structure of the 



II. MODUS OPERANDI 17 

last syllable in the Aorist is similar to that in die Future, e.g. 

In the meantime die homologies multiplied past counting, 
with parallel Arabic involvement; so that I now estimate that 
nine out of ten different words in the Bible have demonstrably 
sound Greek homologues. What consolidates the cumulative 
evidence afforded by their large numbers, is die quality of the 
homologies. Besides reinforcing each other, they resolve many 
puzzles and indicate that the Greeks and the Hebrews had in 
common some customs and some religious beliefs, while tiic 
Hebrew language emerges from these homologies much richer 
and even more beautiful than it is at present acknowledged to be. 
Yet the benefits of these homologies are by no means one-sided ; 
for certain important advantages accrue to the language and 
history of Hellas. Actually, the whole complex is consistent and 
only consistent with two propositions, thai is: that biblical 
Hebrew is Greek, and that the Hebrews were Asiatic Greeks. In 
fact, the outcome of my laborious, extensive, and elaborate re- 
search may be summed up in a brief sentence : Hebrew is Greek 
with a mask on. 



18 III. THE FOUNDATIONS 

An ordinary document sets out in ordinary language more or less 
precisely what the writer wishes to record or to communicate to 
some particular person or to all and sundry- But when a secret 
agent intends to impart some confidential information to a dis- 
tant colleague exclusively, and at the same time wishes to make 
sure it is not understood by anyone else into whose hands the 
document which contains it might stray or fall, he uses cryptic 
terms or a cipher, or both- 

Now any ordinary writing in a hitherto unknown language 
partakes of the nature of such a confidential document, not be- 
cause of the writer's intention to conceal its subject-matter from 
prying eyes, but on account of the would-be reader's ignorance of 
the writer's language and/cr script. To understand and interpret 
its contents, therefore, the would-be reader must begin by decipher- 
ing the document. He must treat die letters as mere symbols — 
which, in fact, all letters are — and endeavour ;o substitute for 
them the sounds and syllables which they originally represented. 

As for the language of die Bible, it is familiar enough ; yet its 
reladon to Greek, if any, has been — albe:: unintentionally — 
rather concealed and altogether forgotten. So that, to all prac- 
tical intents and purposes, Hebrew must be deemed to be an 
unknown ancient language as far as diis mysterious relationship 
goes. Accordingly, the glossological exploration herein embarked 
upon does not lie exclusively in the field of pure linguistics. It 
partakes of the art and science of decoding — that is, treating 
Hebrew letters and vocalization as if diev were strange svmbcls 
come down from the distant past, and substituting for them 
suitable Greek letters and syllables. 

That is why it is of the first importance and fundamental to 
compare die alphabets concerned, to classify die interchanges of 
letters and vocalization in the Bible itself, to ascertain — as far as 
possible — the pronunciation of Hebrew and Greek, and to list 
the dialectal and other changes undergone by the Greek letters. 
These factors, and especially the interchanges in the Bible and 
in Greek — the fO^ and TI72 of my theory — constitute the 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS i 9 

starting-point and basis of my novel inquiry into the scmi-solvcd 
Champollionic riddles which emerge from the biblical palimpsest. 
Indeed, their proper exploitation has turned what began as a 
desultory' and amateurish quest into a systematic and scientific 
investigation, resulting in a series of theorem-like Propositions. 

Proposition L The Greek and Hebrew alphabets bear a striking resem- 
blance to one another, in the order of letters, their names, shape and 
pronunciation. 

X *V?x ' a <L\6a '■ '>*' ^j:f 

N „ ' soiriius lenis «■ »'-^ 

i 

K ,, mute a <L\6a \ ^J}\ 

- "3 b fi H^] ra V tL b 

- ^3 b c hiyap.ua (Vau, v) 

* /.- 1 g y yappa 

/.- > g 

" h spiritus asper 

" „ mute € c 6t\6v 

* *^ . . ? * ' 



n 

rn 



■* 


^2 

IT 


s 


: r 


*^ 


»**^ 


* 
J 


P* 





^9 


1? 


rv 


D 


~D 


D 


"D 



mute oj tjj M € V G 



mute 



z 


<> 


IfjTd 


h 


(7) 


Tjra 


t 





Orfra 


y 


I 


Itura 




t 


} j 


i. 

A. 


K 


Karrrrc. 


k 


X 


x*?> x : 


1 


X 


Aa^t(p)Sa 


m 


p 


/*5 


n 


V 


vv 


s 
* 


> 


aa^iTTt 


p 


TT 


7T^r, 7tT 


f 


t 



<£<*\ 4>i 



7- 


• — 


g"J 


£• 


U^~ 


g 


- 


Jl- : 


ci 


- 


Jll 


a 


* 




h 


: j 


») 


i y 


J ^ ' 


) j 


a 


4 


jlj 


W 


> » 


) > 




* 


olj 


Z 


,- 


cU 


n 




*£ 


t 


iS 


*Vs 


y 


o 


>» 




* i 


^r 


k 


^ 


tU^ 




• 


i 


i 


J* 


r+rrt 


m 


. \ 




n 




£■=* 


* 



*u 



ao 




in. 


THE 


FOUNDATIONS 








2 


*1? 


5 






^ 


^u 


5 


P 


T? 


q 


f> 


Korrrra 


a 


J1j 


q 


") 


:r~i 


r 


P 




J 


T 

-■J 


r 


t? 


r? 


5 


a 


oiyp.a 


w 


u^"" 


s 


V 


T"? 


s 






LT 


JL 


s 


n 


iri 


t 


r 


rav 


o 


tU 


t 


n 


in 


t 


V 


fat, yi 


1 


J; 


t 



iU d 

An example of F pronounced 2 is the homology qiVo^/iVZ, 
thus: QLKosy originally Fqlkos -> rotros- (* and r interchange 
dialectally) -► Fairos (o changes dialectally into a) -> /air (by 
apocope) -> rP2. Another example is p^rpa, Fparpajr^Z. 

7 is pronounced like v before the palatals — y, *-, ^ — and before 
£; a phenomenon reflected in Graeco-Hebraic homology. 

£ is a double-consonant composed of 5 and c, but opinions 
differ as to whether the S preceded die a or vice versa. Hebrew 
seems to suggest that both views are correct; for the homologue 
of £r}ra } ""IX or _>l^ — which frequently ii;:erchanges with it — 
indicates by its name that the order of composition was aS. The 
Septuagint, however, refers toit as TIAJH in Thr i. 1 8, 2. 1 8, 
3- 52, 4. 17; and the Ashkenazim pronounce it i; or So — which 
reverses the order — while the Graeco-Hebraic homologies are 
divided, some exemplifying one order, others the reverse order. 

In ancient Athens rjra was an aspirate, which lends support to 
the guttural pronunciation of its homologue, iTH f either like 
*- or like 3/t-- But the aspirate letter in Hebrew is H. 

drjra is the homologue of IV ; but 8 sounds like o or p t — as 
pronounced the Baghdadi way — and not like lT. As a matter of 
fact, 8 was used for H by the Septuagint in BHG (Thr 1.2}, 
AAjIEG (lb 1. 4), TH8 (lb 1. 9), 9AY (lb :. 22)— and simi- 
larly in the following chapters — while r stood for D. 

D has been equated with ^, which is a form of sigma J because 
"^£0 is the homologue of aaum J thus : odu~t -+ aaiurr (by vowel/ 
consonant metathesis) -> cra^u* (tt turning dialectally into *) 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 2 i 

Similarly, 2? has been equated with a, because pfc? and 
oiyfia homologize, thus : alyfia ->- aifia (y drops out occasionally) 
-»- aiva (}i and ;' interchange in Greek) -*■ aiv (by apocope accord- 
ing to rule) ->- ]" ! 27. 

Originally, S used to be written XE y and &Z instead of X P. 
This is reflected in Graeco-Hebraic homology, thus : f vXov (block- 
head)p^D'D Eccl 2. 16; frpd (</ry)/mj£ Lev 16. 22; 0tAot (//^A/ 
troops, unarmed soldiers, iar^-headed, without kelmet)!U* >l ?' , OB Jud 
3. 19, 26; i/jcvSos (/«)/2T3 lb 16. 10 (- and *, 8 and /?, inter- 
change dialectally — or u and I! interchange according to rule 
(as in kuSosv'TQD), and Sos drops out by apocope — while a turns 
into T according to rule (as in d^avi^cu/ODX)). 

Moreover, e and 1/ had (and still have in modem Greek) similar 
sounds to at and 01 respectively, while o was used as ou. To this 
day the Ashkenazim pronounce ITS JV3 or 7)^2, and 0*?? QV3 ; 
similarly, ^~~ is pronounced in the vernacular rn2, and the Iraqis 

pronounce ^L^T^US", ,^f Jg, Jj£ *|jJ. Again, the masculine 

plural in Hebrew is formed by adding a mute "" (plus terminal 
72) ro me singular, compared with the addition of 01 in Greek 
(pronounced like mute t in modem Greek). Lastly, the homo- 
logues of the verbal adjective yuodajTos are "V2\£ Ex 22. 14 [hired 
servant) and "IIDE? Neh 6. 13 {hired, hireling) ; while the homoloeue 
of aytcrro's- [hallowed) is S"t"Tj7 Ex 29. 31 in Hebrew, ZTTf? Dan ±. 5 

in Aramaic, and {J - _tjj or ^jjj in Arabic. 

hl68cr/-/o<; [with two sounds) refers in Greek to the union of an 
open vowel with a close one. But in both Arabic and Hebrew it 

refers to a double-letter, because it is the homologue of a j_i as 
well as »7j"T, thus : 

-■ t' 

Siodoyyos ->- 8«f>do (by apocope according to rule) ->- 8t<f>o8 
(by vowel/consonant metathesis) -»- Siyod (rr and y inter- 
change dialectally) -+ SiyoE? (8 converts into 2? according 
to rule) -> Siyej (o turning dialectally to e) ->- 2?i"7. 

Sl66oyyos -»■ S«{>dov (by apocope according to rule) -> St00oi/ (^» 
and 5 interchange dialectally) -^SiSSov (8 and S interchange 
dialectally) -+ ^itSSov (5 and a interchange dialectally, and 
either converts into Ety^i according to rule (as in oSovsjW, 



23 III. THE FOUNDATIONS 

<jap£l*VD)) — * ^cBSav (o and a interchange dialectally) -> 
(v turns to a according to rule) ; cf. pi^X/H^DN/^iS^^u?, 
pTS/riSciiz/oJL^, o^Cl/K]27 (^JL forming a digraph, as ok 
does in aKsVrcyrcu/^JL: and GKi}7TTpovfW2?D} m 

IL X, H, 1, an*/ ^ — when mute — may be considered as vowels, al- 
though they do not actually function as such; for in Hebrew the function 
of vowels is taken over by points of vocalization, the principal of 
which are the following: 



, r*R 


a 




it* l: ^ 


. n? 


*h 




/ -w € ; 7 1 


* PT» 


ov 




x P 2 ?- ou 


* 


z'r.n 


o/oj 






. no 


t 








vA. 





Z/7. Hebrew pronunciation is most important to olt inquiry. 

Hebrew pronunciation is not uniform, either as regards letters 
or vocalization. In fact, there are no less than four distinct kinds 
of pronunciation of Hebrew, namely : the Aihkenazi, the Bagh- 
dadi, the Sephardi, and the Yemenite. 

The most articulate and discriminating Is the Baghdadi, accord- 
ing to which : 

2 is distinguished from - and pronounced like V, e.g. bzz 



? 

n 






a 

D 

n 



c c -s- 


-t 




-, e.g. 


TH 




-?, e.g. 


: - f 




c? c -s- 


™ 




* 5 e-g- 






*. e.g. 




J, e.g. 


">*?? 




^, eg- 


rn 





Moreover, it distinguishes between the various points of voca- 
lization, except between fEp and HilD or TuO and "H^, e.g. 
jTO, "IDp. The independent X^vu is pronounced like a short 

VflO ; and the enclitic, like its homologue, o*£-, or a consonant 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 23 

not followed by a vowel, e.g. the pronunciation of S and s- in 
hp6ao$: 21)3 3 HhD 3 l. 

The Ashkenazi pronunciation differs from the Baghdadi in 
that, according to it, no distinction is made between X and 17, 
2 and \ I and 3, 1 and 1, U and D 7 D and H, 3 and p, D and D — 

e.g. H7K, H^y, n?V;N; 23,T3, 3bl T ;Dnn]i Dl?]) ^ni)?; H^?' 
"|in ? nbn; ^j), ^p 3 Tp?; T10 1 ?, Tinb, nnon. As mentioned 
above, ^2 is pronounced ts or Sa\ 

As to vocalization, according to Ashkenazi pronunciation; 

J^p is pronounced like ZTtn, c.g- i3, i"; -IV, "3?; ^-7- 

cVin is pronounced like ^2, e.g. "130, T?C ; rrir;. 

*p2p and p"iw are pronounced like p^n, e-g. ^~, ^~3; tj^3?; 

"2 is pronounced like rl in 'weight' , e.g. r,3?E2 ; T.r2 , V2 (c. p. 652). 

There is no distinction between the indeoendent and the enclitic 
K"*7, die former being pronounced like the latter. Cf. f^pa/PHTa. 

The Sephardi pronunciation differs from the Ashkenazi in that, 
according to it: X is pronounced like D, and 7! like H ; so that 
*f*± and 0*0, Hill and uC*l } are confused one with the other. In 
vocalization, however, it resembles the Baghdadi pronunciation 
in its entirety. 

Lastiv, the Yemenite Denunciation of the letters is the same 
as the Baghdadi, both tending to confuse the 2 with the 2; 
whereas in vocalization 7^-P * s pronounced like G^TH, and 
Lj7in is pronounced as the French do cu in *seul\ It is worthy of 
note that, in so far as 7~P 3Sl< ^ O^TH are concerned, the Ash* 
kenazi and Yemenite pronunciations are practically the same, 
although thev have severally prevailed in communities which 
have lived two thousand miles and for many more years apart. 

There is ample biblical and Arabic evidence of the genuineness 
and antiquity of die Ashkenazi and the Sephardi pronunciations 
— which are supposed to deviate from the standard Baghdadi — 
as to both letters and vocalization. Thus : 

Xz— -a Jes 38. 17, 23 Ps 129. 3; xrs?-n3 ICh 3. 5, rrr-r.2 IIS 11. 3. 
n ;z— pn Gn 33. 5, ]?2 Dt 32. 6 ; nupV Jud 9. 8, ■qr? 1 ? Eccl 2. 3 ; roc 

Gn 24. 29, qI; K2n lb 31. 27, L^ ; nwpq lb 18. 28, <* — -^. 
c/n— n-ro Gn 25. 1 6, 3n«? Dan 2. 49; btft lb 5. 19, J^>. 



24 HI- THE FOUNDATIONS 

s/k— Vyij IIS i. 21, nbwa Zcph 3. 1 ; ri* Ps 90. 1 1, tx lb 76. 8. 

s/o — fVy IS 2. 1, o^y Job 20. 18. 

p/^— HJp Gn 14. ig, piD Dt 32. 6; Tp.Jud 4. 17, ^P Job 29. 18, 
^£1^ Gn 10. 18; pns Gn 18. 12, <iU^. 

ri/c — Tjn; Ez 22. 21, ^C2jcs40. 19; "ins Gn 41. 12-13,^. 

n/fc — dp Ps 50. 23, cf. , a ,, cn lb 119. r. 

n/B — rra Gn 17. 12, ol"; n*?B Dan 7. 5, *&:. 

T /'— TC* Esr 2 - 59. r nx ^ ch 7- 61 ; tx Ps 76. 8, \v lb 90. 1 1 ; oyn 
IR 5. 15, own lb 5. 24; cnsr Q, ctet Ez 34. 25 K; 27; in IIS 
19. 38 is pronounced 2tT; 7^ is pronounced '/2, except in Ps 35. 10; 
etis 5 ? IlCh 33. 4, cry? 1 ? lb 33. 7 , s JU; p:?r: Jos 15. 13, p^yn 
lb 21. 11 ; n^cp T Dt 28. 7, trmp IIR 16. 7; £-;.?" IR 22. 34, jr-.r 
IS 17. 5 ; ~TT Dt 32. 7 is in Aramaic ~n Dan 3. 33, as xb Ps 54. 5 is 
JO Dan 3. 12 in Aramaic and V in Arabic; *2 Dan 3. 3, Vs lb 2. 10, 
both in Aramaic. Cf. T? Thr 4. 3, TU Jes 60. 16. 

7- — z ? 2 IR 10. 10, c^? Ex 30. 23; Tin Job 39. 20, "rn Ez 7. 7; 
*r-2 Gn 49. 6 Ps 30. 13, 149. 5, 132 Ex 29. 13; Vni IIR 10. 6, bny 
Ez 28. 10; DH , n , 3 Ps 44. 2 is in Aramaic jirrsrz Dan 2. 44. Cf. n: 
Ecc! 2. 24, ni lb 2. 19 ; icn Dt 28. 48, 57, ~zr, Prv 28. 22. 

\ N /.— =-nn IlCh 4- ii.arn lb IR 7. 13; =7- Dt 4. 5, yjp>n Jes 
10. 1 ; r.isnn Am 1. 3, "S^-sn IIS 12. 31 ; sr^s^? Ps 129. 3 K, crryj^i 
Q_; rrrj72 Ex 29. 2 IIS 3. 39, nrzv Lev 4. 3 IS 2- 35 IIS 1. 21 ; , "i*s: 
Q., WSi Jcs 49. 6 K ; wc Jer 8. 7 K, c= Qj "nrj J-Id 7. 13 K, T^X Q; 
p -"-i Jes 62. 3 K, 7:2 Qj ^.ss Q., ?jrES Ps 17. 14 K; ~xn Q_, r.-x-i 
Ecd 5.10K; ^ZV Jer r8. 15 K, 'V-2? Q; z.Tzr Zeph 2. 7 Ps 85. 2, 
126. 4 K Crvatf Q; C5.V2? K, E5.71C? QJer 29. 14; 2TTX K 2"TK Q 
lb 33. 26; mcx K :^x Q_, n>::y K mzir Q lb 49. 39; ]nnpr K 
prvcr Q, n»a? K nzv Q, n«2:J K rxi? Q.Ez 16. 53; -\r\izv Thr 
2. 14 Q., -'-K.>. pp. 651-3. 

However, the last word really rests with Greek. For it is in 
Greek that the process originates of interchanging r with 6 and c, 
k and Xi a anc ^ °> ° ant ^ *i * an ^ et » an< 3 ov a- 1 ^ '- Again, it is in. 
Graeco-Hebraic homology' that one or the other of the consonants, 
aS — which make up the compound letter £ — drops out. Therefore 
"'"IS, the counterpart of ^rjra with which it interchanges, is rightly 
pronounced like D by the Sephardim. Perhaps for the same reason 
Arabic has the additional letter ^/S, e.g. Kovdlfal .a;.: 

As a matter of fact, the Greek homologues often show which 
of the above interchanged Hebrew letters are interchangeable ^ and 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 25 

whether die two interchanged letters in a given pair fail to inter- 
change between themselves. Thus : "1102/1303 and TlppDO 
are two entirely different verbs, being the respective homologue? 
of eyjoWoj and eur^p^^. However, in the verb "110 3/^13 03, both 
the 3 and the D replace the same letter, k. This fact tends to prove 
that they arc genuinely interchangeable. Similarly, in the verb 
13PPDQ, bodi the 3 and the D replace the same letter, x- This 
fact tends to prove independently that tiiey are genuinely inter- 
changeable. Furthermore, these two independent probative facts 
confirm each other and establish that 3 and are definitely inter- 
changeable in Grncco-Hebraic homology. Incidentally, these 
two facts also tend to show that k and x a *"e interchangeable. In- 
deed, they are dialectally interchangeable, a tiiird fact which 
further confirms the validity of the other two. 

In the result, a firmly founded conclusion has emerged which 
serves to test the genuineness of odier homologies involving < or 
Xi e.g. Kvp€<jj and ^oW^. It is not surprising to find that each verb 
has a homologue beginning with 1, namely, ^Vu and EHI re- 
spectively. But we shall see that Kupecu has another homologue, 
mp, and xajpi'£aj three other homologies : C"12, mD, SHD — p 
replacing *, and 2 x- ^ these substitutes arc genuine repre- 
sentatives, then D and p, 2 and y, 3 and P are likely to be 
interchangeable. As a matter of fact, - and k 7 - and y, y and < 
are dialectally interchangeable. Besides, we have seen that x 
exchanges witii D and p respectively in the homologies, A€i\oj/ 

"Hi!*? and Af/^^/pp^- 

Mark incidentallv that occasionally a letter in the Hebrew 
word does not actually represent its counterpart in the homologue, 
but the dialectal alternative of the counterpart. For instance, in 
the homology AtjouhOTS, 3 replaces 6, but it indirectly represents 
X into which d is dialectally converted. 

Another interesting example is the double-homology, peyas! 
7*72: 7 "I S7. In the possessive case, /xeyar inflects into ucydAov, and 
in the dative into /^eyaAcj ; as if the nominative masculine were 
ptyaXos. Similarly, the feminine of fieyas is peydXrj, while the 
masculine plural is fL*ycLW In fact, it is on this basis that the 
adjectives /ll and 7H!> homologize with f±€ya$. Thus: 

/xeyaAos* -► yaAos* (dropping the fi syllable or the initial syllable 
according to rule) -> yaAoA (replacing the final a by the 



26 III- THE FOUNDATIONS 

terminal *7 according to rule) -+■ yaSoA (the first A dialectally 
turning into S) -v 711. Alternatively: 

/xcyoAoy -* yaAos- -** yaAop (the terminal a dialectally turning 
into p) -> yaSop (A dialectally turning into S) -* yaSoA (p 
dialectally turning into A) -**771 (cf-ya?, -yap, -yaA, -yaAo*). 

fi€yaXo^ -> yaAo? -> yaAoA -^ yapoA (the first A turning dia- 
lectally to p) -*• yapeA (o turning dialectally into e) -^ I7apeA 
(y turning into 17 according to rule) — 7717. 

Here, the letters 7 and T, which interchange with A, do not 
interchange inter se; but they match as Unguals. 

The double-homology u3n,2Dn/*o77TLy is entirely different: 
in it the interchanged final Hebrew letters do not replace the same 
Greek letter in die homologue. For the D in C2H replaces the 
t in Korrraj ; whereas ri;c 2 in 2DH refers to the thematic m or 
the c in -€iv — tt dropping out. Therefore, there is no question of 
D interchanging with 2 either directly or indirectly. 

The above series of changes undergone by the Greek letters — 
consonants and vowels — have to be compared with the series of 
literal and vocal changes which occur in trie Bible, in respect of 
both letters and vocalization ; because these two sets of changes 
constitute the background to, and the basis of. Graeco-Hebmic 
homology. However, these accumulated changes are so numerous 
and various as to be useful solely as pointers in the search for 
eenuine homologies. When examined and classified, thev serve 
as foundations for rules or Prooositions which record faithfuilv 
the different ways in which the changes actually exist. The rules 
do not themselves regulate the changes ; thev merelv formulate 
certain observations of change-phenomena. As factual formulae 
of purely empirical character, they are capable of helping the 
investigator towards genuine homologies and away from spurious 
ones. Once tracked down in this manner, however, each homology 
must be subjected to several pragmatic tests, whereby it would be 
possible to reject or confirm it with a high degree of accuracy 
and certainty. 

The significance of dialectal and other changes, both in Greek 
and in Hebrew, will spring into bold relief on examinining three 
homologies: ^ads/Hl], oiKoy/JVS, ^po^/iy?- At first blush, a 
reasonable person would be inclined to concede the validity of the 
first homology- He might, with some strain or hesitation entertain 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 27 

the possib ility of the third being sound. But whoever — in his senses, 
that is — would be prepared even to consider the pretensions of 
the second? Admittedly, all that scepticism is to be expected at 
first sight, in spite of the semantic evidence. Yet, looked at in the 
light of dialectal changes, each one of these three homologies 
would and should — it is confidently submitted — readily command 
absolute acceptance. 

To begin with, the Aeolian for vaos is uaOos, and the Spartan 
vafos. Moreover, € and o are interchangeable. Then, die origin 
oCotKos IsrotKo?, whereas o and k respectively change into a and 
r. Finally, here are the various guises of —p6$: the Argive is 
Trpor(t), the Arcadian -6*-, the Cretan —pori^ die Cyorian also -d>, 
the Doric —orl and -o/, the Epic also rrporl and -orl ; —€pT[l)^ -d, 
ttoS, -o*, -or and —pcV are also found. The relevant variants for 
the homoloqv in hand are -oV -6r r'aoocooe of ttqti\ —68. 

IV. The interchange of letters in the Bible is of fundamental importance 
to our inauirw 

x.n "zx Job 34. 36 *3q Gn 27. 36 Sod ye (y - - 

"T.TX3X Jcs 63. 3 T,"7Xlil «rar<2XTjAt5dcu 

":~x IR 11. 17 T~n lb ii. 19 

3-.-xIIS20.24IR 12. :3 ="n IlCh 10. «S 
:r~x Jud 6. 15 
tj'X Gn 26. q 
V7X Dan 2. 31 

N?-" 1 ?? J os - J - -3 
V77ih7x Ps 76. 6 

-rjxn IIS23. 33 

nzrinx IlCh 20. 35 

k- 1 ^ IIS 12. 17 

«'■?!:: IlCh 18- 7 

x-jrt Ps 76. 12 

XD-i^J Jer 14. 19 

7X3 Ez 30. 24 

XD Job 38. I I 

x-id Job 24. 5 
K31S IIS 10. 6 
X3!J Nu 32. 24 

Xip Lev 10. 19 



'/nn IIS 3. 1 3 


GcLCcj 


Tpn Dan 10. r 7 


rrfi, Kjji q#tt] 


X7q Gn 13. 9 


:bou 


rrpnVK lb 19. 44 




*bb^r>vrt 




^n^n ICh 1 r. 35 


ojfirof, dpetV 


^znnn 


awarTToj 


ni: lb 13. 6 




n^ IR o 2 . 3 




mi:: Gn 12. 6 


uc'ycrr 


ns-s?D Jer 8. r5 


?€p<£rr€uua 


pni Job 6. 5 


uu<aojj.at 


na lb. 


<1>8€ (oi-S^) 


hd Gn 31. 37 


3 j 


mD Jer 2, 24 


(hjpiov 


rais Ps 60. 2 


£av66s 


nis Ps 8. 8 


trrqvTi 


mp Gn 44. 29 


KVpitl* 



*8 III, THE FOUNDATIONS 

xypp ICh 20. 7 nyns IIS 13. 3, 32 

ns? IS 17. 13 
X^ IIR 25. 29 rzv Jer 52. 33 /utoxuVw 

Similar interchanges occur in Greek and Graeco-Hebraic 
homologies: 

<jUl, t Va/f X/bx/]X/rSX/,\!; l/JJj/^-i, cf'po*Ccu/a-/ r ]CKpnn i Tj X to, 

a-/riin/iin^*in ) c£yos\'"p"s rcaa/i^rn, otVos7?2™, cpa'n^rv,^ . 

lpXOfxaLJ^y77\jX? TJ*?n 5 ^ TAui VTAA^/cTAA^ UtXtLjUlXtio ; '-TL opoff/^n. 

x/i X3 job 38- 11 :2Ez 40. 12 ttjS*, <is< 

x/n sn^n ICh 8. 35 mnn lb 9. 41 

fON Zach 6. 3 p2il Jes 63. 1 c:V:oa?, -ol~> 

x/^ ?X IIS 14. 19 r Gn 33. 9 fx^ 



rx Gn 1. 1 W)n; Dan - v 12 



TO 



nxw Neh 12, ^1 rr:2 lb 1^. 10 Souc. voud* 

nxp Lev 18. 28 rrp Jer 25, 27 x*u> 

x/;; Vx^x ICh 1 1. 32 prby-^x IIS 23. 3: ^w 

\~7Xix Jes 63. 3 *r.7i*ir; *crc*-T%u3cty 

V7X Esr 8, 17 sn» Xeh 12. 4 

tx Ps 76. 8 TV lb 90. n lc X ^ 

7X Jos 15. 13, 17. 4 V? Gn 20. 3 Ex 17. 1 trre'p 
IIS 10, 2 IR 2:. 22 ICh 19. 2 

Vx IS 9. IO *? lb 9. 9 o\~, <:V 

ST*?** ICh 3. 8 - 1 "??? lb 14- 7 T}Aio€t8Tj» 

nXTi^n Gn 24. 2 1 ns^ri Jes 41 - 23 dedouai 

^X^IO IIS 22. 49 % *V?2 lb 22. 3 aurrrjp (owfe* 

2X110 Am 6. 8 23»r.2 Jes 49. 7 crrorr-ruo; 

r.ixi Eccl 5. 10 nj?~i Eccl 1. 14 dpaatr 

X/p ;XT Jud 14. 5 pp~ Prv 2o. 15 6d<yyopai 

nncx IIS 3. 34 miup Gn 44. 30 Scrd* 

2 /J ^yn Jer 3. 14, 31. 32 Vsi lb 14. 19 anr/^ (y2; 

2^n Ps 41 , 13 rsn Gn 43. 9 tioayaj 

Q^VV^ HCh 36. 16 ZriJjbD lb 30. 10 KaraytXau* 

2/n pTO IIS 19. 32 K pT*n Q a/>Sa«o^ 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 



-9 



!/i »35f-n3 IIS ii. 3 
"a IR 14. 9 
inrv; Jcs 48. 16 K. 
nnoICh 26. 18 
wiujud 5. 14 



'^ 



mix Ob 12 
ir? Ps 73. 22 
CTiznn Ps 32. 4 

2/2 'IX Job 34. 36 

I '75 TJZX IIR;. !2 K 

r.ns;- US 22. 16 
r:v-Job35. 15 
^ix-iz IIR 20. 12 
2t:Jcs 40. 7 

n:i Gn 2 1. 20 

2/2 -T2 Cn 38. 2 1 
".t: Dan 1 1. 24 
■"■?: P5 68. 31 

1*32 Jcs 38. 12 
7*~;z Gn 4. 22 
Zi £2 1. 18 
i"!2i Job II.8 

zrn Dt 19. 5 
z:*~ Jcs 10. 15 

?zp Prv 13. 1 1 
rzr IIS 7- 7 

:/t -rs Ps 15. 1 

V > ~4 Ez 47. 1 3 



:z7 Ez 2 



3 / 



" "^ -*'->» XT-, n o < 

* t «* 4^ w ^ L~.£ ^ - -i -1 

-!J5 IS 26. 8* 

s/s *7-r. Dt i. 17 

"TVOnn Jcr 30. 23 
mjcs 14. 9 Joel 2. 10 
„ Ps 77. 17, 19 



sn-j-rra ICh 3. 5 

22 Ez 1. 18 Ps 129. 3 

irrns 

thd IIR 23. 1 1 

DTO Prv 26. 3 

2TX Dt 32. 35 
1*7 Jcr 26. 18 

r:rnn IIR 6. 25 

^ri Gn 27. 36 



yutov 



r^zx Q 




mrsa Ps 18. 16 


zo-n 


r:rrp 


— c:-Ci 


1""13 Jcr 50. 2 




zr: lb 42. 14 




nz~i Jcr 4. 29 


oi'ouat 


~z Jos 18. 8 


t^Oc 


*r:2 Ps 141. 7 


cr-7f:^cj 


*"!*•: Joel 4. 2 


iL^rrr£ij>oj 


*".32 Ps 144. 7 


C7T 0<JL^ji^{jJ 


Tnz Dan 2. 33 


T7€P'-Q<\tiCQ} 


":Ex2i. 3 


~S\? IQ V 


"2 Prv 9. 3 


IVC? 


r p:Jes 17. 6 


KQ^TTLlJ 


72? Dc I5 . - 


3 ? 


rz7 ICh 17. 6 


CLKacrrr^j 




CtGTTO-TTlS 


in lb 84. 1 1 


CL<€UJ 


rtijos 15. 4 




TZ 1 ? lb 26. 5 


r * 


-coiGn 8. 2 


\ f * 


120 Jcs 19. 4 


f iO^^lpi^Ui 


-?iv Ez 31. 18 


ftcyar 


■mynn Job 1 7. 8 


cyttpouat 


TO*! Joel 2. 10 


OplKTC^Oi, -l'£ccJ 


^2^^ Ps 104- 32 


„ j -tacaj 



30 



l/p ™Ps 3 . 5 
SXSjud 14.5 

i/t? nnja ICU 20. 3 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 

^1? Gn 44. 29 
pp? Prv 28. 15 

Tira Jcs 10. 15 

V.S. 3/1 



KVptOJ 

(pOiyyoyLai 



T/T 5rn? Esr 4. 23 
nsT Esr 6. 3 

2HT Dan 2. 32 

< ii 

Vrn Dan 5. 19 
lbj?Jes 14. 23 
"Tin Ps 104- 32 

ijh "ran;? Ez 24. 10 
":y Ez 41. 20 
,, Ex 22. 8 Dc 30. 2 

■7/3 ms Ps 119. 134 

ti bii Dt 1. 17 
tth Gn 36. 36 

bnv^i Xu 1- 14 

*: ~ TV") Ps 104. 32 

i;n :r~75 Ez 9. 2 
nil Gn 15. 16 
■n Dt 32. 7 

* o 



n t "^v£ Gn 9. 21 
nb Ez 40. io : :2 
ninp Ex 32. 25 
nsp IIR 19. 23 K 
nina Ex 32. 17 K 

rr/n r?Vin Ps 78. 63 
cn^t Jes 19. 18 

>> 
nnqn iCh u. 27 



mix Jer 32. 21 
nzr Dt 12. 21 

"t Gn 2. 1 1 

r r 

) 1 

"7~t Job 32. 6 
rap lb 34. 15 
m Jcs 32. n 

b^n.-; lb 24. 2: 
TJ lb 41. 17 
^x IS 9. 9, 10 

niki} lb 144. 7. 10-1 1 

yyj Ez 3 1 . 18 
-rrr; lb 36. 39 
Virssn lb 2. 14 

rsn Jucl 5. 4 

2T.3 IIR 23. 7 
"in Esth 2. 12 



l .j. > * 

v?-}< lb 26. 25 
13 lb. 

rjjp O (*risp ; 

',y-13 Q_ 

V?n Dt 20. 6 
Din Job 9. 7 
nonnjud 14. 18 
"innri IIS 23. 25 
nbnzs Prv 20. 21 K 



TTOlCUf 



X ft P 

Ovoj 



6* toouct 
: ; toJ Cupav.\oi 

taCTtC 



cuAi? 
rzpaaotu 

KpQTtUty avpl^ts. 

tjAeo* 

poSdftr 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 31 

HSS Gn 4. It nS3 Jes 14. 7 -rreravw^i, di-a- 

nnDjob 3. 1, 21. 19 

m S HSU Prv 17. 28 C2t7 IIS 19. 25 wrr;»-T7 

TiTIX Gn 20. 12 DKS lb 1 8. 13 tj irnv, ov p. 

- ; : nizx Prv 27. 20 K pi^x Q_. lb 15. 11 .--rocui-cuV 

ri^rr; Jcr 22. 18 p~:x lb c^n-i?, d 

."^Otufc? 

r--2 Ex 36. 34 po Dt 33. 2 1 ?K€-d£uj 

psPsug. 11 

,_i_^ ]*.T*s Gn 10. 19 ?ov£6i, SiOfL:- 

- v nirrK Jos 15. 50 Jpsnsx lb 21. 14 

rtz: Am 2. 9 r?i Jud 20. 10 "uo>- 

r!"I2 Ex 13. 13 ^"72 Job 33. 24 o^tdouai 

7\'SZ Ps I44. 7 * S? Job 6. Q c.rroaiL'uj 

-±'-'S Xu 33. 41 ZZ72TS Jud 8. 5 cyaAiiC 

~ 3 PISH IIS 15. 30 ~jS2 Jes 58. 5 vvrrrw 

ri/p nsr: Ps 66. 14 ptrs Prv 13. 3 -fra':-.-viit 

-ts Lev 13. 5 ,, 

n - *ry~ Jes 16. 9 ~~r Jer 48. 32 Iscc 

r. r. -t IIR 6. 19 .in: lb 6. 33 -.c* 

r,z~i Gn 7. 1 1 Flos 9. 7 T-l Ps 123. 4 .-i-jicf 

Eccl 6. i 

r^r.r Gn 13. 3 r.Vnn Hos 1. 2 W;-fc:>- 

T.j. x.'n 2/n 

'7'K Zach 11. 15 ^?? Gn 15. 9 57,- 's:-:/. 

*r:x IIR 24. 15 K ,! rx Q f«o s -, Bococ &d» 

Ez 17. 13 

ir-K Jes 45. 2 K. ~~x Q_ 1-€v'vvoj, 

<2TOp06uj 

7*"J< Jcr 4. 19 K 7'uK Q_ i\—oua.i 

7V?!* Jcr 14. 14 K "f^K Q, €.*3tu.W 

-]T>xTbr2. 13K ^ryxQ, d- t adw 
r.rnx IIS 24. 20 nr-ix lb 24. 18 

r.inx IR 5. 6 nnx IlCh 9. 25 l^oT P <4t~u>v 

ni2 Jcr 6. 7 K "V3 Q j^i ?P*' a P> foctap 

TrCi Gn 35. 8 n^Dn lb 50. 4 <u»xvroV 

rnni ICh 12. 15 (16) Q "HI K d^ 



32 III- THE FOUNDATIONS 



Q^l J cr »6. 16K 




n-n Q. 




aayrjr*i/9 


„ Ez47- 10 




» J« 19. 3 






□CTT Am i. 3 




F1 Dt 25. 4 




Oat^aj 


Vn Gn ii. 30 




tV; lb 4. 23 




/?A a error 


min ICh 14. 1 




D-rn Q. 




* Epuatov 


HCh 9. 10 K 










M^n Ps 70. 2 




rrcrn lb 72. 12 




Tax^i^, *avi 


-^-J 




i-n- Gn 22. 2 

r 




fi-ai 


pKDp/l Zach 14. 6 


0. 


pKsp" K 




7T7jya<i 


vm-p: q. 




vrsp'' Job 24. 


6K 


#£ptCuj 


rvnpi Zach 14. 6 




m " 1 Rl 




OUVDOTTT]9 


n^sp Job 12. 6 




vVzr 




yaA7]i*tatj 


^mnb Q, 




tptj 1 ? Job 30. 


13K 


^iTjvtrt 


nnci Jcs 3. 16 K 




nruj Q, 




raroj, *V- 


CT1SJCS32. 7PS0. 


19 


K c^is; Q. 




T7fi-T7 


"31S Am 8. 4 K 




"•"ly Q. 




1 > 


^57 Job 24. 4 K 




"iy K 




dinjp 


WM'J Ps q. J 3 Prv 3 


-34 


0, C"}V; K 




t UlOtQ$ 


pnpV I ICh 13. 19 


K 


ri^y Q. 




dy opn.lv f J sr 


■*^ •> V /^ 




]*2X Ps 17. 14 


K 


GK€77CGrQ<; 


•V*i3S Ez 4. ! 5 K 




"•rrss Q, 




CTL'yG'i. i?C" 


•. 2 '.K Prv 31.4 




-]:<Jon2. 5 




0*\ OL'^. CL'V 


"i '2 riix HCh 2. 5 

1* : ; ~ 




ppx Ex 26. : 




iiAoL-^^UC 


Winx Dan 5. 10 




ii 




*> 


-,2 *4jcs50. 6 




f|l Ex 2 1 . 3 




yt/fot' 


-*T1 IS 31. 10 




HDUlCh 10. J 


r "> 


j 3 



V.s. K/i 2/t n;i 

n rt2T Dt 12. 2i n2e Thr 2. 21 rJw 

"2T Jcs 3a. 6 H2D lb. croeiyios' 

: c ?by Hab 3. 1 3 cbyr.n Prv 7. :3 ay.W£<u 

I y K -i HS 7- IO ynjob 20. 12 OpiKa^to, -iZuj 

l/S T?! Job 36. 2 "VSS lb 32. 6 piKpos 

psn Ps 142. 6 pss lb 88. 2 ^wu 

pSll JOS 8. 16 p»Sl IS 13. 4 tri/vayai 

isti? Jes 10. 25 nystt Gn 19. 20 piKpo* 

frv Hab 3. 18 Ps 68. 5 Y^ lb 9. 3, 63. 4 dyAaiCcu 



11 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 33 

i/tf m IIS 22. 8 cn Ps 2. 1 iptKdfa 
„ Dt 2. 25 mnjes 13. 13 

„ „ TO IIS 22. 8 

Kj. j/t i/t 

n/D T2nn Job 16. 4 T^SH lb 35. 16 Kaddrrrcj 

];n Gn 33- 5 ]P Dt 32. 6 Job 31.15 vewaai 

ncn IIS 15. 30 rjDD Jes 58. 5 kxttttuj 

■vns Dc 23. 19 ""eg Nu 20. ig x?lH- a 

Prv 31.10 

HS Ps II, 6 ^|D IS 10. I -?6xoo$i ~xovs 

n/s tvr IS 20. 38 ens Joel 4. 1 r r^ut/aj, -x^ 

Ttn Jcs 5. 10 "i2» Ex 16. 36 x 9tw £ 

E^IH Jer 17. 6 * *~m» Gn 15. 2 Macros-, x*PP°s 

p^u Gn 34. 8 i3~*^ cyazrajaj 

mc Ez 17. 6 ^^v^ri Jcs 28, 20 trropi'vpi 

n;s "n HCh 3. 7 riDS Ex 36. 34 c*€^a£aj 

n.p 2rn Dc 19. 5 r [Cp Ez 17. 4 <o— a* 

SSnJcs 10. 15 „ y Hp^Jes IT- 6 m ,arrav5 t '^ 

^r:7 Nu 22, 4 p?7 IR 21- 19 Act^cu 

HS? Mich 3. 3 pwp Ez l6. 25 -craKvuu:, im- 

V.s. x/n n/n 

a/2 fcr^ Gn 43. 23 pra Dan 1 1. 43 £«>a 

"p~ Esth 7. IO C'pwH Job 37. 17 w'x^j Krara- 

ri 1 zrn Dc 19. 5 -2n Jcs 10. 15 x£tto> 

V75 Dan 4. 9 V?X Neh 13- 19 c<ra£oj 



j^ 



-sr: Cant 1.6 "12} Prv 27. 18 ^p<^» <*• 

r i-p Ez 17. 4 -sn Jes 10, 15 jroTT-rtu 

2spIIR6.6 

r/p znc Job 9. 26 pp Jcs 18. 6 c*oa£tu 

:/r ep_? Gn 47. 14 ^p 1 ? Job 24. 6 -Wyw, BvXaKtfa 

:/n nsrri Ez 13. 10 nsnn Jcr 23. 13, 32 arro^Aafaj 

^Cn Jud 2K2I ^riPI Job 9. 12 aoTra^aj 

rrscn Dt 27, 9 D^pwn Jcs 7. 4 TjavxaCaj 

fH01?D Dan 3. 7 fTXUDD lb 3. IO yaXnipiov 

ft«4CT7 G 






34 III. THE FOUNDATIONS 

VDp Job 24, 14 J^ KTCtVCJ 

*?Dj? Dan 5- 19 

con Jcr 49. 24 nrn Hos 13. 1 oppoSla 

3/d n3"K IIR 6. 13 n*rx Gn 37. 16 ^oO, kov, o-ov, 

OKOV 

m Gn 31. 37 HD Jos 18. 8 ^e, <L&€ 

na^D Job 9, 9 riE^D lb 15. 27 ato^'ti^ 

3/p ^32 Dt 21. 16 (to-) "ipn Lev 13. 36, 27. 33 ouupeoj 

"33 Lev 27. 26 ?J «j- 

^t?n Ps 78. 50 Job 33. 1 8 psn Jes 38. 1 7 ^x&z ciu^ 

Z2\l IS 17. 5 S2ip lb 17. 38 <vufaxo9 

]TD Dt 32. 6 n;p Gn 14. 19 yo-vaw 

TjnV Nil 22. 4 pp7 IR 21. 19 A*;'yc 

^jrj Ez 22, 21 prj Jer 6. 29 

*v2on Dt 27. 9 trpsn Jes 7. 4 rcrv^a£aj 

^ZVEsthj. 10(drvx<i£u>) IT p3n Job 37. 17 Kcrctlup 

r/n "3rn Ps 18. 12 r 'isn IIS 22. 12 cxdro* 

r.j. 2/3 :/3 n ; 3 s 2 

b/2 rrViH Esr 2. 2 rvpvi Neh 7. 7 Jicr cVpcvAc* 

V: VX IS 27. IO ]K lb 10. ia IVa, rroL" 

rcr 1 ? Xeh 13. 5 r:373 lb 13. 7 -'^y 7 ] 

rc*y?x Gn 38, 11 ii-jl jlji 

rr^bx Jes 13. 22 rrutnx ^i^d,, *>^~ 

n ? J Ps 57. 3 s^ni Joel 4- 4 duttSaj 

bl Gn 31. 46 nr lb 31. 47 oAa^ 

mbta IIR 23, 5 nnin Job 38. 32 wcoi>pa 

2*ty?V JOS 15. 32 ]lP*1? lb 19- 6 eyepd 

3/1 CPX Gn 29. 4 ]VUX Dan 2. 8 <rv ;n~X cl : f ■ 

cyr? Ps 44. 2 pn^nvj^ Dan 2. 44 ^«>« gJt^v 

Cizni ICh 6. 1-2 p?-u Gn 46. 11 

CQ^ Gn 7. 10 pavi Dan 12. 13 at -rjpepat 

anna IIS 19. 38 poa lb 19. 41 

a^Vp Prv 25. 3 fD^D Prv 31.3 £eaiA«vs 



ex Cant i. 8 


«J! 


CX Cant 2. 7 


^1 


t 





III. THE FOUNDATIONS 35 



OU 



?t 



ency Esr 8. 13 
z*:i? Jud 18. 7 
n-;'75?Jud 1. 35 

2 s r'"s IIS 19. 6 

-r: JCS42. 14 
-2-77JCS37. 27 



c."i ]£C Hag ! . 4 

cVrr.n p rv 7. 18 

- r c*3 IR 21. 22 

y.z: Pi 44. 19 
"ii*w Jon 1. 4 
p = Dt 33. 21 
rr.z Ez 17. 6 
=-.2jes 5 8. 7 

- r"=Jcr 4 6.4 

n c J cr 46. 4 

r.'rcn Dt 27. 9 

-."ex Gn 40. 3 m*rp lb 44. 30 Scro? 

:'* "]Ci Jes 40. ig "!j."4 Ez 22. 21 ttjk:^, eV- 

pc Ps 37. 24, 145. 14 "iGn 48. 1 7 Ex 17. : 2 av^tu, kA«Vw 

T * * -, 
» .J. 1 w 

y 2 vcr Jud 14. 6 r ,cr IS 15. 33 cr^'S^ 

y i Ni'"]N Dan 2. 35 px Gn 1. 1 oc, e>a> 

**.aS Dan 7. 9 *1£? Lev 13. 47 ko/jtj, £avd6<; 

y p xpx Dan 2. 35 xpnxjer 10. 11 too. 

yp riy'ES Jes 22. 24 HTDS lb 28. 5 <xtc<£o? 

F.j. x/y i/s n/y t/y n/'y 

r.J. 2/D n/D I/ 2 D / D D / D r / D 



juiiJ ID 5. 2 


/iera 


pis IR 1 1 . 33 


fou&Jy 


pV^Jos 19. 42 


KvvaXcu^rq^ 


C7D Ps 17. 13 


d—cWdaauj 




-rruj 


p~!3 Jcs 65. 4 K 


y.-Cey/iG 


r r2 lb 40. 24 


TTI'CUJ 


~DTT IIR 19. 26 




r_r. =/a n/a i/a V/s 




• r*_r. r; : '•p a/: 




]£2 Ps 3 1 . 2 I 


crx-eTTCL^aj, 




vpt^ra; 


py Hab 3. iS 


ayAatCcu 


ryD Job 17. 7 


opy?} 


::~ IIS 1. 22 


ydCo^at 


".ryjob 18. 20 


vtc:; 


pr lb 33. 1 9 


CVfT ~<7TO:> 


r- : rrrijes 28. 20 


crro jtT'^it 


~i IR8. 38 


^LlVytijCJ 


p- IR 22. 34 


dajpaxtlov 


j 1 '- IS 17. 5 


? i 


"? rri J^ 7- 4 








36 III. THE FOUNDATIONS 

s/p fno Jud 5. 26 pnn lb. Trt^w 

f*lK Gn i, I ^p/l*? Jer 10. 11 *pa, €pas: 

HSD Gn 4. I I npD Job 14. 3 ^Taw/tt, oT^uj 

nsD Jcs 14. 7 

n 1 ?^ Jcs 44. 16 nVp Jcr 29. 22 &>iV< 

"bs Ex 12. 8 ^p Lev 23. 14 $pukt6s 

niVpx IIR 21.13 nnbp Mich 3. 3 xaAxefoF 

y 1 ?? IR 6. 34 vbp lb. f JAov 

2? n^S Gn 4. II ~TD Lev 13. 5 rrerdvi'vut, oTyaj 

p?D Prv 13. 3 

nas Jes 14. 7 ,, 

H2D Mich 3. 3 p^D Ez 16. 25 -aanwt, <Vt-, 

vara-, afotycj 
piTS Gn 17, 17 pn^7job30. I ECCI3.4 xa^a^ 

3) p^nt?" HCh 30. 10 

„ Ex 32- 6 pHU IIS 2. 14 ayuj^ouot 

pns Gn 21. 9 pn? IIS 6. 21 

]BS Ps 17. 14 ]Et7 Dt 33. 19 <r*€7ra£aj 

T^p Jcs 18. 6 ~3 Job 9. 25 Ooaloj 

'j: ^yrsro IIS 22. 49 *2T5n lb 22- 3 cci^ 

^23 Gn 10. 18 w"r: Xah 3. 18 3taa-acw 

2* n^s Gn 4. 11 r-r.2 Job 3- 1, 29. :c -(70^1^,0,7^ 

r^D Jcs 14. 7 

fr _ J\ I -i I ^ J i -■ -i U , a w . -i * J 
1 1 t * 

p ; w npD Job 14. 3 ~^2 Lev 13. 5 -trdyvvfit, oiycLj 

pirn Prv 13.3 

p'n M nns lb 3. I, 29. 19 rrerdi-vvfii 

F.j. K/p :/p n/p 7\!p zip s/p s p 

r.j. ;/n T/n s/i V'i i\^ 

tr/^ r^D Ex 9- 29 7"is Ez 34. 12 yujq^oj 

r/n nz? Ps 50. 23 --? Gn 6. 9 rY.Wtos- 

k .J. 1*'*? C < E7 S^^T p/^ 
r.Tl ^THS IIS 6. 5 nm Cant I. 17 tfLTra'pcacros-, 

mn Jcr 17. 1 rmn Ex 32. i5 x a P^ aaai » ^^^ 

rhn Dt 22. 10 «^v^ dpaw 7 

aporpta£a> 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 37 

rro Prv 27. 22 nna Ps 89. 24 kotttw 

"1~D Ecci 8. I "IHD Gn 41. 12 <f>pd^w } -a5d£aj 

"D Dan 5. 15 F"^? Gn 41. 11 opa&rj 

ZTZ Gn 18. 33 -in Dan 4. 31 crrpiioj 

Z*ZT\ Nu 2 2. 8 S^nn Dan 2. 14 dv-ri<rrp€<*>u> 

n-i7n Job 2 1 . 34, 34. 36 <>jl crpttlns 

n:7 Gn 32. 6 "in Jcr 8, 7 raupos 

nin Esr 6, 9 

;t? Jes 1. 18 i?? Dan 7. 9 x^ a £ a 

~7T Gn 1 1. 13 nSn Dan 7. 5 r^f* 

., ^^* 

I r .x. *vn ■"* n STi B^n -j'n p;n w*n 7/n 

F. Consonants common to both alphabets frequently interchange with 
other letters in Graeco- Hebraic homology according to Greek dialectal 
charges, such changes bein? also reflected in Hebrew modifications. 

.4. a changes into e and r, and vice versa; a changes into o and 
cj] av changes into c^; a is often rejected cr prefixed for 
euohonv. There is alr/na orivarivum. aloha coDulativum. 
and alpha euphonicum; initial c may be rejected for 
euphony. V.L Y. 

"VaK du3ooros n3*7n (LWayfia E7*V reAof 

"V3K c3poro9 r i^^ gAAg*/7io£ -i-^ oAov 

7^tt cts* ^m Kaupa ^7!£ dycAaa 

2*CEX ttoSoii/ "V-^n oios* 71*312 Kown 

nn^n affavacta 7a ttc> 



. 1 



1 



11J opoy . 'V ,, 



dpaOfxa, prjyfia 



B. fi changes into 5, and vice versa ; /J changes into 7 and ^ ; the 
aspirate changes into 3. Sometimes the spiritus lenis is also 
replaced by /?. 

2K dyos ^R5 Bi^d^ 7]7Q /JaatAeutj, -Ai£uj 

nsa „ Vi ^AoV Vra 

^na ctW aVn yXdyos n2 12 iprrffiia 



3 8 III. THE FOUNDATIONS 

R k and it change into y\ y changes into A; v changes into y 
before the palatals — /, k, x~ and before f ; y is sometimes 
prefixed. V.s. B. 

"K yrj Tiy~l rrviov -" ypatput 

]JX ayytlov TO Tro*a£o» p'^3. euoytcos 

' ^ * ^ ^ ^ ^ * / 

7373 i^-* .. . WO> ' r ' 

A. 8 changes into 0, A, a, r ; £ changes inio co and g5 ; somctirr.es 
8 is inserted to give a fuller sound ; sometimes S is lost. l\s. D, 



Vr?x 


ClSluAoI' 




TjTT rpoTros" 


~I~*£~ -TTTC^rr? 

- t : * ' 


V?X 


3 7 




>n7n 160 1? 


zrr, 


Try Saaur 


T 


fjLtyas, -<L\os 


2X7 3aof 


*tns 


odfo* 


-in 


dod^w 




ri"it 6tHpof 


? j 


0or2os- 


T 


€7TQ$ 




"in €t? 


** ^ m 

1 1 w U 


rniOacj 


r * 






^ — w CL'LJ 


*» 1 1 n 


^ait^uj 


n^2*T 


ouoia£a> 




~7^ OlK€tV 


~ m -^~* 


Ooi'Aoa;, K'ara- 


n^-r 


j j 




f BiKTVOOLLdl . 


1 . 1 , I 


tticW 


£. € changes 


into ; 


€l changes into t. ; 


! 1 casses i' 


!U0 €t. V.S. A. 


I . w t\ 






]*"! C€UG>* 


i * ' ** 


0A0109 


• » 


3 J 




"T "I^Tj tcaa 


mm *•*-• 


oAos* 




T^a 






i~ 




c* 1 


J 9 











Z. £ changes into ad, but «j often disappears. 1 .1. J. 

r. .■* 6cuAo<7ihtj i^ Z«vs', -ot'.i -- ;. 

H. The old alphabet had only one sign \E) for the e sound, 
till the long vowels, i) and o>, were introduced from the 
Samian alphabet in the archonship of Euclides in 403 B.C. 
Eta (H) was probably pronounced as a long e, cf. 8rj\os (from 
5<r'eAos-); but before it was taken to represent the double e, it 
was used for the spiritus asper— which remains in the Latin 
—as HOZ for 5y. V.s. A, E. 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 



39 






0">n „ 



*1JP0 tcXetBpov, -tji- 
^■"490 ,> 
^2*TV 77S01/77 



0, 5 changes into a and v.v.; also into r, 9, and x- I's- ^* 

D570 X^F^' X u '^ ? *^5 ^?P 



r i=73 



7€<mLm 



nxi? otfoVos 1 






I. : changes into € and u; o, ou, and u change into 01; 1 is often 
inserted to lengthen the syllable, F.J. £. 



IX 01) 



cyaTTTj- 



Vrl lAlJ, €M7J 



r v » 



A", * changes into r, and v.v. ; - and x change into * ; v changes 
into v before *; a is prefixed to words beginning with *; 
£ aooears as an aspirated *\ F.j. r. 



mCX OTTOL', QKOVj 7TOV ~-3*X OTT7 

n:rx : , r." oTxro^ 



« 1 !ix 770At$ 



L A changes into v and p, and v.v. ; initial A is dropped. V.s. F, J. 



nTX csa 



T * 




rx 


Ago? 


cxV 


3 ? 


^ ^^ 


K-A^TTTU? 


n^n 


Ao^os - 


rrnb 


?> 


zbn 


ODCOJ 



j ) 


c.\aiLf 






<XlCl 


1 r+ 


X7 


oi 




"K 


>» 




V"? 


* * 




• * 






1 T 


j ) 




Tvrb 


1 1 





AM?^ 



"*ri Xtrpov 
vlrpov 
*"iHC e/aAAai 



t / 



"it 1 0T7V 



.U, fi changes into v and - ; ^ is added at the beginning of a word 
and after alpha privativum ; f± is added in the middle of a 



word to facilitate pronunciation. 

T-X dufipOTQ? ^w^ VOTCpOf 

V^X ^acT^oA^ ^Kl /iotx*va> 

bV2 ^taaxG-^t^ai C^ID /itJ*^ 



riV?p Kvy.Blov 

Hin |f , €TTt8pT)V€tLJ 



4 o III. THE FOUNDATIONS 

N. Movable v is added at the end of words. Vj. T, A, M. 

rnr., ]rnn &sa t pran iVs-, pV^ 

0. o changes into u; ou changes into m\ o is often rejected or 
prefixed for euphony. V.s, A, £, H, J. 

■»«■ : " * 1 .... - ' 



n^n 


)> 


j^ 


0^09 


~£n 


voaopa 



-"--* 



In compound adjectives, o is changed metr: gratia into 77, e.g. 
dctr/evys, fleijyeviJs/pn^K. In early times o represents both 
o and oj — S?ip, Slip ; and in many words must have sounded 
like ou ^jJ^, as in /JdAouai for jSou'Ao.uai;"/17D Nu 23. 23 — 
while reversely, in Ion. Kovpos, ovvoua stand respectively for 
kooos "131, ovoua Cy. 

[J. tt becomes 6 ; p. and r change into -; a passed into ttt, and 
v.v. ; in poets r is inserted after -. V.s. F, K. 

>-:£■ s-rdAcs- 

r.^.M yparrros 

2r.w ypao<jJ 
T.ZTZ ypa&Ti 

P. Initial p takes the rough breathing, except in Aeol. ; pp re- 
places Ion. pa, i.e. a changes into p when another p goes 
before. [I diffidently submit that the q replaces the spiritus 
asper surmounting the second p.] In Aeo!. final a changes 
into p ; p is transposed. V.s. A. 

"VZX Sovs Jk „ *,~ 

"r- » "Ir p^o«t ru „ 

is „ ^r? » snt „ 



T * 


? » 




w*ZX-* 


■-<-* 


j » 




n^n^'p rroXtLiQS 


( _J<^ 


ypaoet;*" 




■-• — ■* * N » , ..' 


— 4 


ypCLLLLar 


tlQV 


7VD- TrrdAfao? 


4-1 *»^ t^ 


ypciLiia, 




M*? T 50^0S* 


-tier 


r- a 




-^D ^wr, Dor, 


--*--> 






Acoi ua- 



M 



III. THE FOUNDATIONS 



4i 



"Hi 

Vn 

in 



poStvos* 



paarcoiT} 



nrrn „ 


*"*">? „ 


n n 


m? „ 


^jj fipoSov 


Sip prjyvTj/it 


Tv^n o^os* 


^KH Pts^ 7 }) pVTQV 


m2 fpTjraofxai 


vm paSZos 


rnnc ytppov 




nijD ,, f yeppdBta 


f m, ^rnnn purrr^, 




P€^ (B) 


r.sq ='"••? 


** \J p*^a 


"D pdSof, €pyou 




XTri? „ 


w — -^ pC^QO^ 



r. a changes into r, and v.v. ; a represents the aspirate in Aeol. 
and Latin ; a is prefixed to words beginning' with *, p., r, 
o; uq passed into — ; a is dropped. F.j. J, Z, 8, K", 77, P. 



** ' — 


AL'-.UJl 


jva<± 


Ij> J^- 


71 


* 'Y GOtvOovauj 


4 ! I 1^ 


CKOTTduj 






3) 

l7T7TO$ 


1 1 iL* * « <JT€ , r LLLQ. 




creyrj, - 


■ya 


CO 




CH re'Afio* 


~^2 


GUiKpQS 






T€?LO£ 

CTTTCJ 





r. r.x. j, 0, a-, n, r. 



-* w 1 n r KX'rrcjtaaos' 



ns - 



poo 77 



2*7!" 2 ^^"TajtTTOS 1 



"■"» „ , ypd<£aj nsv^ri dtpa-tta 

Y. lj changes Into u; u as a semivowel represented rc^ (r) — the 
digamma — sometimes it formed the diphthong cv, sometimes 
the diphthong cv. Vj. A, E t /, 0. 

~ir^2X cmaros 2*7"? „ „ 

"=K tiTT], dvara 7] "12 evXoyew 



*1m KUDOS', KUOLOS 

1122 *SSo? 

nn €pi?oj 



0. Kjt. ©, /7. 
X Rj. e, K. 
Q. u changes with a, ov and v. V.s. A, 0, Y*. 

Several of these changes, as we have seen, occur within Hebrew 
and in Hebrew-Arabic homology — e.g. f n En, fttfl, J^U ; 



^ III. THE FOUNDATIONS 

THD, TO; nCQ^??, ri?3"j:; DVlS7, D'l'TO, ^JU— all and 
every one of which can be accounted for by the Propositions 
herein set out. 

VI. Classified consonants are also interchangeable in Gratco-Hebraic 

homologies: 

The labials — /S, p, tt, © — e.g. : 
PaaiXakfrin Gn 45. 26, fV^'a/rn-js Dt 3. 17, SpoW/rriD Xu 
17. 23, TTv P 6u>nvi Ex 3. 2, prji]? Gn 3. 3, 7rdT«;-r.? lb 30. 30, 
i^oA^/V 73 '*^ lb 20. 7, Tr.\ii<7/«7/'Vl2S lb 6. 17, <i<>w'XH- lb 1. 1 
~"1D Dt 29. 17, apdpir/u.a.:p12 Ez 2 I . I 5. 

The palatals — y, *, x — e -g- : 
yovevs-/n?p Gn 14. 19, <u>os/-r^ lb 27. 29, otyw/nps Jcs 42. 20, 
^r/ov/Tj-is Ex 1. 13, Jc«voff;n3p T TR 1 4. 1 5, *cSo?/*7D Gn 24. 14, 
X ajpt(ajjt~\l Ex 34. II. 

The Unguals — 5, 9, A, v, p, a, r — e.g. : 

-C€ (ad)jbi< Gn I. g/- 1 ? lb 9. IO, Spdaoy/V^ lb 27. 28, r^Saa/nCE 
Ex 12. 27, x-araSou.Vo'u, V s ?'-. Ps 1 37. 3, T?3 Gn 36. 36, "l"T7J lb 
36. 39; OvpajTb^i IR 6. 34, dvy.lauaZ^Z Ex 30. 34, ffwpo/*^ 
Dan 2. 49; Aip/to/*?" Gn 18. n, At'rpo»v'"ii" Jer 2. 22, Ac-to? 
-•:' Xu 13. 18; xevos /""" Jcs 22. 2; epe ""XGp. 20. 28; cA^rtvcu ~" 
Gr. 4. 12, er^ayfu's/n^r Dan 2. 14, r/Aeioy, -v Gn 25. 27.=- Ps 50. 23 ; 
rpe'-oj ^pl Pr\' 30. IQ, exTvrroV'Virri Prv 8. 25, re'Ao? ~7C Ps 3. 3- 

Thc smooth mutes — *, -, r — e.g. : 

o-rrrj, ofoj/nSTN Gn 37. id, ~-'X HR 6. 13, oiVoy."^ Gn l~. 12; 
^oAat/mp. Jes 23. 7, /TcAuL-pa "12-rr.H;:-. IR 9. 18 HCh 8. 4, ^iV". 
isrijoeii. 12; rpoxos~'?? Jud 9. 53. 

The middle mutes — 3, y, S — e.g. : 

p<rn/mKl Dt 33. 26 Ps 46. 4.. "'.XI lb 89. io, od3o?/lriD Jcs 24. 17, 
0orfos-;~rnD Gn 31. 42. 53, yAayoy/'-Vri Gn 49. 12; ir/<o^at.'r!T71 

Jes 1 1. 8\5^* ; 5«i0a>'--i Dt 32. 27. 

The rough mutes — d, 6. x — e -S- : 

^Tjpiov/XnQ Job 39. 5, /i«r£off/"I-7 Zach II. 12; oaytAo^.'nVD, ""JC 
Jes 40. 11," 65. 25, tfo^trfu-oy/'SJi? Gn 10. 18, 0oiVi£Vrp. Jud 4. 17, 
OQivifflp. Job 29. 18, x^p'^,^"' 3 Ez 34. 12, /loixcwVI^ 2 - 
v changes into y before the palatals — -/, k, % — and before £, e.g.: 

iyylluij&l Gn l8. 23, €wr/icof;PSS Nu I 3. 22, oy*cvAij/np3»Jud8. 20, 
av*a>/p2n IIS 17- 23, Wir/f/p-4 Jes 3. 16. 



43 
IV. PHONETICS 

The following Propositions cover the main phonetic similarities 
and differences that exist between Hebrew and Greek. They 
indicate the regular sound-variations which distinguish the words 
in one language from their respective homologies in the other. 
By their means one leams diat the same letter :n one language 
repeatedly conveys the same variety of sounds zis-d-ris die other 
language; so that familiarity with such literal metamorphoses 
enables one to penetrate the Graeco-Hebraic palimpsest. 

VIL There are authentic Hebrew words — that is^ words about which there 
is no ruspicion that they were borrowed from another language — which 
resemble Greek words in pronunciation and meaning. 

j^X ayetpoj * { .w cpirrrraj 

xz SgIvlj (8duj y in "^-w rpixfrtpos 
compounds) : , r P 0< f>V 

7*2 ycAt/9 (Acol "" rpv6o* 

^7i C009 "?- Ao^off 

• — 
i - ■ 

r |C rpvGtpos, ^ Aoyoff 



■^** -^ 


GuiAtuua 


1 ^> 


cvAat^w 


* ■ -* 


CJC'tJ 




^.ND 


C(2 50> 




/ w — 


JL'.Cf 




i* "7" 


rrr-riof 


'c6i>) 


"7- j£ 


s'Tty 




-u» 


3 y 




n*^? 


fCJp€iU 






OpGLJ 






> > 




* ". +* 




ret^o? 



T I 1 



*et<£aj ~7\ rvTTcyov 



VIIL Comparatively few homolo^ues are Pronounced alike in both 



^rx 


6cy«iV 


*H cuAoycaj 




T!3 


«0Aoyeto 


^ euAoyor 




±J.L 


*> 




1 


m-j? 


cuAoyta 


£-? 5«^«, S-qpos 


SV ^ap 




?* 


cvrrj tSos 1 


H'UD <£oiVif 


^■^ 


u 


C % 2t ^i^avtoy 


nno <£oJVc£ 



^ IV. PHONETICS 

Vina x°P €V P a "^ <rrew * s " 

-in:, bm poo? rns tf\r) 



•m: 



t ; : - 3 ■ 




V^t? 


72?3 ttoA; 


Jao^os- 


pit? 


rapyavoouaL 


^ « * '■ w 


r» ,, 




nnu 


* 




Cfl 


reXos 




agn 


Savfia 




nsn 


reA^ios 1 





*i7D <£pa£a> "3p dupavXos 

iX Tfo Hebrew Utters which are not to be found in the Greek alphabet— 
namely: if, n, V, '£, 27 — and the Greek letter £ which does not occur in 
Hebrew, naturally interchange with other Utters. 

( I ). H interchanges mainly with : the spiritus asper and the spiritus lenis, 
an internal vowel, a diphthong, y, k, v, x- 



- ->v 



Zr,K ayan-aw, -a£w r.77i x^Xevaj -.n= xadalpm 

t ; 

(2). Pi interchanges with the seme signs and letters as n, plus £, f 



xy 



^:n KVOtOS, KVpOS " = "lV ZlPVTV* <-^*~* iy 

iSjj^ xopT} n*T^q cpaSor "^ *opo's (B) 

tied ot-o9 "n xcpcaauj ^ n 7 *opo? (A) 

i_ ^ ^j>tj n.i-. re. ro£a 

(3). S7 interchanges usith the same Utters as H. 

132 rrvpoaj TiS Sopa, xpok Lll 

2£ v€<^o? ^-? dfttAAa *sps ciko upo9 

^/; CDS ycfiQoj n^ipv: „ 



IV. PHONETICS 45 

710^"!^ f 7 //*^ 3757^9 TTvpavtrrqs H3?tf 8vpa^ ttvXtj 

(4). ^ interchanges with: the rough and the smooth breathings, y } S, £, 
0, k, f («r) f tt, (J, a#c, or, a*, t, <2*</ *. 

*^2S vaiva 



r »^:ii 


7 » 


- / 




L>-^ 


I > 




yAoirroV 


nbsv 


ct^oAtj 


r.V?xr 


J) 




1) 






r- 


„ ,of 


frx 


: i 




7 * 


(5). t7 irAtrckang 


-*7K 


^i^xapi^ai 


w . 1 


ipturauj 


r»T*in 


pa X U 


* .+ \ 


opyl^Lj 


1 l-_ w 


£ur/p<uf 


TtJr^^ 


9 * 
<rrra 


V» 


cvy icAifcy 




>T 


J JW 


TdV9Q$ 



"22 






If 


1 - 


it 


*-? 




t 


? „ , -at? 


y;s 


Xp<l*ua, -oia 



jn$ 


€l*5lJCO? 


-!12 


SfOS" 






>l 


C7S 


cycAuc 


r^ 


JT 


▼ - 


^rAcupoV 




<OUT t 


1 *""! 2 -a 


I GT€00$ 


1 1 ^ 





"VT CiLoa.£ T^TC* «rrj;.£ 



i-.u, 1 






C7T rreAr-n , Ji 

r 1 w * 



(6). £" [kg] interchanges with T, H, D, D, S, p, %Zr. 

-II ^o^ff (or a/1) TJD „ (or k/3) Jll ^,'^y 

C2TI £ay$o<jj "120 faf^dto "7*5 iy^j^.^- 

-1" ^rjpalvtu 2nS fav^o? TO ^ (or —a) 

CWn ftJaty, -<7/xa iTlf? ^ras" ''TO „ (or — k:) 



4 6 IV. PHONETICS 

X. Letters that are common to both alphabets do not always interchange 
respectively. 

(i). X interchanges with k — as in vernacular Arabic, or k drops out — the 
spiritus asper, and the spiritus lenis : 

P^X ^Scuvis 1 HS^K /co^cyo^ p^lSX {nrcptltov 

21TX voourrros T£X €77u>86$ 3TX Kpvrrroj 

(2). Z interchanges with 3. y, 5, i, ^, ~ y v } r t 6, cj, the spiritus asper, 
and the spirit us lenis : 

X2 3alv<jj dpodvtov — *^V yAayos 

712 aiSeopat. *72 wq ""*''-< *v5o* 

""iH— aip«jj ~p^ Stye: 7 nzz^£ uvptot 

nC2 rrtcrrcuoj rT" rp7jra, pijrpa ***~~}¥ 000005 

IT!*?, piVT (o) ro 2Xn Svdai o'jjX 

(3), 1 interchanges with S, y, S, £, *, A, — , <£, y, /A* spiritus asper, and 
the spiritus lenis : 

PiXi SoGtiJ ■"*"•? ^X^V ""*** <c8<Xtp€LU 

H2i ivotj "3T- yuFoi/ ]***■* ccpi/y-f 

^ : 2i €OOpiQv TZ rroKt^cjj -*a- IT a^rciotr 

(4). 1 interchanges with B 7 8, c, #, a, r, 9, x, c:: - -*^' n?!/*? £*£ 
smooth breathings: 

p21 SiiLkcu H^X^" £t£arta 22*7 aitutraai 

"72*7 £3o$ P^^ oAtyai 2TTTX X €t P 

fs). M interchanges as indicated on £. ja- 

(6). 1 interchanges with ^ r v. : : 

aXovpyq^a ^v^ vouQS H1ZT altos' 

(7)- T interchanges with y y 5, T, 0, k, f, a, t, ,y, ^ spiritus asper, and 
the spiritus lenis : 



IV. PHONETICS 47 

]PT oiaywv TSyt „ -^ ^"So* 

PP.T nfctu, Sia- SITS „ TO^ wi'ai 

(8). H interchanges as indicated on p. 44. 

(9). D interchanges with y, 5, 5, <j, r, */« spiriius asper, and the 
spiriius Unis : 



nzr 


otttcicj 




6vpi<; 


. 1 


J T 


****^ 

w w 


81$ 


"113? 


1 ' \ * 

OLiOC«\0> 


L**^ 


3 J 


*ZC 


OVUJ 




yei/cj 


1 I 1W 


rei^iLaj 


SVD 


vfCua 

* * 



(10), * exchanges with y, i, u, a diphthong, the spirit us asper ^ and the 
spiriius lenis: 

( 1 1 ; . 2 interchanges with y, d, *, rr, r, o, y, era ^ two breathings : 



-irs 


c<0Vj orrov 


1 1-^ 






/ovcij 


nb-x 


a > j 


T 


tp^udos- 


*^***^ 


0ottix:j/os' 












>* 


^ ^ ^ 


T^Tf 


n'73 


T€\£u* 


J * - 


wfcrrrcf 


T??5 


Kcrrvcs* 




T7<£> 


- * - 








jr 


„ , oAor 


■^ • 


orrravtov 



(12}. 7 interchanges with y, 5, A, p, v, p: 

VVll jc7jAi5oqi, Kara- "72*7 fiayddyw 

(13). Q </ra/tf oi/f or changes with £, A, ft, ^ tt, <i : 



"7"^ 


Aaurras 1 


r;—? 


XlaX 7 ] 




> 9 




k-Xuoj 



4 8 IV. PHONETICS 

*7pO fiajcXov H231 lf H2? ^dfifirj 

(14). 3 interchanges with y, A, ;x, v: 

^X eytxi ~1S? vtKpos TTU Air/rov, (mVpo^) 

^:K £yor/€ ^ pcaeyyvrj (^Q) *QP onr/€<u 

(15). D interchanges with y, S, £ 5, *, f (kct), c, r, and both breathings: 

p^lC 3ujpaK€iov 
— ^riy rtdujpa- 
Kiaptvoi 

J^r^wD licArrjpiov 
v^n rrepdtjy zropQicj 

(16). 17 interchanges as indicated on p. 44. 

(17). - interchanges with. 3, y, i? 3 :, k, /x, -, r ? 0, c>?if both breathings: 



THC ayopator 


If 


J > 


n"SnD yeppov 


n*?c 


T*Ao? 


mnO yeppdBta 


nbv 


€A€€<JJ 


0*0 ur 


r 


£avdos 


*-^^ * 


J 




nw«j crrjcoj' 


~s 


J> 


1?3 


1120 


ji t -o<*J 


***** 


•••*. ** 


r 


l - "- j. 


lL^ 


K07TTUJ 



r i* ■ 




yiD 


dtyydvuj 


T753 


00^09 


"Wp 


TtXtLOS 



]3 utJ ^"^2 jcoo;' 

"3 yuj^ta "i^ 1 ?* tpr/ov 



^(3 yOUS nn2 77QU€<JJ 

(18). .£ interchanges as indicated on p. 45. 

(19). p interchanges with y, £, ^ * ? v, £ (*<?)* ~ 3 -. o> x> ^^ ^°'^ 
breathings : 

p^2 To£d£ofj.ai *~"p KVfjLPa)(0$ Hip yewccL* 

pH-J ica^a^cj i"!T*p dprjvos *-p ooIVif 

J "l**p X caJ *"?- Karapdopai *"^R tto'Aij 

S7~Tp ayta£a> ]p. euvrj r.3 p to^ottj? 

(20). "1 interchanges with y, A, /?, a**/ a, or iro/tf oirf : 

TTIK ayyo* n2TU „ VnS /leycy 

DTT p^upa "E7^ 6p66s HTp dpijvos 



IV. PHONETICS 49 

(2 1 ). t? interchanges with y, S, 0, *, «-, o-, t, x, <^ both breathings : 



y — - 


)l 


">-? 


«Ar7i£ 


1?w 


9 1 r 


^ 


n 


7iZZ7 

T 


jj 


^nr 





V7 criyrj 


*1^w rpaxv? 


tT7 ytdiw 


m?? „ , idttpa 


*7\V cnrjKOi 


T*T^ hparrirT]^ 


75D 1 ?? X'^H^ff 


^ 


n'-??? 


r \ m *L~ dtpc-TTtuV) -a^r 


• * 


"TIC KVpl€VU> 


C^'l) rtAcios 


^."\ r ( i TJ 



'22^ S? interchanges as indicated on p. 45. 



]H2 SiSujfit 
Zi?(l) reAcio? 

KV1 lT-JJ^ >> 



IOjO 


', *, 


"t v » - > u/ 


:u cui't yu 


"— -'S- 1 ■ 


w^O 


«? 




"r* 


pc^rai 


* - 

T 




:0£ 




CCpv 


** ^A 1 


j j 








nn 


rvrravov 


«* '* • 


dvpa 



AY. The sdirifjs astir and the spiritus Unis interchange with each other 
end w::h almost all the letters of the alphabet, and occasionally drop out. 

"X ai3ics\ -ov J-?- 



cV 









>> ^-'t jj 



1"? » r^ » 






-~* ar/arrdui -J^n ri oA 



.ov 



, _*. u. li' "- oiiotor 

^ D • > » nnVnK dSajxa? 1? «f°X off 



5° 

<*.J><J €pyov 

n"13 ,, (cf. poZov) 

T 

IT? * 

"7~? 

T 
* t^ /.J 

mx ajpa. 



rvsx - 



a cup a i a 
- alptuj 

'-- aiSota 
2 poSd^ts- 
!- frqrpa 
2 0C/17J 



IV. PHONETICS 

• 



p€tu 



sm 



tf7n 


)> 


n~IT 


J» 


"03 


>> 


-iru 


J) 


*?n 


j ) 


«ps? 


3 j 


*rn 


j> 


1 


j> 


|R 


ousa? 


top 


1 1 



2"U p-qyvvpL, 67TC-, 



n" 


j) 


pp n 


j> 


fn 


j j 


ra 


) > 


y-ip 


j * 


17 -*~lp 


3 i 






r 

15*7 



«»09, 



UJ 


}> 




era 


7t 




V^Uj 


7* 


> J* 




606$ 




, * 






^O* 


*> 




T*i 


>J 




i 1^ ti i 


* 1 








J ) 



in ptov 



n 1 



opo? 












id 



:-*_* Tj^epts- 



*n t'A^or (pi 



rnn 



I — -J I 



;!•* cAttcy 



::.i 



P7 


j > 






~-r"I 


vpos 


7' 2i 


€G>6ptOV 




Ik it* 


riye.Ofj.ai 




'(- 


ra) 


t&OpiCL 


<s^ 


ti 


r.irci 




J J 


J > 


>^^ 

!-•.» 










:~: 


) J 


> 


ji 






«?ru 


JJ 




j j 






nni 


>* 


J--* 


3 * 






rrin 


J J J >> 


yir 


1 • 






nmn 


11 * 11 






«A««/* 



u/f 



C^ 



IV. PHONETICS 
"f^n pu^ut T.XTD (L$ t Lac are !rrv 

' ^ — T T ' 

-** — **• * JE \ ' •«*-* 

n^w ')fiO<!-ioC ,,ij *.,^**-*-. * 1 '\ 

~*<* T ~ — <.-* 

/. r* ' ll --" ♦ > 11-1/ cj^ouc; 



— «.%*,^ 


■n^/ot'O^ 


*» *** ^ 


J ) 


■» ***i 


Y^OJ 




., ; £'*&' 


^u^rr 


3J J t^- 




ii ; j > 


x-" 





J J J > » 



.. '!r = x.r) 








* ** * 


)J 




~-p"? 


cjyrua 


***** ** v» 


' '*K r 


1 3 


*" pT.TC.QU.ai 


< -- -^ 




T. IT, * "*j ^ pvrpc. 


j -1 t t'r'OS 


w:C ^wIC i77770> 


:7-"< 


-- 


*- !■ ^ " ' 




t^Tfr::' 


"IT ipTTCTQV 






XT'" j> 


J 


OOtoiOV 


"=? 




€JTT€rau 


_<™ 




* *. * 



A//. Hibrrj: hornologues of nerds containing one of six dsvbie-sonsonants 
— T ? £, a*, cr, cry, 6 — suggest s if they do not actually prove, that 
eac;: oj these — uchen not altogether omitted — usas anciently pronounced 
:n one or mere of four different ways, that is: :' i ' both conzo nan's together 
as a digraph, 2, individual!)- and separately } [$ by dr:CO:ng the one or 
sl\ the other : 






»> i i i i 



■*■ ** V* *» * ■• * ** * *v*^*, •" 



IV. PHONETICS 



T T ^ ' 

™¥ 

is „ 



intf 17 "or fj\ 

7i -pa f^B,. 



™r. 


77 


r, ?p- 


-c£iJT7J^ 


*»*r 


fvLrTdj" 


■ T 


» '".or 


er^ 


. . 


*^L=J 


£ua^ot 


*?& 


TO^OT7|J 






-« £ 


imnV 


b Jtf 


B M 


T 





— K , 



nan 






"E+'J 



(3M"A- 






*^^i J: inr a i 



Lhm^ ct^cttv,^ -ttlc 



"H 


<T*f;5ws 


ntn 


p? 


r i=> 


77 


npy 


-_; 


i* 


_ip 


a _■ 




j^ 


>!■ 


it 


nn 


t* 


tn 


>A' 


j] 


4sr 


i l 



, DVT 



or tr! 



^ ■ ^ rrrrzAf.'LL^-, 



■; + }.zt 



HIT 1 fl"T?JAsj, frArt^ 

me- 



nritn 



>* 



nor 



^■Dj! 




i ■■ 


rs m 4 




■h 


rr^ 




JJ 


3"ftip T 


f l.-f7 T- s:' £■ 


ri-ti 




nn 


■ T 




■ - 


vv 




■> i 




gw 




•"PV 


... 




ire 

- T 


6= 


MT-};, 


7^**- 


f.ia7"ir/ct~cvi 



IV. PHONETICS 53 









( 3 ). Z.Y 






T~K 






,, 








G^t^UJ 


iTw7^ 


3 J 




i . j i w— ^ pCTTTat 




?» 


a i *w o 


H J 


-fjotS 


c^Si'ai, 


M-iH 


3) 




M 




paOiSturat 


pr.3 


J» 




cyoAc^oj 






^ <w v 


99 


•*z^ri 


m 




m^T <7^'oA7j, 


r C^ 


J? 


n . « 


>j ? 


ya.\r r 


yc^\T,i-q 


__J- 


: i 


t':acju 




V*,v-r (T^iuro^ 




trv^VAios* 


*T_* 


j y 


j * 


> w -r G^'lCti* 


n3C^ c^rua 




C~(QA€pQS 







Z~X lieu "7 r " ,"~D 6r}OtGL 



t : 



UC >— rV U£VOJ 



p" J3 K- ' -CC^cj J :_ T 1 C-r.GodeTniic 



r - - - i > j v j 



""i oca':; r ; *~ 

pi ,» ~ ZZ 






1 ^ J J 3 J I 



m ovxpoy 

t,^ mm. ** — i »* 

*^**»* * * * * — — — * 












I T T - ■ 



AY//, //i i£?m^ Hebrew homologies of Greek words containing double- 
letters \ these are severally vocalized and pronounced, a phenomenon not 
unknown in Greek and elsewhere in Hebrew. 



54 IV. PHONETICS 

J^l^-t (jTtuua 177^ €77t<puAAi£ yUl apaGuuj) pa- 

lit? „ w? ysirn „ , Pass. 

,, puAAt^CUj €771- 



-lD775n 7J *Oy 


\AtOur 


prj- 




VQ$ 




fsir.n 


> J 






' -* i 


J J J 








tyduflT} 



55 



V. MORPHOLOGY 



Generally, the forms of Hebrew words vary from those of their 
Greek homologucs : some arc truncated, others have one letter or 

more added to them, while some again undergo internal change ; 
some nouns conform to the Greek pattern, others assume what 
I have termed the prcfix-sufnx formation; on the other hand, 
some nouns which are supposed to be simple arc actually made 
ud of ewo words; similarly, some verbs which are suooosed to 
be simple actually embody the affixes of their compound 
homologies. 

These arc factual observations authenticated by a systematic 
classification of thousands of sirictly tested homologies ; and the 
following Prooositions or theorems methodically set out the 
morphological differences and similarities between Hebrew and 
Greek homologucs. They help the student to understand the 
intricacies of the Hebrew disguise in detail, and to set through 
it the original Greek reality — bearing in mind the zhonetic Pro- 
positions exemniined in the previous chanter. His success in 
* * * « 

mastering the theory herein expounded will be Droved bv his 
finding out for himself at least the thousands of Hebrew and 
Arabic homolcgues discovered by the author, which various con* 
siderations preclude from inclusion here. 

XIV. Sometimes the Greek homolosue undergoes cbhesis or zSkceresis. 



STTD 


aderttLj 




M 


i> j.^ 


Zcr^vpot 


I1UH 


SoTQV 




J J 


HIT 


<Dar€cj 


"x : , 


sri, yala 


L* y *r 




l J i. 1 1 


t €tt:- 


t-7 


y\<Zoca 


w y w i 


' ;» 


1 nt 


? * 


^ ***** 


CdGVS 




* ,. 


]KS 


*rT77i'07 


T 

2-~\ 




DID 

T f 




m:s 






i y 


mo 

• - 




mi 2 

px 


Ada?, Adty^ 


W 


J> 


NST 


depcrrt Jw 


ex 


Aaos 1 


lr^ 


>y 


b> 


73 


nox 


jj 



56 




*1\ 


Aaos 


cy 


>, j SVJjxor 


D? 


>» 3> 




Actios 1 , Ion 




\6yXT) (B) 


HTHK 


51 


- 




A n ~ 


11 


*LL_4 


Al/ITJV 


(rrn 1 


7) Ao^os 


rrn 


»> 


r 


M<V a ^ 




1 • , 




u^r - 


)I 


771 

t : 


)J 




n 


7jj 


j? 




jj 


7ns 


jj 




fieytQos 



V. MORPHOLOGY 

(P9> ^H" 

07X £avdo? 
HXT opaui 

TX TVpOOJ 

(1373 u Ui) „ 
Tl paxts 

Cp >» 

rn^Vi oreoos, cri^Liz 



mu**i 



( 1 lUn* 1 


j» *» 


jl-1*^ 


j> >* 


^ * 




4*J 


>i >* 


ijU 


71 5 j 


r-fUS 


j» *> 


rp:3 


j> »i 


n 


W?> r P € '~ 


7!m3 


urroKaraj 



. ! V770 



J>- 






^aAaxpos' 
<£Aoyt error 

)^tAtC9 
Z37*^ Jjpvofiai 

jjpOUQS (A) 



i T 

:r-7 

r 

i'V 



JfP\ iom/ Gr«-t homologius undergo syncopt 



rex 


a/JL7T€)(CJJ 


xna 


f$t8ptl)<JKU} 


m % i-j ^cj^aptov 




JJ 


nS2 


» J *CTC- 


("I?) 


<^-t^ 




C2S? 


SlW^hj 


T7 ^rpto^ 


^ — w 






1» 


m* ta^TOi (B) 


— — v 


>j 


man 

T T 


cra/pa 


^T5 KcrcKpoaouct 


^ ^ **^ 




1 




r ; 3/eti4pcy 


•*w -W 


jj 


^ - 


> > 


W«^4 * 






1123 


craipei'a 


v w o^Ofta 


** ^ ^ 


9 1 


irn 


j* 


^!Z^ 6pd6s 




sl/x^c'Bato? 


i2n 

- T 


^rarpoff 


n*TpD 7rapaw:aTa5Tj>c7? t 




>j i 


J^- 


31 


TrapKa^TJKa 




uerafiaivcj 


C? eucuwftos - 


P"R? » 


I" 


$aoav€v<jj, 


VlNOS „ 


"*i-N 7TT€p6v y -pl/f 










nnix 3> n 


pa 


jSaaaviajiOS' 


jLJi 


5> 


pw acvScj^ atv- 



T10 avvo&os 



m-i-SH ovpiy^y 


'77°^ 




* 
71TU0OS 




i "7 


tltBqs 






>i 




17 


n 




"77 


j > 




"V^7 TtTVQOSi 











V. MORPHOLOGY 

-13TJ7 mix 

Sopa aarvpcv 
* --* roayos*, atyi^ 

ITT7 ra vartpia. 

Tn? VOT€pO$ 



57 



721 ckiSajAos*, 
H7t7 iIi^vSrjyop€u> 



A'I'Y, 5a/7!^ Gw.t komologufs undergo a&ocobe. 



27m <£ui6cp, -Oa, 
****** j ' " 



^IC^OJ 



3dvx — 



Jr /— ^DCVYO'J* 



VCi^^O* 



n?C yahoos* 

I T ! T 

7S <5pocos* 

T2T e'Sur Alov, -Aov 

(n-ns ) „ 











3 ; 




-s 


5*rptQv 




™": U 


j? 




^ 


KCTTTCU 




^^IT.i 


" » > 


7730 a 


1 !-*".* 


!» > 


Kara- 


■ 1 _* * * 


>» > 


axry- 


— ^» 






■ i _» * 


>) * 


j ? 


*_— ,^ 






1 i^f « 


37 J 


;j 






T 


> 


(*~q) » 




/ y^T ICWcA< 


'"7 it? 


1? 


c*-'??? 


J* 


r-^ 


Jf 


— * -> 




'^7 '**"** 


J) 



)ta- 



<ara- 



Xclttttj^ 



ZX : 


-Jrrp 






d— 09 




f<?'*=\ 


j> 




T 


*£009 




f-^i 


: J 




/"2 


ruAo^ 




— ^ 


c.*co L'uotj 




n"T!^ D 




<?7j«-n, 


"2 


joOoei? 




-» * 1 


cgvti'^vs- 











j j 



p*7H oaXaxpos 
Xip odovt pes 

^TiX ^€ipOTrA7J^7J5 



58 



V. MORPHOLOGY 



XVII. Certain Greek Utters sometimes drop out of Hebrew homologues, 
mainly : 5, 8, k, A, v, t, p, r, 6. 



niO-i ai/8prj&tLv 



C^Xn ScStmca;v 



T ; t ' ' 



"*'?S^ &€K(lT€VUa 

***** StKareutu 



TZp S^^oud, crr:- 
~X StJuos 

f 



Jio/JAtjs 
TWO hkUKQvla 



- r** .* QlOOJUL, 6 — 1- 
y~T Sui'Scj (A) 



S V * 1 


) ) 


_ -.* 






: j 


Z7Z 


6:vciarr-r 




: j 


^ J 
< 


- i 


r - . r 


*"!'~1\S Gi"G,3<r 




-s , 




OiKzarai 


pn 








n^ri di;'€t'a> 



t TT1- 



w>^ 



■-JI.4 1 JtOVt'^ 



7 on 7* 



I'"' 






T 

~*~Z~^ BtOpQujLLC. 



> '-^^ 


btil)a$ 




«_ -k 4 






* * T 


» > 




TZ* 






r > 


5i'yto9 






SuOiTJ, 


-UJl f 


— — ^ v 






i it -. o 


j) 




[ . ^ 


0OKQ$ 

oopv 





J T * ' 





Sovaf 


• 


»^^«, 


j > 




"* 


5d^a 




^ * ■ ■ 


Sooa (A), 


XP^S 




Soocc-\t^ 




J t * ** . 


J> 




-*'X 


5opKcr 




--'X 


> J 




1 , ♦ .+ '■ 


5oi7(7 






n » 






Sor7jp 




•»"»1 

l^-# 


SoTOS* 




~ J . 


>> 




*si - 


S-;:\„ 





SovXrj 



V. MORPHOLOGY 



IT do^os, ayyo9 


f.x * 


JLTva/iiS 1 




Opayjxa 


n*rx 


}) 


V p-v 


G&C.KOJV 


rrrx 


tt 


r?* 1 


j j 




0<l)pOV 


ccn 


o/xxrt^at 


""3 


jy 


v w 1 


Spo'cor 


4 * M 


j j 


rx~: 


covV 


]1N OOU^TJ 




^7 c V» ;- 


rr;x 


M J Cf. 



59 



<7T€vayfia 
H7D pdSov 



^■j ' 






-***• - *; V 

r~7> :r;^G*Oi 



'I* 



CJCt'CJ 






t ;f 



(2).0 

"K^^"l dtpa—tla 

•"■'SSI 

X£~^ t?€pdr7€Vfta 

X£~i c?«aTTfirr7j? 

X£^* &€oarr€vuj 



£K- 



7 J J M 



7N 



V~X t'JcTTtJ 

i r " 

X Crptov 

~:~^ ... 

r - ^rpiajQTjs* 






* — ~:wc:-oj 



CTT L- 



» < 

r.LTH firpcuAt'ty 
..-*H rvpcuAos 1 
L^ cvpai/AJif 

■7N;*ir r r cupav\o$ 



$€Ou) 



^"i"T C7TpCt/C ! OS' 



Y^l 8l<t) 






'-0 /c 






yoi [dcupaKi^cj) 



p^^p dvjOaKlQV ^^"J? T€8<JJpaKt<7fL€- n jX /cat 



6o 



"•3 P |X k<v (*e) xai 
„ „ (it xal) 
2pT, KaxKafa (A) 



31 


KaKKaprf ^n 


-K3 


KaKKT) 


mK3 


77 


i lt\ i*/ 


KO.KQV 


ttjcm 


JV 




> J 




J j 


i*n 


KaKOvpytuj 


jrtiri 


; i» 




jca/coupyia 


n -J w **) 


» 


T 


Kaxovpyos 


r.irrio ,, 


XI !3 


KCLXdOlQV 


?c v, ?x 


*aAAtrrai7 


^rJ^ 


>ccAAi arcs' 


J~ 


*aAdy 


~-? 


kcAu^llg 




~Z7 


/caAirrrros' 


IIWU 


i > 


rs'"/ 


KaXuTTTOJ 


zzb 


j j 


r.s7 


)* 


rV? 


)i 


H /ti 


, *' 



V, MORPHOLOGY 

Hp^X K-arrt'ta/ia 
T]2X"n Karrvoouai 
"X -:a-vXc 

W 

"110 Kap77lC}l6? 

: (A) ^ 

r."in Kaprrcuois 
Zw^TT KaraSdrrTcj 
K1"7t *ctck-Ao> 

1TO KaraKpoaoiLCi 
Z*X1 *cpar 



~X KrrjS^ao^vcj 



T»\{ 




ir l 5 


)> 1 




KTjdifiujy 


***** \r 


% i 




KT.DiQV 


— — -**! 




i . . -* _ 


i ? 


1 — 


KiB tirAo* 


"~X 


KlLlLLtpiO 


**^ v* + + 




1 > ' - 2*, 


; 3 




K'U'C'CJ 


* ^ j ' * 


K'XT n >C0i 



Pass, 



eTri- 



rr2 7r: KdXviltts 



-^*? KOlTGptOl' 



j 

m11 Kpartvuj 

r :-i1 KpLBr} 



iw tfTl^CU 






i w *.- *cr:cucr 



1 -T 

I <■* - j j 

i _*- ^'CU* LLl>. :G": t 

"/ Aai*.<di 

*-^ Aeuwrdi" 

1~^0 T7tK*pci;*Lu, t: 

TX1 TTIKPlS 



■:6:. n 



T!3 


8pa77-€r€uaj 


~-1 


i77T€porrnt%" 


'V- 


KQ77TCU 


T-.t7 


Spair^TTj? 




TTrrrOi 


^ fc* ^ 
1 1 


„ , a- 


1 1 1/ 


*aTa0uxa> 


1 1 W T\rf 


3) 


-■*? 


J> 


^7 


€p7T€T0V 


«***<• *^ 




* ■ T 


07rAtT ^s 


H21 


rpT€p07T€V<JJ 


rx? 


/CaAl/TTTUJ 




ottAov 



iTrG;-^:^: 



>^ — V- 

7\ % Flaidv 



^ b v* 

w-N —CKTOU) 

"''it -ai-rjyupts' 
.""Sr „ , dyopd 

-- T7Cy C- a U'CJ 

"71"! — c j ayy *AAto 

* * . >> j <-*■ 

m~* rr-jcyyeAjta 

7"^- rc;araaaw 
-M^^ —zpauvK77}ptov 

*•**•«>*, / ' 

^ - * ■ rrcpcc/u y^j 

"7-7! "^-CCclIo^ -rr- 

i * * rf TT G 7 1 CJ 

rm tcuci?, dfa- 



V. MORPHOLOGY 

*X 77€l 

"I? » 

^*** . ^ * 

* — -• 

r ~: j * 

«* *■* * 

-* rr^na 



1—1 j> 



\ 



rroprcu; 



rrcpi 



*V rrtua 

*** ^ rrAcytcu<7t> 

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- j ^-;^ j* 

H^? €KpOT] 7 -pOOS 

r*X^ opccr^ 

Zr* iayci, -yri, 
? 7 ?7 7 7. PT/h a > 



TH ptvpa 

rT72"l Tj-rrtpoTTTits 
"-.!7^ q pacts 
]V~1 opaua 

oapaaictnjs' 

p" /ca^aa^io's 1 

""5KT 770^*009 



!^^ ayopcaua 



75 
VI. GRAMMAR 

XXIII. There are no less than four definite Articles in Hebrew } and they 
hornologize with and correspond to the Greek Article, 6, irrespective 
of Gender and Number: 7X, ~7X, FiX, Ti, ~7i"L 

^••-i/X Ez 13. ii, — :ji/7\ iiN Un i. :. . Nh On 20. ;, 
n~Xri lb 3. i2 J D"e;:Kn lb is. 2a, C^h lb is. :5.^nDan8. :6. 

(i) The Noun with the Article may be followed by the Adjective 
which Qualifies it, with the Article repeated: TiXn T7^n IIR 18. :g, 

nziicn fixn Dt i. 35. 

{2; An Adjective without en Article, which follows a Noun with an 
Article, is a predicate Adjective: TZIDI ETXHl 15 9. 6 : TiX ^KHi 
"TNv lb 25. 2, 

'3' Procer Nouns may take an Article : ""^ 7J\ c ZeC-i, Gn 1 7. ;, 

"ir rx ib 49. 25, "T"vu~nx lb 4. i3 ? r z % rx lb 37. 3, 

M^^.nri lb 2. II, *Z*D7/^U (^ kcA>Vooj:*cc ICh J.. 3. 

■.'4} A>hsirzcl Nouns taJ:e the Article: p~7-£ri Jei :. 20, H 70 Zp ~ O 
Eccl 7- 12. 

(5^ So do Nouns qualifed by a demonstrative Pronoun: TH^m PIT 

Ex ii. 12. run ~mn Gn 21. 26, □ sz"rr! n^x Dt 1. 1, 

n7Xn nzin Gn 15. 1 ; but only T\}/?7\ ^ZT^T] Ib 24. 65. 
(6; And Numerals: "IlKii Eccl 4. 9, Z^~n lb., rni ? 17n 

Gn :3. 32, nrun lb is. 31. 

(7; In Homer the Article appears generally as a demonstrative or 
personal Pronoun : "1117 ~X«: ~7nxn Gn IQ, Q, ~"X nTHX Ps 27. s 

(c£ r-nw 5* fvu; 01) AJcoi II. r. 20). 

(3) Frequently, without a Substantive, 6 stands for he. she, it: Kin 
Gn 3. 15, JCH Ib 38. 25 (cf. II. 1. 12). 

(9) Adjectives used as JVouns take the Article: *T2^il "pinXiTl 
Jes 8. 23, mnSCW ip3n I7Tir» V ?P DMEXH Thr 4- 5. 



76 VI. GRAMMAR 

(10) The Article may have a generic force, marking an object as the 
representative of a class: CiKm Gn 6. 7, TCTxT] Gn 8. 1, D^XH 

Ps 11=. 13, Dnopn Ib. 

(11) Sometimes the Article has a distributive force , meaning 'each* : 
rfrs? niD^q ^^? pi D'/pV Gn 45. 22. 

(12) ^ (neutral) Article may precede a whole clause considered as a 
Xoun: ~nx nNI-K? ^~X ,rm X 1 ? pIT^N TX DH^O 21D1 

275 ^n nnn nto: ~:rx l™ n^uan Ecci 4. 3: cf Ruth 2. 19. 

(13) o stands for the relative o$ (who, which) : ^2Xrj Gn 32, 10 
Dt 33- 9> ^HH Gn 2. 14, ^j/bn Esth 1. i, 22Z71 Gn 2. n, 13. 

(14) o A&i j jingfe general homologue in Arabic^ -J I, oj distinct from 
/A* particular -a, irrespective of Gender end dumber: o-J!, *!jl!1, 

(15) TA* compounds of proclitic 6 — ooe, <xrv€. o<rr€p t q<jt€ } oartr, 
dJScuvij — A<xr* homologues in Arabic as well as in Hebrew: 

ede, oaSe, demonstrative Pronoun: :i-As; L r present before one: 

this is or A^r* u HT Ez 41, 22; this nl Ib 47. 13, n! Gn 32. 3 

ii, nin lb 7. 1 iJu, nr?n, nxi ib 9. 12 ^i. rxm ib 12. 7 

^li y mTU, HT2, rNTS, r.X73, ni?X Gn 32. 12, ^nxn IR 7. 45, 

• Xm Gn 19. 8 n7Xn Ib 34. 21 frVli ; A*r* C7H Ib 16, 13; of 
Time, to indicate the immediate present HT IR 14. 14; now for /A*** 
twenty years, HI Gn 31.41; thus mTZ) Jes 56. 12, HT2 Jud 18. 4 
rXTD Ib 8. 8 IIS 17. 15; A:7A>r D^H Jud 18. 3. <L8t: here HT2, 
XD ; HD, ID. Note that ao : In coot, = £/7. 

o<rrr€p, (Ep. o7T€p as masc.) : /A* very man who ^wX Gn 3. 12, 

24, 44, 38. 25 Ex 32. 33 ; the very thing which *1E7X Gn 3. 1 7, 42, 1 4 ; 

which way, whither HrX'Vx Ruth 1. 16; where "ITO2 Job 39. 30 

Ruth 1. 16. ooye: irAo HT"^X Esth 7. 5; wAxrA HT"^X Eccl 2. 3. 

oore (also written divisim), in Homer also o re as masc. : like 

the simple o$ or oorts, freq. with a generalizing fo^ce; who HwX 
Gn 2. 8, 42, 2 1 ; which lt?X Ib 1 . 7, 1 1 . 



VI. GRAMMAR 77 



Sort;, on? masc. collat. form in Horn. : anyone who, whosoever 
"".TK Ex 20. 7, 22. 8 ; anything which, whichsoever "ICTKTSX Cn 34. 28. 
c^cor.'ti, i.e. o ViSajt't?, f/« Adonis HTil Jer 22. :8. 

(16} However, HN is attached to the personal Pronoun, and 
is almost invariably added to the ~H (Ex 2. 9) when the Common 
Xoun is in the accusative, unless it is in the construct: THX Jer 
2. 13, nrViX Lev 20. 24, y"lKn"TiX Gn r. 1 ^pIXT.X Ex 34. 24, 
rPij'r.H Gn 4. 1, D" , "Ti > 7 _ r:K lb 10. 13, T7~ *r:~7r'U ~ ! ^- 

Bat Hebrew Nouns and Adjectives form the olural as in 
Greek: a:* — 01 being- pronounced the modern v.av— olus 
terminal E. Yet v. TPX Jer 23, 23 and "TjX Zach : 1. 15. The 
dual is precisely the same as in Greek, the v changing into -. 

XXII . Tne Hebrew homologuts of some Greek nouns in the masculine cr 
ins janmine gender, belong to the same gender as the Greek nouns czn- 
cerned cr *j the opposite gender. 

( t ) . Masculine— Masculine 



— ** V 


<a:rvc> 




** z **. r! 


1 ' ^ T 


^■•* 


t:—r 


^;k 


C*Y3;i-Of 




|. .... 


>> 


► V ^ 


*r-— /Cf 


^:rx 


c . *; c ^ » rr 


'acL'Oo? 


•^ ^ ** 

W .11 


tjTrrr 


7 ? D 


c ^ ^ ^ * \ c 5* 


-tk 


Cvo:>cr 




^«^ ** 


L)UCC\CJ 


1 ^ 






^ t '7T 1 7 ? ** 


crr;9 


^JJjjs 


TLvicjf 




f^JC^ 


~" 


oT^cr 




?"v 


SpOVKO* 


^P 


hTTCOS* 


• - 


? 3 




J t i 


KarrvoV 


^*^\ 


^€C> 


T 


-L\>c\- 




1 




■j r - 


Cpo^c^ 




^C^^'.-TCi 




r .?3 


ftCTTTlS, -GTT,$ 


1 w 


auVo^cr^o? 


n^z 


* > ? 


Jax^J 




XirtLv 


r i"T 




*^ ^ 


?> 






1 v 


r:rrc'f, crr^c'oi' 


• 




"7J t?0? 




yLLULLOS 
>> 




JJ 7) 


pn 


(jji^os 1 




• - 


lttvo* 


*^*n^7 


/carra-Oi 




OU'OJ 




113 


1 > 






TiSQ 


ovo* 




*]10 


a^ou^o? 


^? 


TX'Ao? 


■vsn 


,""!^n 0**09 


10 -"H 


[5 <rqKQ$ 




J* 


_aJ 




J J 


-nzv 


TTUpO? 




d€<rxis 



78 



VI. GRAMMAR 



71p\2 tOi/OJj St- 

r»i^2 loToplo* 

TT,HZ fioTj 

*■ ^ ■- * D \ ' 
Ti^J ytuuta 



( 2 ) . /*V/7i w trie- Fern in ine 

rvp ^cat/ens' 

*^7D? fLayaSt^ 

717*0 cr m/K A €tV 

:J ovyKAetatr 
*ni* yaot£, -tf 
71XD yajt/ia 
,, OoBtj 



m72 QvXaxts 

M-Pp KOfltOKTJ 

~*X£~) d€pa—€ia 



I 1 -■ ^ V 



dous* 



]2~1"7X ooayu7j 
j N - 07 7 



i — 



OoayLtT? 



£l 



^7 



j^* Giayujv y TTujytLiV 
-' — ■_» ayK"ti-\ti 



(3)- Masculine- Feminine 

*-■— €IKUJV. KlUJV 

\ T ~ * 

y* *-■ v* •■* *^ ' J _ ** 

; r * t * 

^TD TTparri'S^i 
~p rrDarrtSe^ 



* » CtyiJ 

yAaC-f 



'i 



V. Feminine- Masr^iine 



r^r*x Kooti'oy 






iiw- porno* 



- Ao'yOi 






r : 



m*^ ^paoTTjp 

rt— Tin Jf 3 -I'cuSta 



VI. GRAMMAR 79 

XXV. Some Greek nouns in the masculine or the feminine gender have both 
masculine and feminine Hebrew homologues. 

„ r.rrn? „ "ipiP, -pitjv mra 



r.-C7y 






)l 


I"i23 


J J 


bzp 


31 


"iPIP, 


Ao^o? 


T 


: J 


rrn 


) 1 




? j 


11 J . - 


* > 


"2"? 


oiiiXos p=X 


3 ) 


r=? 


:i 




j> 




rrfitfc^ p^^> 


»» 




7TO Aft 


10?, Ep TTT 



l i*r * 



L'CiVC - i--* 



— ** ~ *** «^ 



/ *• — * 



flT-r^£oA71 7^H 7T03?U0S' 



J J 






»••* ^ ** 


:> 


t -: 


77 30$ 




ttolV 


"m*X 


,, T 


^ 



VtC-c^ 7**7 IV a 77 opo$ m I-* r , ] *'j 



AVl';7. TTz^jy ix ;ia n^i/fcr gender in Hebrew^ and the Hebrew homologies 
o*' Greek nouns in the neuter gander are either heterogeneous, belong to :ne 
render or the other , or abttear in both genders. 

{ i ) . Xeuter- Masculine 

aylac^a, -anjptoi', tprrtrov r \ m \V dv\d<tov ^5 

dy;ar€t'^a ~lpp €vpuxwpla TVT] :) "R? 

„ Tnp „ an-i «>« isw 

dSpoiaua "VI J? ,, ^JH -"i 



8o 



arto 



T7070V |V 3 

7ei X os p:i 



V ?1~)_ 



VI. CRAMMAR 




„ rra 


,, "^JX 


» ">7 


oU 


rdfei^a MO^TS 


„ ~3 


•idpos" ~15S* 


» 7r 


„ "^? 


" T ~ 


Oirrapiov -' uj 


„ ys? 


OVTOV - -X 


3 ■ T 



3-nuo.. rrc.ua, 77-fjfj.a 

ncnz 

0(x;UG i i^-1 i 



'2\ J\ enter— Feminine 
ivvQS) Idas mv 

r:aO< lov n d n 



i 
crxr/o-z ~*V? 



??- 



TTTx'ov 71^1 



V:. Xeuier-Both Ger.der: 



w \ ** -• V* 



Mi — ■ — 



J J / -^ ■ — 



yippov ill 

»* *^ « ^ 

*?oS", ^-, arc- wX 
1 1 i j- 



m\". 



TO e -Of it i "^ J 









— -*« -*, * 



J J 



I I — — 



ycptviic. r 



Sadwuc* cinn 

3<Lk\qv *??j* 



'4 *; « Xenter-IJetero^eneous 












r.vnst 
sti^t 

M *-** — » 

OLKTjfia S71Q 



VI. 


GRAMMAR 


> » 


my'73 




^Ci 


' t- 4 ^ 


* * * 


oktJvvuc HV2rj 


j ? 


rcns 




J? 


2?1D5 




i) 


nuns 





8i 






/ r 






:.-«l-f 



oxuooy, a*cotr SIS 



■^*, <*^> r^ ! 






CSS 

- . fad ^ W 



JJ 


msc 




J* 


1« 




)> 


3 "DIU 




19 


1 ■ * > v4 




J) 


** •» •* «» 




crriyo 


>, T€- 


T 


J J 


r*. 4 ^ 




gtt,3q 


£ r 11 * 1 




1> 


* . . 1 1 1 




OQ€Cp 






u 


4 ; j JV _* 




jj 






Jj 


« . * 1^^ 




>3 

T 1 


-«,— -, 





' * > — * 



„ -> i-* ,_ *7.* „ ...^w j^-> ;^'i ; ^ j ; ^* 

XXV I L Greek nouns of common gender have homology; zikick very in 

^cLl^Aos-, o and 17: epicene gender: ^22 Gn 2.1- 6-i. m. ; S v 7t: 
lb 24. :o, m.; (r,ip"-:2) =*?::: lb 32, 16, f. 

<rrpci-66^ J 6 2nd 77; TrC? Xu 22. 1 6, m., and "iIa Ex 2. 21, f., are 
^roocr nouns: "11Q2J Lev :a. =;, f. ; Ps 102. 3, m, : S^CS Lev i_l, * f. ■ 

crj/d, t : 7? Gn 15. 9, f. ; - "- lb 30. 35, f. 

ci$ y 6 and 77: t72? Ex 29. 39, S*TS3 lb 29, 38; srs Lev 3. 7, 
z-73 lb 1. 10; nr2? lb 14, 10, nrs? IIS 12. 3, rr;s Gn 21. 28; 
"T3 Lev 5. 6 (Lat. ovis). 

XX VII I m Homo logues of nouns ending in -45- often end ur/J: ike feminine 
sufix Pi or n, jt:^ ^r; mostly of the feminine gender. 

,, r;^i ,, , ytppov mnb <A-tV ns^?fi 

oAvcis nri'^q tJ „ mnb fJ rrps 

&<ppis,Sopd T7,rmx <Aaatf nVa ^^ai? en ,nsn 



82 

KauGpots mrjo 
„ r,x=n 



VI. GRAMMAR 
rrdAi? rn'3 



1 1 < 



K- 



-TtiCiH 






.VA7-V- As a rule, the Hebrew noun or adject:** resembles the s! rue:-- re ;_' 
its Creek homoloQue in the nominaiiie c^se: :u: in - con:f>/:^::::-:-v 'en 
exceptions , if resembles the stem as disclosed in the * en: live. 






t - ; r ; 



M 11 



- ..A^ 



^ >* ^ 

£A* ;B), aAo? "is 

ai'ycui' dv£p, i-jr * f ?gis 

]xsrj -in« 



yi'iTT, -I'C^'Of 



*rr:yov;'is, -tOO? 



W -«*\ I — 






Ot?> -too? ^"*"1~ 

^ ■** *^ 
? I — 

^-c^rru?, c:Sc? *T*': 



r ^ .^i . - i U- ■- <■) 



J:d, 



P 



- j -"?, ■■CvCi"' -* T — 

m 3 » ■ -r - 

T ! J » -" *_ - 

rvrrti*-, -(isJof, r^—;'?, 



^^?, C^'D, 



XV-V. 77itf construct is c by-product of the sujjix prefix phenomenon. 

The Hebrew genitive differs fmm the Greek genitive in three 
respects : it is purely attributive, the governing substantive aimes: 



VL GRAMMAR 83 

invariably stands before the dependent substantive or pronoun, 
and the ^overninz substantive assumes the construct state or form — 
with consequential changes, if any, e.g. mi Ez 37. 9, □Ti'/X ml 
Gn 1.2; iT3 lb 17. 12, Dpi?" 1 mB Jes 2. 5; TCT\ Gn 1. 28, 
fix" il'O lb 1. 25; CMD Ez 1. 6, DIHjI "j=3 Gn 1. 2 D^H "E? 
lb.; j1u2 lb 5. 4, pXH 'rvq: lb 34. 1 ; !71! lb 1 . 1 1, oil lb. 
The usual position of die attributive genitive is ber.veen the 
article qualifying the governing substantive and the governing 

Substantive itself, e.g. 6 rov ci-Spor rranjp, -n r<Lv c.:-cp<Lv -arpij. 

So it seems that whenever and for whatever reason the suinx 
prefix piienomenon came into operation, the governing and de- 
pendent substantives exchanged places, while the genitival form 
and function stood put, the process giving birth to the construct. 
Judging bv similar revolutionary and as ye: unaccountable 
changes elsewhere, those responsible do not seem to have had 
scruoles about such aDDarentiv arbitrarv proceedings. For thev 
relentlessly applied the phenomenon to compound proper nouns, 
for instance, '^XTtt in ICh 3. 5 is referred to as T1T*7X in IIS 

* » n 

: " -3" 

However, two relics of the original order have survived: 
T":S ,1:L*^ IS 14. 14— in contrast to 1~Z I^S job :. 3 and 
"'"IS lES IIR 5. 17— and 77Sr"7S7 Jes 33. 23 for ~V '~sT'J . 

A'A'AY. Tin dative case in Hebrrjc varies. 

It is either inflected or non-infiected, e.g. ]" Gn 37. : 7, iirni 
lb.; 71X Gn 1. 22, I^IS lb 11. 31 ^pcU. cpccce. 

When it is non-inflected, it is either accompanied or un- 
accompanied by a preposition, e.g. f1Xij""/>> lb 12. 1, 

•fixn-rj lb 1. n, "fixn^ is 28. 3, yisrrp Ex i. :o, 

V1XZ G:i 1. 22, ]Hi> Thr 2. :, (Hl^n Gn 44. 13; T^g Jes 

3. iq, 'n:rjiT ir 10. 2'' ci~iT is 17. 5.1. 

It must be argued that when a dative is formed with a final il, 
that letter stands for the suffix Se, S being omitted. But there can 
be no doubt that when it is formed with the preposition 'PX, 
then the formation follows the suffix-prefix phenomenon ; because 
^K is the homolo?ue of -&<■> precisely like the Latin ad, S and *7 
interchanging in Greek, and 8 and <• taking the place of each 
other according; to the vowel-consonant metathesis. Obviously, no 



84 VI. GRAMMAR 

metathesis occurs when *7X is shortened to 7, vocalization taking 
over the function of the vowel, e.g. iivn 1 ? Dt qo. 5, IV 3*7 Neh 2, 8. 
Now it is possible to equate €tV with "717 and 7X 3 but not with V. 

XXXII . The construction of the future tense in Hebrew resembles the 
Greek. 

The form of the future tense in Hebrew resembles that of the 
Attic future tense — in which the characteristic a drops out — 
except that the Greek personal endings are transposed into pre- 
fixes through the suffix-prefix metathesis. Thus: 

TTMTTCU-G-UJ n*Z~K 

TTltJT€ V-G-OV-Ol *""ri~Z~* 

In my submission, it is most, significant that in Arabic — ;c 
emphasize the futurity of the action or ccncitic:: indicated bv 
the verb — ^J^ is added, or its initial ; ~ :s afhxed e ^ 
J-*-4 <*>*-> <J*£> o^, or 'uj — , <jjZ — Indeed. I am tempted 
to think that o_w is the homologue of fc-dur.-Ci or rcC-mov: future. 



X^CXIII. The aorist exists in Hebrew. 

The structure of the Hebrew aorist resembles that of the Greek, 
the augment interchanging with "I. As in the formation of the 
future tense, the characteristic a drops out, and the Greek personal 
endings are transposed into prefixes which follow the 1 represent- 
ing the augment. This 1 — vocalized with ~r.Z, except before X— 
is called by the grammarians ~*Dnr! "!], because its afnxing 
changes die function of the structure from indicating future 
time into indicating past time. Thus : 

r t 
€-?TlGTSV-G-€ HS"**! 

(nozi-rri) 



VI. GRAMMAR 85 

(ru-non-rri) 

XXXIV. The Middle Voice exists in Hebrew. 

As in Greek, the Middle Voice in Hebrew is made ud of the 
verb in the Active Voice, plus the personal pronoun in the dative 
case. 

The Middle Voice personal suffixes are: -lig:, -jj T cai t -€rcu, 
-<j.€da y ~€<j9€ } -oxrrat. 

In my submission, the sufnx fiai stands for the renexive ^01, aai 
for cot, trai for avrtu } pedci for ue-Se, ea#£ for ae-de* and g^tci for 

The following conjugations of ep\oj and of its homologue *H7n 
illustrate the similarity between the respective personal termina- 
tions, although the tenses vary to accommodate the relevant texts. 

(p^o-uai *^""^j7^ Cant 4. 6 
*PX~v' cai ^P""}*? Cn 12. 1 

Yr~^'? Cam -- I0 

€PX-€tz-* *7~7pn Cant 2. 1 : 

€pX6-Ll€d<l -7 ""Vl IS 26. II 

€pX-€Cti€ rrV 127 JoS 22. 4 

Zpx-oi-rzi zzb is 1 ?! IS 26. 12 

There are, of course, examples from other verbs, such as: 
irinn Gn 13. n, TT7 uim Ez 37. 11, ?j7"nm Cant 
2, 17, ljm7 nnn Prv i. 22, p ^SJin Cant 1. 3, 1j7^KS lb., 
^p'np Ex 30. 34, DH7 1721") HCh 20. 25, ^-prs Dt 16. 18, 

nlTuZV Prv 31. 22, Y'^-P ICh 21. I I, "7 * - =? Cant 2. 10, 

^7 ^if7 lb 2. 13, 7p mp Jer 13, 1, "7 VTipRuth 4. io J 
CH7 2 v 77j7C IS 3. 13, CH7 i^pi Ex 5. 7> T|rnV: Nu 13. 2. 

JtlY.YI\ 7fl* Subjunctive exists in Hebrew. 

The subjunctive occurs in conjunction with: dv, £dv or ^ 
(QX), €l (DX), «, epic for aV ("D), ^ (|D), arrcuy (PS7), rrptV 

(DID), c^ (HD). 

It is used: in exhortations and prohibitions, in relation to a 



86 VI. GRAMMAR 

future object of fear or future supposition, and also to indicate 
that a thing will never happen. 

The first person of the subjunctive (generally plural) is used in 
exhortation, and may be preceded by eye 'hUH) or dyer€, ir- 
respective of the number or person of the verb which follows. 
Such first person may also be used in questions of appeal, where 
a person asks himself or another what he is to do. 

In all these respects Hebrew follows the Greek pattern, e.?.: 

□ "3^ niH 1 ?] H2H (Gn II. 3) — Czuttj [sic -Aivdevajptv -XU-dcv;. 
"]"7X X13X K]"nHn (lb 33. 16) — iaccv ue tlceXdtiv (sic) rrpcVcf. 

riQn^D rnx~ipn '2 rrm n2T~ ]d 17 n^inr: 7i2n (Ex 1 . io* 

— Azure ovv (sic) KaTacopiGtLutBa airrou$ y iirpror^ -Av^vi'df}, kgi rr;- 
<a dv crufj.fifj tjuiv rroAeiio^. "11 Cn "In 7X 7 [ /X iCant 4. ; 
— TTOptuaofJLai euairra) ; S1C j 77po> to opo* tt^ gil^ovt^. 1 \ \ u I ' ON = 

VoJSaj, Tt avT€povu€V 'cli KUpici), rj ri AaArcou^v ■ SIC; tj ti OiKa:cy- 

■fl^u«v; pmnn"-|3 i- "srir. soi i:eo r^xr K7 (ib 3. 3;-^; 

Oaytout (SIC) gtt cirov, ou>€ ^77 aurjGV€ avrsv. i:*a ur arroCai-T?Tt. 

*rrr nstfn etjit "]u2:;x ex (Ps 137. 5 -Ta. *V;AJcV—' 

IT Mil X71 Gli/T; ' Its "\ 7 — rc'Sc Aeyt: .<vsic* ccSatLd. 01 i^r- -t;- 

71 3oVAT) CLVT7J, OL'Ot €CTTCi. f !i\M — , '*, i_ * i/ : - - I I — A* ^ A 

i72xn sin Erinsiiix^rrcxi/i^xr ;ib :. 19,20":— *^<?i-.- 

d£\rjr€j koI €LGaKOVGTjT€ ljloUj rd dyad a rf> vtj oayect?*. ^a:' it u~~ 
QtXrjre, i^rjhe tLGaKOucTjr € ilov 7 ud^atpavfid; KcrtctraL. J^X^ m2 2X 
[Gn 31, 8) — 'EavouT'^t (sic) eT^. 72TX 2T3IH l"12ir ]I^7 
TiIjJQ (Nu 15. 40) — crocus ay ftvr>GdfJT€ Kdl rroLVG-qrt rrduas ra; 
evroAas pov. i\\y i.Nii^ lDilJ lj iL'J yer4,. 1} — rrpiv ttcltcl^- 
rr.y rdfcv 6 <Papc.il> 'since this verse is missing in the Septuagin:. 
I have resorted to a translation into modern Greek). 

XXXV L The Opialiit rr.ood exists in Hehrrx. 

There are two unambiguous examples of::: one garbled, and 
the other absolutely clear — that is to say : 

. - . ]H n ""Ql Nu ii. 2g = et fiat ytvoiro] thus: 1/ct, ^G/ftoi, ]T* 
yivoiro. 

1 is not the conjunctive letter here, and it is omitted in Dt 5. 26. 

nnXinfi in Dt 33- 16 is the homologue of TpaVoiro (con- 



VI. GRAMMAR 87 

textually, rpdrroivro) in the imprecation is K-e<£aAr)v rpdrrocro ijjx>L 
In fact, the text reads emphatically by repetition: nriX12ri 
VHN "TT2 ~iplpb} r jCV £X~17 May {these blessings) turn on 
Joseph's head, the head of the wished for among his brothers. This 
word is of unique construction, and unrelated to the verb K)2. 
Yet here again the LXX translates the phrase Hebraically: 

V\doiaav i~l k€<P<i\t)v*Iqj<tt}0 kcli irrl kqou&tjs do^acdei^ err* aStfA<Aofs". 

.VAT 1 7/. The dreser.ee of prefxes in compound Greek verbs is refected 
in constant Parallel metamorphoses and identical semantic variations in 
the corresponding Hebrew homologues. 

cSlcj "X zOtfj-rTjuL, Kadl<rrnui. "^ 

Karaodlujj crroodti-udiu "X gvviottjjsi "" 

KadcLQCU 7712 tTcU, OlKt^QJ I~ 

rr'jo ocj 72-7 ,7>2 x£C/i£aj, Karat-, cwo:<€u> 2*3"* Pi 

t<rrvoocj T-Vn ,7^2 KajCtauj, KtuOetLr 72 2 

*r€;*recj, -rjt'iTuj 7"7) eoca/O^aj, -oocj 7*22~ >723 



*rA{— tlj 211 SiaytAaaj, €y- F *rr£y-. <zn- 

'*rA/rr™f 72-! uerpta) 772 

daxAirrrnj 72} (JUuutTptuj 772 m 

€— ru; -~n-rl , 72-. ti xfvreo> ? vi/ycj 1 *-- 

eVxAtTrrc^ 211 K-ara*€fT€aj 712 

rrnvvviii 727 OT/VK^vr^a; 71277 

*;V;7r7?yvvLU 727 l<v€QfLai y dtyydvuj 711 

(rre'DvoLia: 77777 *^?0 Kadaci'iofj.at, do- } €j- : 
atr^^o^a:, cw- ^[7777 ^lPcwci'l; 7*1*7 

t*At'L : a^ ? cV- T7in (t?'x! Karappdaj 712 

CTT€tpCJ 77T S:5cj/^t 272 

>carac7rr€t'o<u VH!^ crrtStScu^tt -7277 

Kr^t^Trraj X27 rjytofiai ^3 

£7tu<ou?7tlj X27 ,X^277 i&TjytoftaL 1H3 

*ara-, *m- KH^n ,X2777 8iTfy€Q/xat 7^17 

&vu> ::: Trauaj nu 

KaTaSuaj 72C7 ,V2D a^a7rai/ai n^in 



/ 



88 



VI. GRAMMAR 



kXtjpouj Vnj ,*7U} 
i-TTLKXrypQUj v^flin 
KaraxXrjpov^icu /TuTtT} 

VO€UJ % €WO€<jJ D04 

i/CTCivtJt €7rt-, K-ara- ~3~ 

KaraTTjKcu, Sia- ^]r* *^PC*1 
Karc<i>€pu} T23 



<KQ€lta *iyi 



6vudaj f 51 ,PIDJ 
Staot/cacj ^p3 ,"?} 
£<£AAa, V^D} >?} X 

€fi3d\Aaj 3 Kara- TDm 
tfTiaoaAAtu ^Dm 

rti^i/^ii, rt^aj Dpi 
drrortta'^tt Cp.} 

tKTLviu cpjnn 

kotttcu, opvuacu *"lp_J 

€KKQ7TTCU, <£opVUOUJ ^tpl 

<i*ptu, 77€idin y v^ioco, rrpoaOtfxu, 

dva- KTJ 
Sia^pcu, <£vtp6w XT? 

CKKtXltjJ p^?H 



tTTtaeicj, aynzrtiduj, Kara-, Siat&epiu 
<fiuodtj -^3 

Xavudvcj mrj 

ejcAawaycu r*53 

T ■ 

errtAav^di/OLiai, -A^tJojiai H^" 



•r * 



arrocuAacj 



LKVtQuai y*q 

€^iKV€Ojj.ai y Kad- p~~r* 



KVV€W< ZOGKLJ 



1% 



€7tikuv€u>j KaraBoaKCj 
Kardywai TTJ ,jrj 

cuu^cj pri 

UptuGKLU ^Ci 

Gvcrpii?(7<u *^rz 

' * — •* -h 



€TTICKLC. 


->& :|w.j 


5v<u r 


1 1 > 

T T 


o^Sl'cj 


li tf (i 

t . : 




TTD 


Karaoc 




KOU€Ll> 


H. r -S 



CTLryKOUii^Uf 7^R 

rrpocrop^/t^ouaij auv- 
d€OJp€tjj ~ mt '~'~ 
Karadecuptcj *1^? 

~ T 

d tro or tXXtu, f^arro- 
parrrt-j -Vy 
€Tnpparrrus "**?0 



U" 



nVc 



89 
VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 

XXXVIIL There are hybrid homologies, that is, Hebrew nouns, 
adjectives i and verbs which ere supposed to be of simple structure but 
are, m jact, hornologues of Greek compounds or derivatives — often in* 
cor to rating their affixes , including -£cj — or of two se car ate Greek words. 
Similar!:-, one or two Greek compounds homoh^ize with two separate 
Hebrew words. 

]V~]^K v-ep<2)Qv Cant 3. 9 the upper part of the house, where the 
women resided [ — not, as in the LXX ? ©opc-cvl 

"7~I2 drrocrrarcaj Ps 102. 8 Stand aloof 

"7 "72 d-ccrraSd Lev 13. 46 Dt 32. 12 Thr 1. : standing atari 

L'Ti ipcrv€ti} Gn 6. 17, 25. 8, 17 Ps 88. 16 Job 13. :q, 27. 5, 29. 

18 lose breath; Slov €. breath one's last, expire 

1 i£m /*ll u€yd8vuo$ y C.v. 

^"T hvvrvyris, cruYTjj Ps o. io, 10. 1 8, 74. 2i unlucky, unfortunate 

*-*-77^'J 7 Ko-XAtocLrvos" ICh 4. 3 /A* one rrr.'A the fne voice 

^i 2:cvyr'r, €i;ay7j9, SL-avyr^ Ex 27. 20 Prv ID. 2 Job I I. ±, 33. Q 
translucent] of gems rPmrT Job 28. 17; bright^ clear; bright, 
shining 



• % > 



"± ,, ,, ,, Jes18.4Jer4.11Cant5.ro 

Hi! cvcycj Ex 5. i ? 23. 14 IS 30. 16 Ps ±2. 5 celebrate 

j JuiL'ji.LLL'ra aeccara. :a owra hx 1^, 10 c:r:-* decrees oracles' 
the illuminations 

nr fJ-owj Ga 12. ii, 14, 39. 6 IIS 14. 25 Jer ::. :5 Ps 48. 3 
Can: 6. 4 Eccl 5. 17 u.ell-grou;n, shapely, suitably formed, well- 
ordered, graceful 

h/TD Koarfrn^ Am 5. 8, Job 9. 9, 38. 31 «., with or without 
aonjp, comet 

"i£3 „ IIR 23. 5 Hos 10. 5 wearing long hair 

m*7 T7po<rXau3iiv(sj Gn 29. 34 Nu 18. 2, 4 Jes 14. 1, 56. 3 Ps 83. 9 
Dan 1 1 . 34 take to oneself as one's helper or partner, associate 



go VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 

with oneself, take as an associate (W); Dt 28. 12 Nch 5. 4 
borrow] TVfr, Til^H Ps 37. 26, 112. 5 Pp.- 19. 17 EccI 8. 15 
lend a hand, help, assist, co-operate with 

*7i2Q —XrjfLTjy ttXiJgjxt], rrXrjfjivpt^, -pa Gn 6. I 7, 7. 6, Q. I 1 , 1 5 

flood-tide] generally, food, deluge (prefix-sufnx) 

"1273 Xapcuv Lev 11. 13 Dt 28. 49 Job 9. 26 poet, for ^apo-oV; 
also of the eagle ! 'cf. ^g/x>t:oV, of dogs 273 — i"; 

*nC ouVoSos: Gn 49. 6 Jer 15. 17, 23. 18. 22 Ps 04. 3. 89. 8 ? 1 1 :. 
1 Job 29. 4 assembly, meeting, esp. for deliberation; also of 
private meetings or gatherings for discussion; pL oi political clubs 
tS^> or conspiracies 

E17C rno pddvfios Prv 11. 22 (pa, dvues) light-hearted, easy- 
tempered^ frivolous, careless; mostly in bad scr.se, taking things 
easy j indifferent 

CI 2 17 vTTod-qKrj Dt 24, 10-13 pledge, deposit, mortgage] c-I u-o- 
Br\Kai$ upon securities given D**w217 Hab 2, 6 

mD cWTfOi Jud 8. 21 IS 22. 17, 18 IIS :. 15 IR 2. 25, 2Q ; 32, 

34, 46 gz/tz fl/j attack, launch out against; c:. i-:yly.-0Lia: ; Gn 32. 2 
Ex 23, 4 Nu 35. !Q, 2! IS 10. 5 Am 5. 19 Zl£ Gn 32. 18, 
33. 8 IIS 2. 13 Ho/ 13. 8 Prv 17. 12 TI^I Ps 05. 11 Pry 22. 2 
r>D Job 5. 1 4 stan d faring , face in line of ba::le: ZZZ Ex 32. : 
Jud 5- 28 stay, pause, tarry (spurious, ef. cui-T^' 

!?2± ovvtjpls, t'So? Jud 19. 3, 10 IS 11. 7, 14. 14 IIR 5. 17 
Jes 21-7 P a * T of horses, of mules; generally, a pair or couple 
of anything 

"TSp, I13p aKa^c::^ Jes 34. 11, 1 j fill of thorns, thorny] prickly; 
aKavdoxoipos : hedgenog ^jj 

*X"1 dpci\aAxro9 Job 37. 1 8 mountain-copper, i.e. yellow copper ore, 
copper or 6ra5j made from it; a mirror of it 

nan ans? patios Hos 7. 5 *. asa mc 

7S7TO, D^bOT, p?173 ^aAaSrnjf Jos 1 9. 42 Jud I. 35, 15. 4 
Xeh 3-35 mongrel between dog and fox ^1*; 



VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 91 

y'*?in, riL"7in oAoupyrfc Ex 26. 1 Nu 4. 8 Jcs i. 18 Thr 4. 5 
cloths of purple 

nniri -a rdfi Job 41. 21 t6£ov. bow; in pi. also, bow and arrows; 
sometimes in pi. for the arrows only 

A'A'AYA. Homologies are of two kinds: those whose components are 
identical, and those whose components are equivalent. 

In the Hebrew or Arabic components cf the former, the letters 
and ooints of vocalization represent or replace litters m the:r 
respective Greek homologues; whereas in the Hebrew or Arabic 
components of the latter, there is no such representation or re- 
placement. Degrees of similarity or dissimilarity between the 
Hebrew or .Arabic component and its Greek counterpart in any 
homology are not strictly relevant; because it Is net resemblance 
but literal replacement that matters here. So much so that how- 
ever transformed the Arabic and Hebrew homclceues may be — 
ar.d some of them are metamorphosed beyond recognition — they 
rrtav still be identical with their respective Greek counterparts. 
i r.us '. 

I p. the homologies — HS '__—». d-/c~du> and r £1 1 ~- 1 1 t_lc cya- 

-zlta, all the components in each homology are identical; for 

the letters and points of vocalization in the Hebrew and Arabic 

homologues represent or replace letters in the Greek hcmologue — 

X/a, o'ya, -,,'rr ; ^/yaw'-ci ; T\lya, D/rrc, *J C ; " ya, V~a, pj r ; 

c : ya, . z. -a, . t/C- Similarly, Z^^'dya-r^rc;. 

""However., in the homology ,_ - __^/~u'7 "7"", ix ^ iycr^-roy, 

each of the Hebrew and .Arabic homologues is equivalent to its 

Greek counterpart and not identical with it: for the second v in 

^ does not replace any letter in ayarrn-rdj-, but represents the 

thematic oj in dya-du>, or the emphasis in , ^, as the homo- 

logue of ayarrdZoj, the Epic form of dya-dw. Similarly, the second 
1 in TIT and "HI — like the second ± in ij I .1— represents the { 
in dyc.-dZ.uj, the first interchanging with the y. 

Again, in mK"l/mSJ"inNn/opaau, ^^/^jL^'xp^a, and 
DV7n/nS"lD/nX*)D/opofwi, all the components in each homology 
are identical ; although ")XT) differs entirely from opaots, as do 



92 VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 

HiOQ from opafia and ^La- from xPW a > owing to the suffix/ 
prefix metathesis. 

But the Hebrew and Arabic verbs with the MV ]'<j lie in a 
special category, since these MV letters replace t:ie preposition 
iv which was added in very ancient times to indicate the reflexive 
character of the verb, a function now performed by the MV 
terminations: -/icu/^ot, -crai/crot, etc. This iv seems to have sur- 
vived in one or two verbs, e.g. iv-rqpiuj — a verb identical with 

A SDeciai distinction belongs also to the hcrr-oiccr*" X~I o«cu. 
because KB1 homoloeizes with the alternative verb from which 
come the First Aorist -nveyxa and the Second Aonst tjv^/kov^ 
while expressing the meanings conveyed by otrpcu. Similarly, 
U^TVf iBajiyiyvcuGKU}. 



XL. Some Greek words haze incomplete as well 2s czmpleie or quo. 
complete Hebrew homo I agues. 

dpyupis: n"ij, nn^S tj\io$: */X, *?~S2 r ""' "v.** " 

CC^TftU . irfto'ij, f\WM, **— , — * A riw *J_l 

c dc ; *n, ^, jl 77 c 1; v c - <jj I *^ , wT. . ^ w j 1 . . — > 

* ' . * — ~v>*^ ~-^ *-~_ _*^ — 

t-- 117] . t'J* «—V>lJ f ) - 1) , l~ • to r ~ S ** '' 

* t 1 _ , 

M ou ,, davaros: r^. n.T. "*::.- 

<5o' ow „ depa-elc: r.iC-Z^. r.-XSI. ""r. 



Sccrt- 






*^T> 



* ' •-■» ***** — »*4 *»■*-» ^-** H 

tCT^L'S* . i-, '"■-, ^- v , •'.:, j.^_«- 



J : t 



12. ny, TV, *s. Tp. -~x 

Scovs*: -"V. *?¥* N^I- "»*>~ . , _^^ „^ „ 

J:cV: ?n\ n^a : t7. llaiav # 

^ , -•-" ^rnSfucjui^ : T^X f n^X F *-^, r-^^ 

S.ooxw^ : "ppi, \\p-\Z. ^j; 7 ' -: '/ • . 

e^a: r:3r;. c?, njn Aay X a>w: t:?, np7, p7H 

^ J^ Aaoy : EX. n2N. IS'"? 

h-ctv K al i. : nrm nro M«V a f : ^"J- 7 " u - "IV- '1*? 

c>i'C« : :n, nn /xt/epdr: tvj, T^f isr?. nyp 



VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 93 

pvplot: mix un, man, nzz-.^ <7T6pa£: ns, piin 

•j ' . — **v? — , 1vr - -*».♦* v^.*.*** i truces', — cltvoo^ : ""*.>^\ "Vl*7 

-^09: TS, TS, T13X f Ju-^ rpoxoV: "". ^«, 137. J^' 



« _j _ , , k ^ *_ 



1 .,/ 



-.W^o* : JIT?, ^7?3. C3??. =27^. OapuaK«t : f : m; 

-ooiffuo'?: 7,'yz\ n'73-1, r. i 7--'.^ Cofi-tf, 0o-: ", ".'Z2. yszz L? — 

f ; v - - ■ - 



/i J_ 






?-■ -f-- ■ -r- -"-• -- 






LrrjOii^ta I 7^7, , ^-^ , **^7, -Tj"I 

ALA .-1 :rarJ ^ o/;^ Iannis* mcr have more than one ho^olo^m in the 
olr.ir. 

Such a word in Greek rr.av have more than one horr.oioeue in 
respec: of one of its meanings, or in respect of several meaning:, 
:fic bears more than one, e.g. Sat^, ottXov. That is why ancient 
Hebrew mast have been richer than Greek, but most of its 
vocabulary has been lost. Witness the wealth of Arabic, which 
iias been jealously preserved and guarded. 

But such words in Hebrew are mostly homonyms; otherwise 
they have homologues of uncertain genuineness. It is very rare 
indeed for a Hebrew word which is not a homonym to have more 
than one definitely genuine Greek homologue, e.g. wS7/^u^jj. 



94 VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 

XLIL Some Greek words, supposed to be borrowed, are transformed 

Hebrew and Arabic homologues of other Greek words. 

* 

d3a- Tpo^os ; rpoxoz docs not exist, but rpoxot is Cotter's wheel, C;^X 
Jcr 1 8. 3. Furthermore, the homologue of the homonym E"-X Ex 
l, 16 is dmj€i£ : (o^rrj) with a hole, Sl(*>po$ d., he. an obstetric chair. 

dSayva- poca dfiapavra, unfading roses. 'To fade, droop, wither 1 in 
Arabic is ^J, the homologue of which is cgU-cj: decay, wars. 

dSaprai = ttttjvclI, winged. 'Wing* in Hebrew is "X Ps 55. 7, H^IZX 
lb 91. 4, the homologues of rrripv^ ; wing. 

d£ds* cvyOrjs : simple, silly; also = Upd waoj, epilepsy. 'Silly' in Arabic 

is j^-i, the homologue of aptiys, not clezer, cull: and 'epilepsy 1 in 

Hebrew is flw IIS k 9, the homologue of d£cro$ — d, -di-o? a 
plague that hinders walking l i.e. gout — and or ct^c'suc'-lio*, spasm, 
convulsion. 

dS&tXav, djicWov' Tarretvov'. downcast, dejected: "X Esth 6. 12, homo- 
logue of dfifJXv? : dull, spiritless. 

d3pa, d3pa: favourite slaze; "^rj/mzn Ma! 2. 14. :::c homologue cf 
iraipa: companion, courtesan. 

cfclr i-ivou> : Aflw :n 77:1^2, intend, purpose; ^VX ?£ :22. 13, the homo- 
logue of ota;, culu, oul;, oiouai : forebode. £rfsa~e: 'rear^ '.r.ter.d. 

dydv\-a- d^ia^a Upd: holy, hallowed 7 consecrated ua~:n riTIV IS 6. 7. 
homologue of kvkac [kvkaos: wheel; in which sense the hetercclite 
pi. <uicAa is mostly used , calling the whole by the par:. Corrobora- 
tion : kvkXosj"?*12 Xu 3:. 50 ring, circle; kvkAoz w ^ v f: -I <l'*Aq;uc:' 
T:>5 IS 26. 5 that which :s rounded into a circle su:::x -prefix meta- 
thesis) ; €ukvk\qs!*?VJ IR 7. 23 welt-rounded, rzur.d, 

dyypL^tiv* ixfratptiada : dimmish gradually: subtract, deduct V~U Ex 5. S, 
2r. 10 Lev 27. 1 3 Dt 4- 2 Eccl 3. 14, the homologue of gij^ — take 
away — and 60-. Quite apart from the fact that the spirit us as per 
exchanges with i — e.g. vuoaj/ri-l Ez 23. 2. 3:. 5; ;£d> \1+ Lev 2:. 

20 alpiuf actually = dyptuj. 

dytp&a- dnios (pear- tree], dy^%nj (pear-tree, pear] ; j^^[ ^r^d[ 'pear. 

pear-tree', the homologue of oy^nj. 
d-sTiparos : stone used by shoemakers to polish women's shoes: v*^. 

'stone', the homologue ofrrerpos: stone. 
dyjcraAia£«r dyx<L' squeezes, esp. the throat, strangles, throttles; ]V-?£V 
Jes 27. I, derivative of non-extant *?p*\ the homologue of dy\u> 

or xar-. The extant bpJS Hab 1. 4 is the homologue of <ncoAid£of : 



VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 95 

to be crooked Vdo IIS 15. 31 V27 Gn 48. ^VscnGn 31. 2O; c*oAi- 
atVouci, Pass., £r0;f crooked bzzi IIS 24. 10; cf. cy^tj'pin. 

dyptvrd- vjiplZei: treat despilefAly, outrage, insult, maltreat; rpn IIR 
19. 22, 'insult', homologuc of vSpl^co and *ct?-. 

cJ«,U€i- Ko\aiciu«.\ flatters; r??, 'praise, glorify', homologue of dAoAu'Cw: 
cry a-/:A a /W voice, and aycLUw: glorify, exalt, esp. pay honour to a 
god PS44.9, in. 1 Pp.- 31. 28, 31 ICh 16.4 HCh 20. 21,23. '-> 30. 

2 I . 

a^o-Wc = yiA^pov: depilatory; ^TT Lev 13. 10. 'hair': m:,T IS m. 4^ 
Job 4. 15; homologucs of ;V/ ( *i?opa: heir, hair :'" the head. 

aiavlrr^ : horse medicine ; ;?* Ez 23. 24 ; oU^., "horse' ; homologucs of 
oyetos 'r^rof) : Aon* kept for breeding ; and o;^c : cf animals chat arc 
ridden. 

afe're- ^naaVrj: /«/*/ S^/--; ~n Jes 47. 2, 52. :o, "bare, uncover', 
homo:oguc of yvuvoiu : strit; Pass., left bare; mctach., lay bare. 

*Z-XVi = oxXrjpos (hard; s:if t unyielding; of light, strong; of wind, 
strong; of persons, harsh, austere, cruet, slubber-: \ y^u-d> {difficult; 
hard to do or deal with ; dangerous ; of ground, difirui:. rugged ; of persons, 
hard to deal with, cruel \ harsh, stern) ; pTH, 's:ror.s\ horr.ologue of 
Zc:(upc;: strong, esp. of personal strength _\u =3. 3: Jos 14. m ; cf 
things ;-ind; Ex 10. :o, sound;. lb 19. 16; c: arm ies Jos 17. 13 
of weapons Jes 27. 1 ; ccwfrful Ez 26- 17; severe hunger IR 18. 2 
"£, 'nard, ditlicuit 1 , horr.ologue of ^oA error: severe, circuit, irksome 
hard, dangerous, cruel, harsh Ex 1. 14, 18. 20 t 32. 9 15 2C. io f 25. 3 
IIS 2. 17 Jes 27. 1 Cant 3. 5. 

d^it-oi- KuKvot: swans; jjj 'goose 1 , ^^ }j[ ^wan\ homologuc of 
tTjrra, v-rrcrcja, i/aaaa : u'lf^ <-~. 

gC^o^i- ;rpfitv€t : parch, dry up, homologuc of "IT £221.3. 

a£tYa- rrdr/iuva: beard; n"TV Lev 11. 13 Dc 1^. :z; 'bearded vulture 1 
homologuc of rrujyujiias : bearded. 

a^roV c-fiaard*: venerable, reverend, august; "-", 'good, kind, pious*, 
homolcgue of ^p^ard*: of persons, ^ootf, esp. in war, valiant, true 
Ps 149. 5-9; generally, £*></, «*«/, awtay; ot good citizens, useful, 
deserving Ps 16. 10, 32. 6, 43. i, 36. 2, I 16. 15, 149. : ; of die gods, 
propitious , merciful, bestowing health or wealth Jer 3, 12 Ps 1.15. 17. 

crSaircro^- r^^'owi. There is r«ixtw: U'<i// of a building; J\r\ Ez 13. 10 
and iJU. are homologucs of both t( ( ^'o^ and drSt^Tcro*'. 

alpaTT) = XcKdvTj: dish, pot, pen ncn Gn 21. 14, Kr^nx Esr 6. 2, 



5 6 VII- GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 

homologues of dyytiov, --qiov: vessel for holding liquid or dry sub- 
stances; of metal, jars or vases; box for pctitions. 

a"£: goat; in pL waves. It seems to mc that the Greek sailors used to^ 
hear their Phoenician and Israelite colleagues speak of 'goals' as 
C^TV Gn 32. 15, a homologue of aff ; and of Shoppy seas' as C*5 
m3jes43. i6Nehg. 11. Hence the confusion of one with the other; 
otherwise, there is no apparent relation between them. The homo* 
logue of 11? is laxvp6$ y strong y violent. 

aloXldas* ttolklXovs [many-coloured, spotted, pied, dzppled\ of birds and 
cattle) , Ta^ets- (of motion, ra:\ft, fleet \ of persons and animals). Only 
through Hebrew is it possible to justify the conjunction of these two 
words and their combined semantic relationship :o the third. Tims : 
first, Vk Dt 14. 5, mTX Gn 49. 21, and "'X Jer 14. 5 arc 
homologies of aio'Ao?, ^, o^: quick-moving, nimble ; generally, change] ul 
of hie, sheeny] speckled, striped (W) ; .4ToAoy, o, the lord of the winds, 
properly, the Rapid or the Changeable r.V'VX ?s 29. 9 ; then, r" 
Ex 25. 5 Nu 4. 6 Ez 10. 10 is the homologue of rz\€^. So that the 
coverings of the Tabernacle and ladies' shoes were mace of mottled, 
speckled, and striped skins of gazelle, giraffe, and zebra ' Eccl 1 . : o\ 

axtpa- €j--5u/za r: 77oAvr«A*V. - certain very cosily g.imenl "/ Zach II. I 3, 
homologue of <pir6$ : choice, excellent. 

c-KpoSucria, r), foreskin. I rescectiuily agree with the Greek scholars who 
think that this word is different from its quasi-syncnym, doo-oc:^ ; 
and that it is derived 'from expo* and a Semitic root, cf Bab. bid in 
1 'pudenda", Hcb. bo sheik * 'shame" . . .* But this is only partly right. 
The completely correct and full explanation follows, na (Jer 
43. 39} is the homologue of atotoaci : the initial Z stands for the 
spiritus Icnis, and V replaces S. iTT^Z (Ez 7. :3- and ™z (Jer 7, 19 
Zeoh 3. 19) are homologues of aZStLs, TZZ in Zephaniah bearing 
the other meaning of cu3c^, i.e. reverence, awe. recpe::. Bab. bidiu :s 
the direct homologue of aicotov; but its equivalent in Hebrew is 
the indirect homologue by the suflix-prcflx process, Z~Z*2 (Dt 25. 
11), characteristically in the plural. But dxpczv^rrlz indicates that 
the direct homologue most probably existed in Hebrew as well as 
in Chaldean (cL T&Z IS 20. 30). However, one thing is beyond the 
bounds of probability and as certain as anything can be, and that 
is that aKpofiuvrla is not a mongrel word, hail* Greek and half 
'Semitic', but pure Greek partly camouflaged. 

ilrraotrov to S^crftujTTjptov prison), Hsch. (fort- drrXUiroy 'camp-pnson)). 
Hesychius was right : it is not drrXlKLrov, but drracir6y : the homoioguc 



VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 97 

* • ' 

of ,^r^- Similarly, iipov (tTrrofiat)' to 8€afion]pt.ov. 'tbov — whether it 
has or has not anything to do with Z-rofiaL — is another homologue 
of,^-^ i itself the possible homologue of drroxXetcis : a shutting up. 

G.77Q&QV fipabv [stow), d-o&ov is the homologue of «-^y=-r {'slow'} which, 

in turn, is the homologue of BpaSv*. 
aDaC{TjG)ei' 3opv^a€t } rapdqtii — "Tin IS 14. 15* 9opv2<<^j: make a noise, 

ubroar, or disturbance, csp. of crowds, assemblies, etc. ; trans, confuse 

by noise or tumult] 0opv2<L±ouci: Pass., to be troubled *-*-^>[ ; rzzdccuj, 
-ttcu; also Opdccoj: stir, trouble "7"!" IIR 4. 13 'VD ]c< 24. :o ^y^rri 
lb. ; agitate, disturb, throw into confusion ~H*S Ps 74- =3 ""?")? job 16. 
12 ; «X7 confusion, throw Into disorder i'TD Ex 32. 25 Jud 5. 2 Prv 1. 
25; cf- dpaSotj inf. 

cpcccs, o, disturbance m^rj IIR 4. 13, the homologue 01 r:jc\-rj : 
disorder, panic nr.n IS 14. 15 IIR 4, 13; physiological disturbance or 
u&keaicl 7^r\*7T\ Jes 21.3; political confusion, tumult, and in pi. tumults, 
troubles rrtrytn Ez 30. 4 r.^Vs Jud 5. 15 rviy^D lb 5. 2 "i"? Dt 32. 
42. (Prob. onomatop., like cpofo*.} My contention, however, is that 
this is no: an onomatopoeic word, that apcSor and zpSza are kindred 
words, and that thev are Greek transliterations cf crgnaie Hebrew 
words of Greek origin. 'Jpt*. -cc$: n~in ? inf. 

cjjcci B' , r, 'dpaplcKoj) union t leve, Delphic word; * d- 'love", the 
homologue of 0^9 : lore for, desire for. Cf- fpcy^eVtc;-, rj : : ;:.'::<? /a: 1 *, 



:n:ng. 



[war, battle, fghl\ : w^ ('war, battle, -gh:^, the homo- 
logue of rrdAfjior or of /ptf, or of both; *pi* : J'r.\'V, quarrel contention 
-" Gn 13. 7; mostly, batUe-strfe n"i"in Jer 30. 5 "7 Zach 14. 3; 
generally, quarrel, strife', less free, in pi. ""1 Dt 17. 8; -dAfuar, —to-: 
xcr ":n:: Gn 14.2 Ex : 7. 10 Nu 10. 9 Dt 2. 9 Jud :3. : : ; battle, 
fght n.^r;7t Gn 14. 8 Job 39. 25 HCh 18. 29 T-": Gn 30. 3 "7 
Pi 144. 1 Job 38. 23 Eccl 9. l3. In general, homolcgues — like 2 % ~i 
and -"*?, m"M and "n7n — differ cither dialcctaky, because they 
originate :n different tribes ; or developmental!^/, evolving through 
a process of semantic differentiation. 
dppaBiljy, 6 : earnest-money, caution- money, deposited by the purchaser and 
forfeited If the purchase is not completed; generally, pledge, tamest 
ri2"jy Gn 38. 17 mny IS 17. 18 Prv 17. 18 OjjJ*; the homologue 
of pCoiov : surety, pledge; property or person seized as a pledge or compensa- 
tion p^s, d*ij*, nnnrn IIR 14. 14 -c-*j ^j. 

6«4CTT E 



98 VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 

apros- $6\o$\ net r.^1 E2 12. 13 Ps 9. 16, the homologuc of dp*vs: 
net, hunter's net. 

dp<f>a' appafiJjv (i.C* drrnc. n".-T ; :._>, . i; . ; >-; r ^.r. ::.p. 

dpx^~ dppaBu>v: vs. dppa3u>i\ It is submitted that possibly dp\<i is n 
variant of dp<$a 7 sup., and a homologuc of p vciov : because the spiri tus 
asper sometimes turns into a vowel, e.g. do>Oid> <::>a*5id> ; the 6 in dp6a 
— like the £ in dppa3<Lv — interchanges with i, while 6 interchanges 
with x — like - with * — of whicii they arc the respective aspirates, 

dad^tv \v77cio8at: grieve, vex: JJ^, the hoir.c!og::c of -*:-tVw: bene:'., 
lament, mourn, 

laihov* ipiuhkov. epcjCioi : heron \ ^"T'Crr Lev ::. :o jer o. 7 I ^ 10:. -7. 
But m^Dn/^eyaff arpovdoi, ostrich Job 39. 13. The contexts leave no 
doubt that mT'CH was uszd for the stork and or heron , as we!! as 
for the ostrich, 

daix^p' Bqtikos: inclined to give, giving freely, jr— "generous' ■, the 
homologue of dodovos : ungrudging, bounteous. 

dcuoctf dyvoti, cvcttv*?. dyi-o<? : go wrong. m*»:£ -2 false step) to be 
ignorant of what is right, -id imiss\ ~TX Lev 4. 13, 27, the homoi^gue 
of cyvocoi or of ddtrcLj: deal treacherously :i:tk* bre-h J±:ztk :c::li "T-- 
Ex 21. 8 Jud 9. 23 Jer 3. 20 Ma! 2. : :. 14 xrn Z>: 32. 33 Lev 5. 5 
rrs IIR 1. 1 Hcs 3. 1 ; Pass., to he ;— e :f :\e *egis:er rrs: Prv 
l3. 19; dya-mit: hreiihe fcrlh ~r: JeS 42. 14. 

carra*^*- o*Aoo*3di*ar> : ^::rj^ ; to be h:r.j.y r::.T-V2; ;t. i l :OJo;toj;ui. 'J : ^ 
0/ a /;:;:<//>-, cheer f A lender \ ±±<^. 7 *-vl \vi:h gaiety, with cheer- 
fulness'). 

drad-nvtov tXvrpov {ro f severing: bo:c-c.:se, shezih ci a spear; p: IC!: 
21. 27/077*77: (rt(?p^;" sword sheath; ci. l^-r: belt, girdle, prop. :/:* 
/oxtfr girdle worn by women just £5 or* :;:* ; :;r; ""£ Jcs 3. 24 ; 0: 
men on the march, belt jTX Dt 23. 14: mans i^/r ,:nore frcq. 
l^<m\p) Tin IS 1 3. 4 rrz~ IIR 3. 2:; ;he :-.: cf barbarians in 
whicii they wore the dagger IIS 20. c. 

oi 

cir/*iV dXyeivifeel bodily //<::«, J^rr, £<r :VJ ***/■ ; W: r.w! of mtnd, grieve 
*jtij /^_jl ; both homo!o?UCS of uAy«tj : Pass., r6v dXr/ovutvov Jodt^-a 

nsn ]V Prv 25. 19- 
dolop- fitya, ttoAJ: fitycy (srg) j— 5 ('big';; rroAw, -oAv •//uz/y, murA) 
^if ('many, much*;. The spiritus lenis changed into J, and the 
a in dt drops; while the remaining - changes in one case into ^, 
and in the other into ^. All according to rule. 



VII. GENERAL PROPOSITION'S 99 

GRAECO- ARABIC HOMOLOGY 

The fact that Arabic and Hebrew arc sister languages has 
often misled biblical exegetes, owing to the vast vocabulary gap, 
real divergences, and deceptive similarities which exist between 
them. Only reference to Greek can fill or rather bridge that gap, 
resolve those divergences, and explain those similarities. The 
following three Propositions adequately deal with the problem 
in its various aspects. 

XLllL Tru Propositions governing Graeco-Hebraic homology apply to 
Arabic as well as to Aramaic — due account being taken of the differences 
in the alphabets and localizations . 

These differences are: ^/T! (o, fi), ~ : ~* '-, "",, w -^ ,^ ; -V , 
^ '!>, E\ i/1 {^, 17, a}, and jj which is pronounced like 2. 
Clearlv these six additional Arabic letters are variants of letters 
common to both alphabets. Moreover, ^>J, -, is the equivalent 
ol nri? ar.c f^p T ; j—j, ', oi fi-p and [O^i ^ — . . . oi y m„. . 
and jjC, °, of the enclitic X1~. Arabic has 7.0 equivalent of 
r'7'n, 7".3, Hi, or the independent XV- ; »°r does it induce 
in its aiohabet a letter symbolizing the sound oi - or 2. 

1 

-_.. -X Trcrr j - ■ -i T , 

-0\? ~;v?n rp*r> i^w pns Ka;(^u 

• - " *. * 



XIIV. Creek words frequently homologiz* u;iih Arabic words which dujer 
from their Hebrew fellow homologues phonetically, morphologically, 
and: or semantic ally. 

This is due to the following reasons: 

1. The Arabic homologue may contain a letter which does not 

figure in the Hebrew alphabet, e.g. *axa£cj/pn^/^*J>, rr^W/ 



ioo VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 

2. The Hebrew homologue may contain a point of vocalization 
which does not exist in Arabic, e.g. oroj/TIEn/jL^, p 7 T 7 7?' 

3. An Arabic word may omit one letter or more of its Greek 
homologue, which its fellow Hebrew homologue does not, or 
vice versa, eg. aya-G^GHX/^^, Trvpcai, ; n717/ U-i, Aapir/f:T7 ' 



4. Such Greek letters as are not omitted by an Arabic and i;s 

fellow Hebrew homologue may be replaced differently in the two 

homoiogues, e.g. paycrCn^/Grn/r- J, ^pcnUr'j^; 

^_> 

5. The Arabic or the Hebrew homologue may have a pros- 
thetic letter, whereas the other has not, e.g. Spa^7j/]3"*!*TK 

6. The Arabic or the Hebrew homologue may have a ter- 

minal letter, while the other has not, e.g. Adptr/f/y?',>,iL*. 

• ^ 

■ kl^ 

7. An Arabic and its fellow Hebrew hcmclogue may dire: 

as regards prosthetic letters, if any, e.g. coo*. Sopt>, 5opd r7TX 

3. An Arabic and its fellow Hebrew homologue may differ 
as to the terminal letter, if any, e.g. c— -^ riZ*J' ? ^ ? -ov 7 X 

9. An .Arabic word may homologize with, a Greek word as 
regards one of the latter's several meanings, while its fellow 
Hebrew homologue — whether homophenous or otherwise — 
homolo^izes widi the Greek word as regards another 0^ iu 

meanings, e.g. £-npaLvu: perch, dry up 2"1!£ ; drain dry ^^: d— 3- 

ct/AAoj: divorce H7r; "j r «J^i; S.Lpo^: ^:V7. present, gift of kori^r 

712*7 j i; rof::* offering or gift to a godnZIl, 7*7]; hand's breadth. 

palm, as a measure of length mi _;. 

10. An Arabic or its fellow Hebrew homologue may belong to 
the prefix-suffix phenomenon, whereas the other does not, e.g. 

P<jju6sjTlt22i *l* (from :, an obsolete homologue of fidtu, with 

a MV <j; but there is ^Jl, the homologue ot dva3alvoj } go up, 
mount) . 



VII. GENERAL PROPOSITIONS 101 

i r. An Arabic or its fellow Hebrew homologuc may have a 

MV 2'j, while the other has not, e.g. /^fidi/HE?/^::^ 4**9°*: 

12. An Arabic noun and its fellow Hebrew homologuc may 
belong to opposite genders, e.g. ^ai/ids/nO?/^, x/kW^T.*/ 

:?. An .Arabic verb and its fellow Hebrew hoir.oloeue may 
belong to c:::ercnt scales, e.g. u7'J/ U — joaciAeucj, -a^u. 

ATI". Subiect to Propositions XLIII mid XLIV, en Archie word end its 
Hebrrx homclcgue share a common Greek homologue. 

t 9 

ZX *\ uTTT.p ^J J*l Ptpl&UtYOS 



f k^ 'J 



1 



^i*o; VIZ 3 trr * 

rrcipoj yzS J.Lj ycoii 



ZVO$ 



I 



"^ *J-Vr* XP €C > 






;:Oi 



—j r.*.caroy 



^77 -^ — j SacuWcj 






ypadcu 
=ca:.W>- "ll<n -C_I cviov, Bcco: tC'kov 






102 
VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

XLVL Verbal adjectives end in -ros, and their hornolooues are regular* 
formed on the scale of *7i!7D "jIPD, or its equivalent. 



is 



dSaros: nnru Gn 24. 1 5 Thr 5. m Jw untr:dden; rnetaph., pure, 
chaste; cl. ttojAo* [-t<Z\o$] i\ -*?S ; -a-^Vo^: maiden, virgin 

d3poro$; T^X Gn 49. 24 = dupoorot 

dyaTTTjTQs: mnx Dt 2:. 15 Hos 3. 1 Xeh 13. 26 Til Cant 1. 14 -ri 
IS 25. 22 *m IS 25. 23 TT Jes 5. I Ps 84. 2 ^^ ^ ;oj of 
things, desirable] of persons, beloved 

ayrjros : CVK Hab I. 7 Cant o* 4, 10 w^ 'evened admirable nonder- 
ful\ cf. 8avfj>aaTQ$ 

dytcrr6$: Slip Ex 19. 6, 20. 31 ZTl? Dan 4. 5 j-j2j ^Jj kaltvit'ed 

ayvujoros, -euros: SIX Dan 4. 6 TIX Jcr 17. l/ia/:?;:::, unfamiliar, un- 
intelligible \ CL d^KtvToi 

ctStfcrof : inn Jcs 63. 1 xt: IIR 5. : x*r: je< 3, 3 x~: Gn 23, 6 

revered, venerable : cf. e6c> 
c;Y<tg9, -^ros\* -^-^ Jj.*^ praiseworthy; Cl. €V = :;-€tJ> 

ciVktos-: iimsn Dan Q. 23, 10. 11 I*~" Tcs .u,, Q expressed in 
riddles, riddling; cf. t-idvuir-oi 

c:>f7o> : Tnn lis 2:. mr \eh 5. 18 ICh 7. 40 <//*:*/*, t/r W « 

cirTjTo'r: 71X^7 Gn 36. 37 IS 0. 2 asked for; sec T— 01 tjtt^Yoi borroned 

horses, s.v. Gtrcw IIR 6. 5; cf. cvktgs 
aZup-nTos : ICPn Dt 28. 66 Hos 1 r, 7 17r IIS :3. 10 hanging 
auSpoTOs: T2X Ps 78. 25 pect. Adj. immoral. di:ir:e; Cl. Jydff 
dvnyKaaTos : p": IS 2 ! . f creed, constrained 

c;T7«(rrof, aYcix- : C"UX Jei 17. I I Jcr 15. i3 incurable, desperate, f 'atal 
dparos : "IIIX Gn 27. 20 pra\ed against, accursed 
dpotirros: 201 Job 3. :6 watered 
dp«rr6$: 1^1 Dt 33. 24 acceptable, pleasing 
aptdpyros: ynn Job 14. 5 :jm: fj/i if numbered, easily numbered, few :n 

number 
apioroff: ^12/ Prv 11. 16 fns Jcs 35. 9 of persons, 6^', in birth 

and rank, nobles:: hence, like dpiarcvs, a chief; of animals, best, 
finest 



VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 103 

ap-aKTos : T.T2 Jcs 42. 22 ViTI Dt 28. 31 "mc? Juci 5. 27 £$//*« Ay rapine, 

stolen 
aop<jjc-ro$: nn Ez 34. 20 weak, sickly 
dopaxTOs: *n"lD Esth 9. 19 *»" IS 6. 18 HT^IS Ez 38. II \cf. p-qKros- 

rss*^.Z Prv 25, 28) unfencea\ unfortified % unguarded; r. opaxTos 
ycutcros: "-S7 Jcs 46. 1,3 laden, full 
y\v—r6$: */"7X Lev 26. I Job 13. 4 Vp; IIR 17. 12, 21. 21 carved, carved 

irr,c?e\ cf. cfStuAoi' 
y:-a><7T'Ji, -otto* (A) : SIT Dt 1 . 1 3 Jos 53. 3 known ; of peri cni. :i^.V-.':::^:i'.i 
yvcurof *3" : I?T^ Ruth 2. i kinsman, kins icon: a?: 
ysc™o\-: ~" r.% Jcr 17. 1 "" Ex 31. 18 Dt 2u. 6: Jcr :;. : marked 

as w:th letters, written; cf. Yipaxrdf : engraved 
c€t6$: ~CK Gn 40. 3 IIS 3. 34 IIR 7, 10 Jcr 40. 1 ~rx Jud 16. 2: 

"= EccI 4, u"iss;j IS 21. 8 "nss IS 21. 6 Jcr 33. ; : 30. 5 Xch 

6. 10 "ms IS 25. 29 IIS 20. 3 *vns Gn 42. 35 "*rp Gn 44- 30 

that .tjv S* bound; el. «*o*toi, attpalos 
S-.;Atj7s^: ""7I Jcr 32. 1 1 a5/V /o 3* shown 
cktvcjtqs: ^p* Jcr 5. 26 Ps 9:. 3 Prv 6. 5 r^ Hos 9. 8 n:ade in net- 

Jsojiorsf. J;o'S-: zi^rr IIR 10. 15 ~v Jcr 35. 6 t:™ IS 14. u "V 

IS 13. 2 rrzn ICh 3. i3 mr: Jcr 41. 15 ^ j- 4:. 9 g::r: by 

^e:i:. heaven-sent 
co-it: ;\~: Xu 3. a, 8. 16 Dt 28. 31, 32 Es:h 3. : : Esr 2. ;; ICh 5. 33 

I ICh :. 12 1 V.: Esr 8. 2 granted; cf. Uooros 
fijrs'y : " % " Cant 1. 10 //:-:.' rj" i<r threaded or jvuv: 
c'-tScrc-^: n"VTp Gn 44. 30 fastened; cf. Sero? 
ZkOqtoc: pr: Dt 28, 31, 3- £i*« -/>: delivered 
<<\*kt6$: p/H Xu 32. 27 Jcs 15. 4 picked out, select: c:. ,V-crc> 
e.Wc* : "*"Jes 5. 28, 21. 15 nsv?7 Xu 2 2. 23 ]V7H Dt 25. 10 the! car. 

b* drawn, tensile 
tVci-rdi : *"* Ez 16. II garment, dress 

t;Taro\-; "r: Ez 1. 22, 20. 33 rrrijcs 3. 16 stretched: cu t-t6; 
t~atDi-6$: "r.z2 Jcr 24. 2 m^rzMich 7. 1 en::: Ex 23. 16 picked cut, 

chjsen. choice; cf. aipcro\y*V"2 IIS 21, 6 
tf-ci^To*: >-j-U-. J_v^^. O-^^w praiseworthy, laudable 
tTTidvtnrros : "TVin Job 20. 20 mi^n Dan 10. 3 - w 4~^- -^^ desired, to be 

aes^rca 
cpaoTos, oar- ; \jr3j** beloved, lovely 
€vkt6$ : TT: wished for, desired Gn 49. 26; tw^ dedicated Jud 13, 5, 7; 

Cl. tyKpaTTJS, -T€UTT)$ 



I04 VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

evAoyijro?: ^12 Gn 27. 29 IIS 2. 5 Ruth 3. 10 blessed 
i<j>86* f J?!-: TD1X Dan 10. 5 TD1X ICh 29. 4 13 Cant 5. n boiled] refined 
gold 

£*<tto* : pTT Ps 124. 5 TT: Gn 25. 29 seethed, boiled: hoi water; JSara**.. 

of hot springs 
^fuicroff: 57^2 n Jud 19. 10 nilD Cant 7. 3 yoked, harnessed] joined 
J^toj, (ar- = ^TTjToy: T2 Lev I 7. 13 HTS Gn 27- 3 sought for 
£utuvTos: pV3H Jes 30. 24 f^n Ex 12. 15 fermented, leadened 
8avtia<rr6s: C ; K Hab I. 7 Tl^H Cant 6. 4 wonderfA, marcelloiis 
dtpurros, -piroV: TSp Jes 18. 4 Joel 4, 13 harvest, harvest-time 
dtrot: nsi Esth 2. 7 pre Jos 7. 21 Job i3. io prs Xeh 13. 4 placed. 

taken as one's child, adopted; 0€ttj adopted daughter 
8t 1 kt6^: inn Job 41. 22 CITtf Jer 9. 7 fiS? Prv 25. 18 sharpened, whetted 
dpauoros: "1127 Lev 22. 22 Ps 147. 3 broken? crushed 
1<tt6s: TKT3 Prv 31. 19 t: Ex 15. 8 c: Xu 21. 3 -^ Jud 3, 22 rs: 

Gn 19. 26 TiE37 Ex 13. 22 Jud 20. 40 IR 7. 15 anything set upright: 

generally, rod, pole] generally, loom 
ko\v77t6$: Dir.n Jer 32- 14 Job 14. 17 z*zz D: 32. 34 ~-7 IS 17. 5 

~17 IS 21. 10 Cir.S Ez 28. 3 Dan 12. err Xu 24. 3 La;<rr^' 
KGL'o-rc)? , -ro't% kclto* : iTST: Gn 8. 2 I Ex 20. : 3 burnt-oferingfor the dead: 

whole bumi-ojfenng 
*A*uttoV: *?U'l Jud 3. 24 Cant 4. 12 1"= Ez 44. : closed 
*Aetrc>: Klip Ez 23. 23 iCIp X'u E. 10 renowned, fancus 
kAtjtoj: xnp IS g. 13 Es:h 5. 12 invited 

Korrros: n:cn Prv 7. 16 TV-TO Jes 30. 14 chopped am all, or pounded 
KTicrros: 13*2 Cant 5. 15 6a:7i 

^ukAc/to* : Viiy IR 7. 23, 31 HCh 4. 2 7*— Xu 31. =0 rounded 
kj66$: isn IIS 15. 30 bent forward, stooping 
\ckt6-: enp7 Prv 24. 11 fV7n Xu 32. 27 gathered, chosen, picked out: 

CI, £k\€KTQS 

Xerrros: 17 Ps 9. io, :o. 18 p"L Gn 41. 3, 6 Ex ! 5. 14 Lev 13. 3c 
\€—Qdp^) IR 19. 12 Jcs 29. 5 np Xu 13. 18 thin, fine, delicate: 

generally, small, weak ; rarely of the voice,;:;:*, dedicate : cf. o-jcrvy^i 
pcpic-ros: 122 Jer 13. 23 divided [striped] 
^uxrdr: Vina Jes 1. 22 "jC2 Ps 75. 9 mixed, blended 
piailurros: T3" Ex 22. 14 Jes 7. 20 TCt? Xeh 6. 13 AiV«/; hireling, hind 

servant 

vrjdxxyros I = -aAiOi ^ ^r 1 -^ *— 'j^ Sober 

$€<jtq$: ^ppn Ez 23. 14 planed] caned: polished 

£v<tt6s: ITO ICh 22. 2 (1) rvciSfl Cant 4. 2 ffisp Jer 9. 25 trr ICh 



VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 105 

29. 2 C? Cant 5. 15 whittled with a knife or plane, scraped \ 
trimmed, cropped with scissors 

d-T7]ro9: rmo Dt 28. 31 rrin ICh 9, 31 roasted 

Qoaros: rvPN! Esth 2. 9 to be seen, visible 

GotKros: ^113? Jos 2. 6 Ez 23. 41 nn'/C? Gn 49. 21 stretched out; longed 

for, desired] to o. the object of appetency 
qqvktqs : [~n* Job 30. 6 dug, formed by digging, opp. a natural channel 
QYtros: T: Gn 32. 33 Jes 48. 4 Job 40. 17 conduit, duct: cf. patcis 
rm.KTcs: ninpn Jes 22- 25 j^r/; in, fixed 
rrtvirros, -v- : jl-3 Gn 4 1 . 33 Je=J 6jii prudent, discreet 
rrcuc'J'-cs: 'f"u ICh 15. 27 I ICh 2. 1 3 NT?S Gn 30. 32, 25 b raider ed, 

variegated 
TToro,-, -oV: ^p? Hos 2. 7 *r.7 Eccl 10. 17 rrr.t Esth :. 8 "*2 Esth 1. 

5, 7. 7, 8 that which one drinks 9 drink, esp. of wine 
—?o<jr.<uj ; -*cjv, rd tt. : ^"X Esr 4. 14 befitting, proper, meet, seemly 
-rzi—c;: p? Nah 2. 1 1 Jij3/* to fail (p^fnpZ 'rrralaj : stumble Jes 28. 7 

Jcr ro. 4; 7\p*iD ■ TTTdLGfia: failure IS 25. 31} 
rrvpercs:: ^"H Dt 28, 22 *j ^ burning heat, fiery heat: fever 
iaric~rc>: HSriS Dt 2 1. 6 tiri y/>, c/*/f 
pr-Kzo;: "p" Lev 22. 22 z^z^n Lev 13. 45 n:r:" I ICh 32. 5 V"p 

115 1. 2, 15. 32 *fl-J"1 Jes 42. 3 thai can be broken :r rent, penetrable 
j—d>: r*" Gn 9. 9 covenant 
c*i— or: " % -^ Neh 5. 13 shaken 

cr.<~7TT0>: ZVSn Dt 6. II £1'*, *.M.' ^3y 0* £l/* 

<?k€A€tc;: ^/3 Jes 44. 1 6 *V?p Lev 2. 14 ^p Ruth 2. 14 X"p IS 17. 17 

£>:« up (spurious); 6ovkt6s\ roasted 
c<£-zctt6$: zr.zn Job 40. 13 "S3 Ps 32. 1 ]^so IR 7. 3 Jcr 22. 14 Hag 

:. 4 7!SS Ez 7- 22 Hos 13- 12 ]£:? Dt 33. 19 covered \ cL KaXvrrros 
c-rra^roj: "ni3 Jer 50. I 7 HimT Jer 2. 2 sown^ cultivated, scattered 
crrz.<?6s: ^"12 Lev 12. 2 oozing out in drops, trickling, distilling 
c-rpcsrzs: ~-: IS 30. 1 6 i*JVcrf 

c^vy-Tr's-: X-7 IIS 5. 8 n^TJT Gn 29, 31 Dt 21. 15 hated, abominated 
<t-7kou:ctoj : *H^p Neh 5. 16 brought together 
cTvoocrdr: rpCSOX Nu II. 4 keepings, refuse; mctaph., mixed croud, 

mob, rabble 
c^icrros: nSIC*? Dt 14. 7 cloven^ divided] split 
acxTTdsr: "nx: Ez 6. 12 mix: Jes 1. 3 safe 

rcrxixTos: 3ni3 Ex 32. 25 Lev 13. 45 disturbed; that may be disturbed 
rards-, (/raroy: ^Dl Ez 1 . 22 Ps 102. 12 rrsne: Jes 2 1. 1 5 :jm! can be 

stretched; stretched 



io6 Vin, VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

tt]kt6s: tjoj Jes 48. 5 rfi: Dan it. 8 e*nr IR 10. 16 melted, molten 
Tpix^ras: ~vvv Gn 37. 31 Lev [6. 10 nwr lb 4. 28 "iv^ Gn 27. 1 : 

3Tnt7 Lev 2 1. 1 furnished tilth hair, hairy; ra r. animals furnished 

with hair] cf. I^drvpc^ 
rpxTTrq-rot : C*in Lev 21.18 pierced 
ocxarrd^ : rmp? Cant 1. 11 lentil-shaped 
6ar6<;\ -13, 3"3 J cs 57. IQ spoken or {AaJ m.-r/ be spoken 
oXoyioros: ^H 1 ? Dt 32. 24 "ip" Jcs 10. 16 T *p* Jes 30, 14 burnt up. 

inflammable 
oopvros: TI27 Dan 2. 35 ni'Sjes 1. 31 whatever the uind carries aij>:: : 

^Ai/jj, shavings 
cpcKTos: mr±2 Ez 21. 25 rrrrSZ Xu 13. 23/^^j\ rrsweted 
6ovkt6$: n;y Gn 18. 6 Ex 12. 39 Xu 11.3 roasted: "3. "p. ^"? T 
6upr6>: 21V Ex 12. 38 Xeh 13. 3 mfxfi 
olwo; : m23 Jcr I. 13 "S3 Jer 22. 28 blown, blzwn out 
6vt€i-6s : riC3 Eccl 3. 2 Vrr Jcr 17. 3 j/^.v4 
v^rffroV, -oV: TC" Gn 24. 12 ITIEn Gn 32. 11 T*cn P5 145. 1 7, 14-:., 

--6 ^SmH Prv 10. j., 17. ± DL ri v.. as Subs;., benefits, kindnesses: 

of ncrsons, £S0tf. csp. in war, valiant, true: generally, good, kzne:t. 

nor thy 
vu-piCTot: mIm""U Lev 21.7 separable. existing sepa~atey 

COMMENTS 

Although it is not usually difficult to distinguish the genuine 
likeness from the spurious semblance while prospecting for homo- 
logies, if our rules and tests are rigorously applied, the vcr.- 
existence in Hebrew of a homologue to a cognate verbal adjective 
ac:s as a reassuring adjuvant in this delicate aspect of our philo- 
logical exploration. It would corroborate an unusual verba 1 : 
homology. For instance: £\*tu means, inter alia, to draw a bow; 
and in that meaning, the homologue cf V\k& is y7Z % p) "^j" 
Thr 2. 4. fA/coj also means to drew a sword ; and in this meaning 

the homologue is HZ^iT r p*2 Jud. 8- 20 IS 17. 51. Now £\ktcs 
means tensile, and in d^.ac meaning, the homologue of 1\kt6$ :s 

Tfrn Jes 5. 28 : min~ Vnr&p'bZX 'and all his bows are ten- 
sile'. €\kt6$ also means thai can be drawn, and in this meaning the 

homologue of 1\kt6s is rjV/tf Nu 22. 23: mDIT^ 12~im, 'and 
his sword was drawn\ But IXkcj has a further meaning: to draw, 
wich a collateral notion of force or exertion; and in this meaning 



VIII: VERBAL ADJECTIVES 107 

it has two homologucs: f7n Dt 25. 9, as well as r pv Jud 3. 22 
Ruth 4. 7. In this meaning the homology of ^A*^/Y7n is corro- 
borated by that of iXxroz^On Dt 25. 10, especially in view of 
the contexts Dt 25. 5-10 and Ruth 4. 1 — 13. 

Incidentally, there arc two additional corroborative details 
which reinforce that of the homology of this verbal adjective, 
namely: the compound verb and its special meaning. For f/H 
has for homologuc ^/Akcj, and bears both its meanings: draw, 
drug out 'Lev 14. 40, 43} and rescue from [?s 6. 5 Prv ::. 8, 9), 
the latter being a specialized use of the former — l dr:ZiL\ drag oi:i 
or canger . L.l. : jijN a-.T^f^rCi, ./.iNJ vogc^uj I:i 12. 15.; 

A unique example — across which I came almost by accident 
— is yr,n, a verbal adjective bearing two :c tally different 
meanings: slain and arms — the latter hitherto unknown — al- 
though derived from a verb with a single meaning, sir.r. This 
unoarallelled phenomenon has placed two verses in Isaiah 
beyond the comprehension of biblical scholars, because the ex- 
planation lies exclusively in the homologue of I^m, ivapl^: 
;lr:c a sin:n foe of his arms 'cVcoc ; hence sic\ :~ ': ~:.' ^" Gn ±. 8 
Ex 2. :^; eenerallv, j7,-:v I"! 71 Lev 20. 15, :o. Then th.e homo- 
!ccue of "i"in is evaoti, rd: iyalotj) onlv d!., r.r~zs srd iruh^in^s 0*' 
s. :•!-::: jj* riilii Jes :o. 4, 14. 19. There remains, however, 
another snag of a similar type, the pi 1 rase VCX TnT which 
occurs in the former verse. *VCX there is the homologue of 
<j~:iod: cDrd, robe T!DX Jud :=;. la; trace "VCX Jes 10. a. To 
ccmolete the matter and corroborate the above, c*ipd has two 
derivatives, namely: ere ipcfc*: joined by a cord or send ^ICX Jud 
:6. 21 IIS3. 34IIR7. 10 Jer 40. 1 Ps 146. 7 Xeh 4. 12 "VCX 
Gn ^q. -22 Jud 16. 21 "V:C Eccl -t. 1.1; and ceizduj: bind or Jrccr 
-:>'/: j r^tf 10X Gn 46, 29, 49. 1 1 Jud 15. -3, :6. 5 IS 6. 7 IR 
:3. 44 I IR 25. 7 Jer 40. : ? 40. 4 Ez 3. 25. Vox both, texts are 
perfectly olain: D^n "27 means 'dressed in armour', and 
*"7iT CTnn nnm TCX rnn means 'they will fail in battle 
in harness under their armour*. Indeed, Hebrew is very* Greek* 
It is instructive to compare some Hebrew homoio^ues amone 
themselves, and with fellow Arabic homologues. For instance: 

NT2; aipcrdy/TTID ; ^a:£)crdi/nmD2 ; dy:crdr, wT"Tp/ --jJJ/ 



io3 VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

2T"7p/ ^jOj. Note the scale 7117D and T^S in Hebrew and 
Arabic respectively as regards HlrIX and ^_^, while die 
converse obtains as regards *m and .ijL; the initial a in 
cLyGTTTjroV changing into ** in 7^T, and into j in ;j;j ; the heme- 
iogues of atSearoy are: one on the scale *7117D, and the other on 
the scale 7^173 ; so are the two Arabic homologies of dytcrcs ; 
but their fellow Hebrew homologue is on the scale 7117D, whereas 
the .Aramaic is on the scale /^L/D ; the homologies otalotTc? and 
i£>zip€T6s show that u was sometimes pronounced like 2 - t as it is :o 
this cay by the Ashkenazim; while 21HX and _ ^ show that y 

exchanges with both n and ^, as in y\dyo$ 2"7n _~_1^. 

The difference in gender between H7ir;2 and J^ is merely 
formal, for both nouns are in the feminine. This purely formal 
difference is convincingly explained by the fac: that thev are both 
homologues of dSaros, an adjective of common gender. It is sig- 
nificant that because dSaros is of the same structure as a verbal 
adjective, its homologues both in Arabic and Hebrew arc en the 
scale 71TD. d68opoi, rriL\oi and -apdh'cs also claim homolocv 
with n7in2, and are of common gender. 

Consider the two pairs of homologies — dzzc-z? VIX and £-- 
-pores r^lf\, yvcjTos A. i; I and ;/:-u:c; b i, , !j — anc mar:*: 
how closely faithful to Greek Hebrew can be. 

The homology yvajrd> IT'^ is perfectly valid, although &.c 
direct homologue of l/V is not ytyvcua*^ but clca. This is an 
irregular verb which belongs to the mixed class of verbs some cf 
the tense stems of which differ from others. Thus, the aorist and 
perfect for die verb ticm ;'B - are usual I v suDolied bv vwcLcklj 

- ^ ' A * .if 

Tr.c same phenomenon manifests itself in the homology oco-np* 
KZP2 {Nu ii. u), on account of the nvo verbs associated with 
64d<u 7 namely: olceiv tut. inf.) and iveyK€?.\ It is interesting that 
Hebrew proves the connection between yr/\da^cj and cida, in 
that the former verb — unlike the latter, but like !?~T — d reserves 
the meaning of carnal knowledge. 

There is not always an extant verb or kindred word of the 
homologue of a verbal adjective, e.g. dyarrrjro^ ;""T*7\ Sometimes 
the verb of one homologue exists, but not of another, e.g. 2HK is 
the verb from which HlnK is derived ; but there is no extant verb 
in Hebrew from which "P*T was derived, whereas its equivalent 



VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES log 

ijij is derived from ij/dya-a£aj. Nor is If^UZ^ the homologue 
of avayxaoTos, related either phonetically or morphologically 
to D2K, the only homologue of dvayKd^co. D2X drops the syllable 
y*a by way of syncope, splits £ into its components, and 
drops S; whereas non-extant ^H] dropped the initial vowel 
by way of aphaeresis, and y by way of syncope, converted * 
into n, and £ into ¥. Hence the vast difference in the Denun- 
ciation of (non-biblical) C12K and *f1i"iL 

For one reason or another I had repeatedly been tempted to 
accent as genuine the homologies alp€<jjj mm \nZ and clc€Qfj>ai!*2 m \'2 s 
but had as often resisted the temptation, until I discovered that 
in an appreciable number of words j3 replaces the spiritus, e.g. 
Bayos = Laconic dyes, BdBofiai stands for -r.cop.ai, faSJr (i.e. 
faSuz) is Elean for 770J*; B^^k^ttjs [raX- y Cretan :or t:\lkkLttjs ; 

Bdpicv } cf. ap-ji'l fidpix&L, cf- cpi;fa ; S^At^c -':,e. * r ^^-' , tJAtjug; 

Spi^c, Aeolian for pi£i ; Bpcdov, i.e. - r po-j Aeolian for pocov 2 yj nHD 

Nu 17. 23; ^Atoy, Cretan dB&ios *7I72 Jud 2. 13 72 Jes 46- 1 ; 
€iKoct t Laconic fietKan ; pd, cf. Aeolian Spa ; pafir.-cs-, Aeohan 3pa- 
ou'or ; paS/cj^-, Aeolian ^parS^s* ; pa^roy, Aeohan Bpaxos ; parcvav, 

CI- focrayav ; prjrpa y Elean r par pa i"P~i— Gn 0. :3; pcGoeexTvAos, 

Aeohan BpoSoddKrvXas ; pvr-lf, Aeolian 5pvr;; ; pcSv*:** = Bpvxtiy, 
zpux<jj t Bdvkoj pin Ps 35. :5 Job : 6. 9, €7tiB?v*lx J ^; cf. rplluj. 

In fact, a:p/cj/nri- ,'Gn 5. 2, choose) is strongly corroborated 
by K'a^:^Hn2 (HCh 34. 6, destroy). The AV.'zr in the latter 
verse is Cn^fli} "lull, and the Q/ r: CnTiZ^riZ. In the context, 
however, the Qcri does not make sense, whereas the Ketiv 
should have been vocalized ClVrO 1H2 — meaning 'destroyed 
their temples*. Dims is Ashkenazi for "IVr.I. 

A: the beginning I also had my doubts about the homology 

dtiocj n7T Gn 40. iq, but thev were dispelled when I discovered 
that the soiritus was sometimes reoiaced bv T; in Graeco-Hebraic 
homology — thus: o,W, lor.. ouXos {A)/*7HD Jes i3. 3; ovXos (B)/ 
*7r»7n Cant 5. 1 1 ; cL\ouoyd> /V*?ir) Jes 1. lS/r^'D Nu 4. 8/ 

r/7rn Nu 4 . 6 ; eOAij/nsj^^n jes 14. 1 i/nuVin Jon 4. 7 ; f ivnnn 

Pp.' 17. IO; CTT-att/t'oi/mrj Jud 5. I I ; aTniui"Z^Ti Dt 2 I . ig, 22. 

28; €w«'a/i727n Dt 3. u. Indeed, in one case at least, i.e. 
ou<£aAos7"YnO Jud 9. 37 Ez 38. 12, die spiritus is replaced by 0; 
and in another, €Akw/^]TT Ps 7. 13, by "7. It is relevant to 



, IO VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

observe that the <0C:>> the traditional dance witnessed by tourists 
at Baalbek, is obviously homologous to ra Sa^ia'Sax-y^a or 17 

The related homologies, atVcros,'^^* -j--* - :1< ^ a.^-o^ 
DHlCn/nmnn, characterize the intricacies of Greek, the 
thoroughness required in the search for genuine homologues, and 
the powerful — if not altogether indispensable — assistance lent by 
Arabic in ascertaining them. That is whv these homologies arc 
worth considering in detail. 

First, aiWdff and atWrd* respectively derive from a;V<u 
and ctVicao/iai ; the latter verb derives from -.:-•?. a cognate 
of the former. Now atWa> is identical v.::;; zi:~^o~c.i, w<i:c:: 
accounts for the ~i and the L£ in the homologues c: cl-.-icj zwd :ts 
derivatives. 

Secondly, these homologues are: ali-itx, Aeohan aur^i = 
dv^ouai — poetical and Ionic verb, very rare in gece Attic prose, 
e-aiv€tn being used instead — properly, Uil, :pizu 2/ "*~ Ez 17. 2, 
usu. praise "IftX Jes 3. 10 niL* Xu 21. 17 Ps 14;. 7 nil* Jes 27. 2 
:»^ ^jl,; approve T2I1 Ps 63. 17; esp. in rcligicui sense, glory;. 
God T*n Jes 1. 29 ju* ^-~ : <M':'2J<r, recomne-a v l" Jes :c. :2. 
23. 3 ~ -■ ilt»; confer..: ,-^. .\j 3s? ccr.V-: x:.*t. .:::::: e:-:e :r. HZX 
Gn 24^5 mXj lb 34. 15; .'v-.'.v: — ; '•* p r o~:;c ~L" Ex. 2:. 3. 9. 

~L*" Am 3. 3 i jl,jJ -^j : or :w -w_«J. 

Thirdly, compounds: i-cn-ew. Aeo::r.n -:~:--. = ^.:*"oj '2r 
which it is regularly used in Attic;, aiV^ou-i:, -r-.-'i'i mIL* Ex 32. 

:8 ":y Jes 27. 2 Ps SS. 1 ^ ^1 J- ; cSw.t:.'::-: 77r; Ps 5 
a>>c:aud, approve i"!TJ Eccl 3. ! 5 ; assent h-X Ex : 0. 2" ; praise 7~ 
Pr/ 27. 2 77nnn Prv 2-. 1,31. 30 n:; Ps : :-. : n^rrn Ps ice. 
47 -17: Jud 5. ! 1 J* .y.- J} .uJ ^ --.:'-"-'.:^ :j *> --*-■ : 
<— .Ve^<r, «ruuo>, applm-i W" ?XJ2 Ex 32. :3: <;-:.^ ! /»";^ 
.'j ^'jj L=. _— ?, esp. promise i:i marriage, Letr-n'.: _^-^-. 

: _ .... 

Fourdily, other derivatives: au'errptos, :J-'a.::jrv j_" > _<^ — 
auTj = aiVos. atVo?, poetical and Ionic word, = ~C-o>, a tale, stir; 
"7*n Ps 49. 5, 78. 2, a:VetV aiVot- .'0 te/. ; 5 ttk Aeschylus, .-J^.Tttm- 
«o/i 1483, PITTI Tin Ez 17. 2, esp. story :ti:h rr.orzi, fable JIT" 
Ez 17. 2 JU3J3 riddle HTTi Jud 14. 12, przist JjJ ^x* J^^; 



3* 
/ 1 1 



VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES in 

resolution ,_. -T. £-aivzois, praise J713S7 Ex 32. 18 -_ " ; €-raiv€-rq^ } 
praiser ^L^ ; c-au'erd*, praiseworthy y laudable ^jju^ ± ^>^» JU^-. ; 
€-au'oj, pene^nc ^jJLw. It is interesting to note thru the equivalent 

ofaiWo' alvou to tell a tale ,' Aeschylus : Agamtmnon 1483) occurs no 
less than four times in two different books : Jud 14. 12, 13, 16 
Ez 17. 2. 

Fifthly, the homologies of alvloaouci and its derivatives : 
a;Vi'acoLia:, speak darkly or :r. addles, "IIm Jud 14. : 2 ; z'yiyxa, -{±6$. 

Sixthiv. a word or two about the above 2TOud of homologies. 

The primary homologues of *f IP are u^oouat, ^r-idcj, -touai y 
-t'Coac: — because thev not on!v conform ohoneticaliv and 
semantical!;/, but also yield derivatives which are homologous 

wrtll j*UV -fi-qrUra, -rr? , m^17 (jjltjSos ; A;, utt:?), HjIIPiI^ 

^7;5ci, ^tjtiuc, ^Tjrif . Ei! : since ali'€<u;aU'LLOU'Zi do not provide 
such derivatives, thevecuid onlv be acceotcd as secondare and 
additional homologies cf 717"*. J^*, and ^^ : and even then, 
not without reservation. w 

The primary homolccues of ^;1-N are eTpcj B' and its associates. 
tp<L t £:Voi' and ot?u:\ because — here, again — no: only cio they 
conform both phonetically and semantically, but also yield deri- 

vatives which are homologous with *1.^X orur. t : ror, d^c, •: " , 

<-l>, it J—lX, '*"-*> .?~} Gl ** PVf 17 !* Z~0$ : !;-v\:- pruC, OVU.T, . 

And although cuWa; provides no such derivatives. I nevertheless 
upiiold the validity of its claim to homology as a secondary 
homologue with "1CX, or as a homonym, in view of the context. 
However, the invocation of the Greek morphological rule, 
whereby u is added in the middle of a word to facilitate pro- 
nunciation, is not to be resorted to lightly or arbitrarily in order 
to conjure up homologies at random. On the contrary, it — 
perhaps more than other philological rules — ought to be treated 
with great caution and judicial discretion, because by juggling 
with anv of them one could olausiblv contrive spurious or un- 
realistic homologies of a grotesque nature. Here, however, over 
and above the fact that the families of €ipcu and *1^X completely 
resemble each other in every one of their kindred members, what 
clinches the argument in favour of inserting the 2 is the semantic 
factor operating in Arabic as well as in Hebrew in a strangely 



]I2 VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

convincing way. For although in none of its various meanings — 
which Greek verbs are disconcertingly wont to have— does elpat 
specifically convey or even vaguely suggest the notion of 'reply-, 
ing', one of the meanings of prjo is is 'answer', and this happens 
to coincide precisely with *1DX in verses which occur in two quite 
different books of die Bible, that is : Jud 5. 20 and Prv 22. 21. 
This is corroborated by another extraordinary coincidence, since 
one of the meanings of eTpcj is 'order', the Arabic homologue of 
which is^J; while one of the meanings of priiz is— almost un- 
accountably — 'matter', which happens to be homologous witr. 
i\ :cf. €7Togl21 Ex i3. 22}. Finally, since "VIX is the homo- 
logue of €-oj (the associate of e'pw), its connexion with tlpta and 
its derivatives is similar to that of X72 with 6ipai and its 
derivatives; so that the 12 dialectally replaces the -. 

As to the rest of the above homologies, I have never entertair.ee 
any doubt. 

The homology alrta*,*/^ is confirmed by ;he fact that the 
Boeotian variant of al-rr.a^j is Qr.aui. 

The 2 in " , 1S"l ; apfaro? is preserved from the original homology 
doeWj/nS"), where it replaces the digraph c<. Now apiaroy is 
not a verbal adjective, but since it is in the form of one, its 
Hebraic homologue is on -he scale ™2. Other examples are 
depiroi which has precisely the same homologue as cepi-6-; and 
depiGTOs'depHjros. 

aj*ero\-/:rnX is confirmed by apxtai? /n™X II Ch 24. 13 [hi-p, 
aid) and dp-K^/Tp 3J J e5 4°- l3 Ps 4°- 6 > 8 9- 7 > -"' - natch for) {?) . 

odoktos resembles Ti"12, riHD, and "TID mere closely than 
does aopaKTos] but semanticaily all the texts point to the latter 
as being the right homologue. Both words derive from <ppdcou>, 
the homologue of which is "5^3, not through metathesis, but by 
the dropping of p and the adding of a terminal T as in "IIT 
oscoi. Cf. aflaToy/n i 7ir.2 1 sup., where the c privativum drops. 

In yXvrrr^l^bX, the y exchanges with X, as in yn "X Jes 20. 6 
and yunj (-i/aiJcdj)/n£X Gn 2. 22 ^iJi; although in these two 
homologies it can reasonably be argued that the y is dropped. 
But there can be hardly any doubt about the exchange in 
pL6yas[~\R?2. 

ypcrrros- derives from ypdocu, the homologue of 2?D. Ad- 
mittedly, the metamorphosis which the Hebrew verb has under- 



VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 113 

gone is so complete as to render it utterly unrecognizable as a 
variant of its putative Greek original : the 7 and the 6 have been 
respectively altered to D and T\ t and the p has dropped out. 
Indeed, the Greek word has been so transformed by these changes 
that it has lost its literal identity in the resulting substitute. 
Nevertheless, there is abundant evidence that this homologue is 
merely wayward and not at all spurious. 

First, all three consonantal changes are perfectly regular: y 
and *, and o and 8 (or - and r) interchange dialectally, whereas 
the i in the infinitive eiv or the thematic qj interchanges with 2 
and p drops out in Graeco-Hebraic homologies. 

Secondly, the Doric and Argive versions of ypd^iia {ypaopa) 
are severally ypd8p.a and ypdea/sa. Here one should remember 
that d : a and r are dialectally interchangeable, and that in later 
Attic go passed into ~. 

Thirdly, 2TO bears various meanings of ypdooj, including one 
or two highly specialized, which is rather significant: scratch, 
graze Ex 39. 30; draw maps Jos 18. 4, 6, 8, 9; 'jnzrk, brand Lev 

19. 28); write Jcs 8. 1 Jer 36. 6 ^ i-^T \ inscribe Ex 39. 30 
Dt 10. 2 Prv 3. 3; register, enrol Ez 13. g; prescribe, ordain Esth 
3. 9; indict] bring an accusation against Job 3:. 35. 

Fourthly, all the derivatives of -TO find counterparts among 
those of ypdooj, with which they tally quite comfortably, in sense 
as well as in structure, namely: ypaprjiZr^, thai which is written, 
writing Esr 1. 22, 4. 7; letter IlCh 2. 10; dccur.ent Est 2. 62; 
book Ez 13. 9 ^-jLT"; ypaor} t T.2rD t that which is drawn or painted, 
drawing , picture, writing Lev :q. 28; ypaft^xa, -dduc, -accrtxa/IirDQ, 
written character, letter Ex 39. 30; letter IlCh 2:. 12; inscription 
Ex 32. 16 Dt 10. 4; notes in music DI"DE Ps :o. 1. A highly 
specialized meaning of ypzor} is bill of indicimni in a public 
prosecution, the homologue of which is ICC Job 31. 35. 

T:C confirms that the X in TiCX and *VCX is prosthetic, but 
1 am not quite sure about the status of the p in n^Zp. If HO'p 
is the homologue of the simple verb Star, then the p would be 
prosthetic; on the other hand, should "1E?p be held to be — like 
"Tpl7 — a direct homologue of the compound verb i<d*<jj, embody- 
ing the prefix tV, then the p would be replacing *. Yet that 
choice would not quite dispose of the problem; there is a real 
dilemma here. For strictly speaking, since H"ViE7p is on the scale 



ii 4 VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

^lyD, it would usually be the homologue of S*ro\-, the verbal 
adjective of Sea*; whereas grammatically, the homologue of 
€k8€to$ should regularly (though not necessarily) have hern 
m^pQ or n"127pD. Tiie only way out of the impasse is to accept 
the p also as a prosthetic, especially as this would tie up with 
ScWnttfp IIR ii- 14, on one hand, and Kardd€Gt?;'ypp Jes 3. 20, 
on the other. A similar question is posed by % p7n in connection 
with Ae/croV and etceteras ; and by nil/ and n\ZU vis-d-vis 5Jcu ana 
ivSvcu. Besides, although I know only one other instance of a 
prosthetic p — 7-p \~pos — there are several instances o^ other 
gutturals being prosthetic, e.g. flXt-cj^Zn Jes 47. 13 (cf. *-*>-. ; 
Aaftj/np^n Gn 33. 19, p7H IIR g. 10; Aax'c^ p*7n Dt 18. 8, 
^P?L! nCh 35. 5; -c ig pGaj/*123? Gn 15. :; Jes 4. 22, -upocu /~1-1T 
Jer 23. 9, ocrrupo'uj ^*-^ IIR 16. 3, rrvpec ^IL* Jos 5. I :. 

Incidentally, comparison with Greek troves conclusiveiv that 
the exceptional structure TIC is the genuine original word — and 
not a freak, as has hitherto been thought* There are several sue:: 
instances, e.g. ycAri-o\- ]Itw Am 6. 1, ]1X7T Job 21. 23; Ztv; 
Idevsjj' t'j On 17, i*£r.v j ij Jul) 19. 2^. l;lc;: uiic ot tneni :i 
a tribute to the absolute fidelity of our sct:::cs who, generation 
after generation, fa:d:ful!y transcribed the :ex: of our sacred 
scriptures as they found it. They have thus transmitted to us 
relics which establish beyond a peradver.ture ;ha: in the distan: 
past our forefathers spoke undiluted and unimpaired Greek. 

Mark that whereas Jiocoros embodies the verbal adjective and 
means 'given of Zeus'. ]r2Ti"P and *imri embedy the noun and 
mean 'gift of Zeus 1 , r IV being homologous to the genitive J:o\- — 
with the not unusual elimination of the initial 8 — as ~I2D Ex 20. 
13 is homologous to ^-cros-, die genitive of ^--j. Mark also that 
mr] is short for in^in. because rT Jes 12. 2 Ps 63. 19 and 
n" Jes 26. 4 Ps 63. 5 are the homoicgues cf J.cV or 77c tu:-. 

The homolo^v eL-AcveroV "^"12 lias a somewhat complicated 
background which deserves to be thoroughly explored, in order 
to clear up ambiguities and dissipate unnecessary doubts, while 
pointing out persistent difficulties, 

The initial obstacle to be surmounted is phonetic, namely, 
the exchange of die prefix eu with 2. This can be done bv taking 
into consideration five facts: (1) that in proper nouns this prefix 
exchanges with ~2X and ~^2X; (2} that in *?p25\ Gn 41. 43 — 



VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 115 

assuming the word to be related to "^j*n3 — this prefix actually 
exchanges with ~-X; (3) that in several homologies this prefix 
exchanges with "\ a letter associated with 2 in Graeco-Hebraic 
homologies, e.g. €v<f>uTjs t T\D'* Gn 39. 6, evocovo^ TilD^ Xu 13. 6, 
tvSuj ]*ZP Cant 5. 2 ; (4) that in modern Greek, ev is pronounced 
*ef ' ; (5) that Arabic yields the following immediately relevant 
and closely resembling homologies: €uAoy*aj'iL ; — * U, tvXoylc 1 
aJO^> evAoyoV.uL:. Cf Euskadiko/Basque. ^ 

Then there lies concealed somewhere a semantic snag, i.e. the 
word iiw12 in Jes 36, :6. which commentators and lexico- 
graphers have elosscd over by inventing for it the meaning of 
"t^eatv' or exolainin? it awav bv a circumlocution. As alwavs. 
I preferred to face the difficulty, instead of evading it with a worse 
than useless dodge; and, as usual, I discovered a suitable homo- 
logue, £V€p-/€La, -tiTj, -€ct;cl ? -ccr:^, well-doing, good deed, kindness 
'cl Jos 15. 19). But it behoves me to be modest, because I have 
an unfair advantage over them, in that I am able to invoke Greek 
as mv authority. However, the trouble is that scholars — one 
authority excepted, namely. Professor Cyrus H. Gordon — 
rciwic to take me seriously, treating mv painstaking rhiioli^ica; 
invocation as if it were a mere incantation, an attempt a: 
summoning the genie! 

Accordingly, the following is the result cf mv research: The 
simple verb "^P2 is homologous to *vXoyiuj\ but its m:mit:vc r 
^mi Jos 24. io, its Passive, Tp22 Gn 12. 3, and its 7:1*2. are the 
only partis of it extant. Its TL'S, ^]13 has at least two homologues: 
(1; <aT€v\oy*ti> (strengthened for tvXoydw) — speck well oj, praise 
Nu 23. 1 :, 20 ; bless, praise a god ICh 29. 10 ; of God or men, bless 
G:\ 24. 1 IIS 13. 25 IR 3. 66 IlCh 31.8; also, apparently by an 
Hebraic euohemism, curse IR 21. 10, 13 Job 1. 5, 2. 9; : 2 ■ 
KC7€v€py€Ttuj .strengthened for evtpytriuj) — show k:r. :::ess to Jos 
14. 13. The "/UD is homologous to Kar€v\oy*cj :n the Passive 
Voice — bless, praise a god Job 1.21; of God and men, bless, praise 
Jud 5. 24- Its 7yDnn is homologous to evXoy€oj in the Middle 
Voice — bless Gi\ 22. i8Jeso5. 16 ; bless y praise Dt 29. 18. Finally, 
its verbal noun HDHZ is homologous (1) to tvXoyla — praise, eulogy 
Xeh 9. 5; blessing called down or bestowed Gn 27. 12, 35-6; and 
{2} to €v/ay€ia, '€<jla — c good deed y kindness J es 30, :6 \i\ p. 229;. 

Now I am not happy about the euphemistic use of evXoy^oj to 



m6 VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

mean 'curse' in the Scptuagint, especially as there is another verb 
which has a good claim to homology with ^p3 in IR 2 1 . 13, that 
is, KarrjXoyeoj which means 'make of small account*. But* this 
verb is supposed to be instead of *araAoyta>, a furm which we arc 
told does not occur. Is it possible that it is an ancient form of 
KarcvXoy €w t used several times by Herodotus ? I am not sufficiently 
informed to be able to judge. Nevertheless, it is right to point cut 
that on at least one other occasion the Septuagint gave what they 
believed to be a literal translation of the Hebrew text, when they 
rendered lUH UnT "Z 7 *? by yX<Locav plav xpvcr.-sjos 7. 2 1 . In fact. 
]12?7 there has nothing to do with 'tor.gvc", but is the hor.o- 
logue of TrXudos, ingot. In diLs homology/, the letters dropped are 
tt and v ; whereas in — AiV#os7n22 h 7, ]2 7, the letters dropped ar* 
-and 6. In p7C, one of the five homologies oi -Xivdtlov, v and 
8 drop out; while in the others — ^7^, E37 r* G^??/ ]3*??2 — 
only v drops out. Cf. -*~n Esr 10. 14, i3 Neh 13. ^.Vatf^ 

<JVVOlK€QJ. 

As to ^p_2X, it may be the TIT^n imperative of either Tp.Z 
jjj L/fvAoytoj, with X instead cf H — as in \~7X^X Jes 63. ::, 
L^VlX IIS 3. 18, 77 ^rrx Ps 76. 6, ^"r.X IlCh 20. 35— cr c: 

^2 ! ±}^ hpcGK^-tuj II Ch 6. 13, as in Arabic, -^ J- Accordingly. 

as Joseph drove by in the State ceremonial procession, the 
nopulace lined ud alon? the way was bid bv his forerunners 
or outriders to acclaim or kneel down, as a token of respect. 

£6d6$jli)M\ is another interesting homology. TD1X, ~1£*X : 
and "VDX arc aooarentlv indiscriminate sre-imes. Tims we find 
that "VDIX/HSIX is a personal name: Gn 10. 29 ICh 1, 23; 
TD1X/TDX :s a geographical name: IR 9. 28, 10. 11, 22. j,o 
ICh 29- 4 IlCh 8. 1 S, 9. 10; and TD1X :s an adjective: Jes 13. 12 
Ps 45. 10 Job 22. 24, 28. 16. The homologue of tins adjective \i 
aTTvpos in at least one context, Job 22. 24; elsewhere it may be 
£686$. Another homciogue of *686> is TCX Dan 10. 5, while 
dr:{6do$ is the homoicgue of T31XC Jer 10. 9 and 7D1Q IR 10. 18. 
Lastly, one o[ die many remarkable imds in my most exciting 
research is that eadi of the following three relevant Greek phrases 
had an identical twin in Hebrew : d-e68o$ xp vq °$j refined geld 
TD1X7D nni Jer 10. 9; apropos xP ua °*> unsmelied gold "VD1X uTT 
Jes 13. 12; and £686* xP va °s> refined gold TD DnD Cant 5, 11 



V 1 1 1. VERBAL ADJECTIVES II7 

ID1K EPQ Dan 10. 5. A plirasc identical with TDIKft 3HT is 
ID1Q SHT IR 10. 1 8, though TDIXZD might mean 'from m E<pcaos\ 

According to the commentators and lexicographers, TD1X in 
its different spellings is invariably a proper noun, and so is TD1N ■ 
whereas ID is a noun and TD1Q a participle of the verb TTD on 
the scale "xlTDn, meaning 'be refined'. 

The homology Ceuf-o'r.'trlDn/riilD shows '1} that when a 
Greek verb — e.g. ^uyvvu^ — bears several meanings, its Hebrew 
homologies tend to differ with the variation in meahir."- -'2) that 
Arabic is cf great corroborative value, and V :ha: an homology 
carries conviction when the various meanings cf the two homo- 
logues concerned coincide. Thus, consider the following mean- 
ings of Cerr/wai: of riding horses, harness, saddle, .cr.d bridle w2n 
IR 13. 13; bind fasten Ez 24. 1 7 Jon 2. 6 ["C Cant 7. 3]; join 
together in setting a fractured jaw tlu Ez 34. ±\ join in wedlock 
TJJ '> J ^ -~ ue at !aw ^-~ Job 34. 17; imZeCywui, bind fast 
"JIT} Ps 147. 5 \ join to w27\ Ez 30. 21. Mark, on one hand, the 
clcse resemblance between i*C and r }j ; and en the ether hand, 
the appreciable difference between harnessing a mount, setting 
a fracture, and going to law — in al! of which meanings ^tvyi-vin 
La:i:cS c\2lv.\ \%un '•/.jii. L^I. GKerra^w 1 ^ ^ i * __n lz ID. 10, 2^. 
17 Job 28. 11, 40. 13; and r. p. 208.) 

c?£to^ nC"i t etc.. is a most interesting homolosv. 

First, according to the Septuagint, HCIm means dpe-rr:, 
'adopted foundling', the initial Pi being the definitive article. 
Apparently, in die days of the LXX, they knew the word HOT as 
meaning 'adopted'. But riCTn has since been interpreted as an 
ahas of Esther, akin to C~Ih — interpreted as 'aromatic bush', 
'myrtle' — where the H is an integral letter of the word. In one 
case, therefore, the homologue would be Seres .V^nj, 'adopted 
daughter" ; while in the other, it would be -SiV, Doric aois, 
'pleasant' smelling or 'pleasant* looking. Since Esther was an 
adopted as well as a comely maiden, the probability is that she 
was surnamed nOlil on both accounts. 

Secondly, pCD is a homologue of dcros by tine insertion of 72 
in the middle of the verb to facilitate pronunciation; cf. lorosj 
"I1Q27. Otherwise, the relevant homologue of riSruja would have 
been ]D, instead of pB Prv 19. 24, the ] being a terminal 1 
This is corroborated by the Epic infinitive nd^fievat and the 



,,8 VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

homology depafjlft'cn Gn 43. 23 Jes 45. 3 p2C Dan 1 1. 43, the 
two Hebrew synonyms reflecting the Greek dialectal exchange of 
9 with X- Pronunciation was facilitated in other homologucs fif 
ridrjpt by a prosthetic X, by resorting to the MY 3, or by trans- 
literating the verb in full. However, the difficulty in pronuncia- 
tion is still experienced in WV2, where only the Hebrew terminal 
U is added to die root 8t ; for in the formation of the ^I^Th 
{CTnn), both the r and 6 were used: Dan 2. 5 Esr 4. 21, 5. 8. 
(Cf/r^/xi/nCl ICh 2:. io/7D2 IIS 24, :2.; 

SoroVprU is a doubly peculiar homoicgy — in that mor- 
phologically, the Hebrew homologuc corresponds to deros as well 
as boros ; while semantically, it is highly specialized to describe 
one of two grades in the Hebrew hierarchy — the Levites and the 
Xtthinim properly so called — subordinate to the priests. For the 
priesdiood in Israel was monopolized by Aaron and his descen- 
dants. He and his sons were ceremonially anointed and conse- 
crated to minister to God, and accordingly constituted a strict 
caste somewhat segregated from the rest of the people Ex 29. 1-37, 
30. 30, 40. 12-15 ICh 23, 13^ . The priests were agisted in a limited 
wav by their fellow tribesmen, die Levites, who formed a secon- 
dary and looser caste. The Levites were formally dedicatee — 
CTri, 'granted 1 — by the rest of the people :o God, instead c: 
the first-born Israelites; because lie had consecrated unto him- 
self all tiie first-born in Israel, both man and beast, when he 
executed them from destruction in the plague inflicted on Egypt 
;'Ex 12. 12, 1 3, 2Q Nu 3. 6— 13, 8. 6—1 9} , Supplementary auxiliaries 
to the priests were dedicated — D^IT] or ETTI, 'granted' — by 
king David (Esr 8. 17, 20). The descendants of these votaries 
set themselves up into a separate category, referred to by the 
Seotuagint as AdiveiLi* X*zdcvtu 7 Nadu'iii, or ct Xadivaioi ; but only 
once was their name translated (ol Scdou^Voi ICh 0, 2;. However, 
TVi-Tu in Dt 28. 31, and C2i"!j in die next verse, mean simply 
'granted, given, jiven away', and are obviously so rendered by 
the Septuagint. 

e/<par7)$7*"Hj : Any person, man or woman, might make the 
vow of a Nazarene, a 'self-disciplined' man, whereby he bound 
himself for a certain period to grow his forelock, to refrain from 
shaving his head, to keep away from die dead, and to abstain 
from any product of the vine. He would thus become tempora- 



VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 119 

riiy 'devoted to the Lord\ At the end of that period — apart from 
unleavened bread, cakes, and libations — he would bring four 
sacrifices : a burnt offering, another ottering for purification and 
a pavment offering — presumably representing the payment of 
a ransom or conscience-debt felt by die Nazarcne to be due to 
the Deitv. In addition, he would shave his forelock and place die 
luxuriant crop on the fire beneath the payment offering ."Nu 6. 
2-2:^ The whole undertaking, more particularly the sacrifice 
of his own hair, was a personal votive gift give:: of himself, 
probablv as a symbol of self-sacrifice. Similarly, die Greeks used 
to be^in their sacrificial rites by cutting oil a wisp cf hair ironi 
the victim's forehead and casting it into the fire 'Odyssey 3. 446}. 
And Eurioides significantly refers to the sacrificed own hair: 

baKpuc r' tCLjtca *at koutjs drrrip^dfj.T]v [EUctrc 01 \ Again: xou7]$ 
a-cjyci k-zI ;(oc> <b£povG iua$ > Orestes 9^;- 

The homologies involved in this rite are : H7* 'xcTaSvcdtj. shave 
dose; riZyzC-ua, victim, sccrif.ee] IVdoraoU, cc- : c-, n\; grapes, 
rzzsir.s: X~H <adapiL f to, cleanse, purify; T:KDn '<addpciov sc. Upov), 
i>':r:r t cz::-rr o^ering: H^H Vo'AAtf, roll or loaf of czcrse bre-zJ: 7S~in 
pci, c-zyc;. grade, generally, berry ] Z'2'' oIulg;. c: things, dry, 
tarcked; "ZZ <cdaplCcj, clecr.se. pur if;; m^'.Wc*, :~jc:k. metaph. 
soft; !"!~2~ ivideua, -9vp.a, anything dedicated ; "^"2 uzZz., barley- 
cake, distinguished from apros .'wheaten bread ; "^"TI -:jcjl::. ojer 
10 the geds; TT2/5a»por f votive gift or offering to a god; HT^'d;t?oj; 
"TiH 'rMt\u. present, offer \ and. or lyKpa.r€\ou.c:, exercise self- 
ccnirol Nu 6. :2 ; and/or a'^otiat, vow or promise to do; "TTri d-eyea. 
keeD oneself from, refrain oneself; war-: restrain hlrr.scl: fro:n lb 6. 
3 ; *TTI £y«aTP?. maj^r of oneself, self-controlled, self disciplined; 
and or €\<rc?, vowed, dedicated; ~C1'<j-oi-ot), drink- ojer.r.g; ri73J; 
e'rfrrvotMcr:?. calcination ; S/Ej" c-<?uWa;. promise Lev 27. 2 Nu 6. 2 ; 
i;~;£ -co<=_;ci-. forelock of a horse, frontal tuft: TTv dvi'ccu, 
hallow, make sacred, sanctify r\V) ; 3"Tp.a-/ioy, devoted to the gods; 
in good sense, sacred, holy; 2''~\pr[;«adi€p€vcu, sacnf.ee, ojfer; ]-"lp ; 
Upcloy, Ionic icjO^t'ov, victim, animal for sacrifice, Iptvovo* Upr.toi- Od. 
14. 94; rX"Vr\0oa0ioff, //-on/ ; p*p"l#fw*TOff, roasted, fried; "1S72?/ 
tdeioc., hair, ooetic noun ; CE^^/flur^a, ^utJA^uc, in pi., sacrificial 
offering] 6v.\r,p.a, that which is ojfered, mostly in pi., dvXv^a-rc, cakes, 
incense, etc.; ^Q7C?/T£Ao5 f payment; pi. services or offerings due to 



iao VIII. VERBAL ADJECTIVES 

the gods; UWRjadtTTjixa, breach offaitk 7 transgression ; pl'ou/Tj, old 
name for the vine; vitjv, viqv, any climbing plant with tendrils, esp. 
grape-vine (IIR 4. 39); f&n/£i//iaj<ns, fermentation; T\lVlolud^ tm a 
wild pigeon , of the colour oiVojttos*, /A* rock-doze^ Columba *:z:s\ 
Y'loZvoSy wine) HjU/oiVotttj, a kind o£ grape-vine ; ^ZVjpedv, wine; 
aiKepa, fermented liquor, strong drink) rn~2 / <rr <L\ayfj.a } that which 
drops, a drop) 1137)^6 £vpov, razor) ^\t\}rpir/wv, turtle-dove. 

Thus both the rite and its nomenclature are Hellenic, though 
the institution of the Nazirate seems to be purely Hebraic. I: 
will have been noticed that Tin has three homologies :c 
cope with, and "Vu two: one, eu/croV, a verbal adjective. 
homologizing with "T!j like fjucdcjTQs with "1t3w; the o:;;er. 
€YKpaTTJs y a noun, homologizing with "Tu like pLicdajros, a 
Subst., with T3t7. 



121 
IX. PROPER NOUNS 

XLVIL Some Hebrew proper nouns resemble Greek proper nouns , others 
have Greek verbs > adjectives and common nouns as hamologues] while 
some Greek prober nouns have Hebrra: common nouns as homclo^ues. 



* 4 



r!~T^X 


A'COtuvtvs 


*Jw\ 


1 J 


j. .-K 


: J 


Vyrzx 


£V7lAlOS" 


t r . - 


€VpT.lia 


I"X 


€l'Q€Ua 


r-??~ 


'2X €UT)\tOS 



* r ii 

""r 5 ??? 1 *aAA#c«- Aopoclrcs), the 

"or planet Venus 



*?" ^-CTT rliSou 



- T 7 — fcj&n > 



oiVrJrci;^ 



- ■ — *.• 






'- fc > --^> 7! W Jiorra:-, Jtoff 

T ; - 

1 * ' V> w tJ > ,-< i ' i jiovr^y 

It: * 

n~*x ., «*-*^ 

^J ' HIS** tw^ccj^o^ 

"-x ^^. ^° IV;^ 

X^TX >:^:t? 17 s - 3 iVu^ 

i. r ^ J\ ,:* ,^£ CK7T7JP J ■ - 

o rz$ AopoQiras, ' " 

the siar.et Venus; N "^ -=W/a? 

cf.Jery- i3) ^ 

1V2 Jtoj, /7a icy 

Z**?2 rroXvouuaros 

p7Z ©JAa£ 

'■?IT2 ^Atoy, iJcAior, iJA* ^^ny {9apQu>, £- 

63l\tos, rro'at?, fle'Aa ow) ITTin JIT? Zrv 

* - 

rca Trdcrt? aL^& ^tSijs- fr? 



T 


.VtuVor 


Vn: 


: j 








If 



* - f 


; j 




N2T 


■> f ;OLr 


9 


— -*** 






' **" ■ 


-< 




— • » 


J^r^A^- 


cTos* 




> y 




J i ; w 

T 


<vo<i 




*•*■-* 


<V3lJ. 








/4t5Tj7 


s )\C 




? > 


TX2- 




^ou 


^ N .— « 


, , 


J J 


^NZ*~ 


■ 7 


M 




J > 


>) 




ffKVUi'Oi 




1 ^ 







»2- 



1=2 IX. PROPER XOU.VS 



...i — 



*** ~ IJro\( ualc$ 



Of necessity, an element ofconjccturc enters into the search for 
and ascertainment of homologues of proper nouns: ethnic, per- 
sonal, and geographical. But I have tried to eliminate it as far 
as possible by the aid of two determining factors, namely: the 
context and comparison with other biblical homologies. Tun:- 
ciousiy exploited, these two factors piay such a decisive role that 
most of the results obtained through their aoolication in this 
special research attain a degree of certainty a-rr.es: equal to thai 
achieved in the ascertainment of other homologies, where more 
factors and more reliable factors are available. This calculated risk 
has been amply justified, since there emerges a meaningful multi- 
lateral pattern of unexpected lucidity, wherein feature religious 
and social as well as philological details of far-reaching interest. 
They reveal, inter alic. hitherto hidden customs and historical 
facts which shed a flood of light on the Hellenic nature of Kehrev.- 
annals and way of life. 

A preliminary exploration indicates that in this sector cfeur 
:r.vest:gation appearances are even more deceptive than else- 
where, because — to tite difheuities arising from die camouhace 
created by literal exchanges— there is added the handican •_:" 
hemophony. Thus, the components HK and iV ohTHS cannot 
have their respective ordinary meanings, any more than ZX and 
'"/r in '/lTZX. And what about ZICT-X and Z'^HS? Equally 
intriguing is a different set of compounds, i.e. r^I~T*X and 
*----, ^J-N ana /±-i,c\. bmu.any, tn.e com t:c ur.es 
beginning with "7K or ending with. ^X— such as T.^"7iX and 
]=::T7N\ 7X-11N and "^X'lN, 7X~;TX and '7NT:>\ ^TX 
and 7XT:r, 'WlX in Jes -20. 1 and *7XnX :n Esr 3. 16. 

I first classified these nouns into groups: V those beginning 

with ~-X and "'ZN, '2) with "HX and ""S. 3^ with TX, 

J a, i\ *\ ? JwN, i^N, jN, iiN; ana ±* tnose wnicn 

include in their composition *7X and ^X. This convinced me that 

~-X and ~^2X had no more to do with 'father* than "FIX and 



IX. PROPER NOUNS 123 

"UK have with 'brother'; that, in fact, ~2K and T1K, - "QX 
and - TiK were interchangeable; that the vocalization of ~2X 
was immaterial ; and that neither 7^ nor PP necessarily referred 
to the deity. The fact that 7^v2X is the same as J127I?-'2X, 
and IT2X as D^X, was both challenging and helpful. 

Now some of the words which follow ~2X and ~*2X, such as 
uITj and 217^, are common nouns the respective homologies of 
which were known to me. I had also discovered the homologue 
of *nrr. It suddenly struck me that ~2X in 7T,"2X resembled tv 
as pronounced in modern Greek; and, on immediate trial, found 
them to be identical: 21"~2X 'eJi-oo?, 7IV2X '^tV-rc^ 2*7Z*2X/ 
eiyoAevcs. This provided the key to nearly all the names begin- 
ning with ~2X and 2X; and it was not long before I realized 
that these prefixes were also equivalent to eye-, and that aye- 
was also equivalent to "X and HX. Much later I accidentally 
noticed that evdo^os was Boeotian for fSSouo* [serer.iir , and that 
c.3\j]f>ci was a variant of evATpa Vc: reins). 

What paved the way to the resolution of the dimculty pre- 
sented by the third group 'for although i: contained several 
words, there was, as I discovered later, oniy one circuity; cf. 
Gn 4:. 26] was the interpretation of another series cf kindred 
enigmas, not less baffling because some of them had been passed 
over by the exegetes who took ;hem to be simple words of ob- 
vious meanings. They are: TT2, 7U27\ rT27\ 71T2 2^"1^2, 



For my part, I could see no reason why, of ah the idols, Baal 
should have been singled out for shame. And even if Baal was 
actually identified with 'shame', I found it utterly unacceotable 
that Gideon and the sons of both King Saul and Prince Jonathan 
should have been referred to by ignominious aliases. Nor did the 
p!ausibie explanation for sumaming Gideon 7172 ~T commend it- 
self to me, seeing that 7172 2 i*2 and 7172"~^ were alternatives 
to r,r2*D^, Lastly, Simonies opinion, quoted by Gesenius, that 
rr2"D2 is a contraction from r^2 ^XDE, 'exterminating the 
idol*, did not impress me, any more than the Lexicon's interpreta- 
tion of 71?2~2 1 7fa : 'Baal is {our, my, his) advocate [?) . . . but 
G. B. Gray thinks 7U2 *H/2 orig. form = hero of Baal*. In the 
circumstances, I felt that not only P\V2 y but also the prefixes to 
it and to 71/2. demanded fresh investigation. 



i2i IX, PROPER NOUNS 

This led me to the discovery that the homclogue of 7172, the 
Phoenician sun-god, was x3*\ios y Cretan for f Aic> ; that its 
homonym, meaning 'husband', had -dc;~; ;cr hnmoloiue; arjd 
ma: -601$ was also or.e uf the homologa^s 0; m. For a: the 
time of Gideon and Saul, the connection between 7172 and rr.ee 
had long been forgotten, and people though: c: 7172 mere!*/ as 
a spouse (cf. Hos 2. i3, :o . But at that time, the connrcbon cf 
7172 'husband) with -cc;> had also been ccmnie'elv for::v*:er. : 
hence, the alternative appellation, of Baa! heme 222 the ether 
hcrr.clo^ue of rcc;c I^c-b^^o^v : : -r* ,-- u >*- -.-— - .-Vmv*<; ( - •" ^"*— 
are the svnonvms. alccj*. -J-viA^?. 

The key to the riddle oi the various nrchxes to ^X : 722, 222 T 
and 217 is to be found in r22~2"N — where :he homologue of 2\X 
:s r;fto? rather than c;Vj — and trie hyphenated -"2 2 2 ;;e:nc 
in contiguity with ]1X ;*H2 ' Ez 30. 17 . F:r it is ?h'ftc> and its 
synonyms, €1^17:- and i^-fjcf, which* are ate homclcjues 01 the 
other prefixes — except ""22. 2. and 22. due homologies cf 
d^cA Strangely enough, i: was when I :.?rr.^~ the v:cv; that the 
prefix ~"2?3 was the h:^:!o:i:c of d^id— <-. tha: 222^27 meant 
'a ichower of Baah — that I anoreciated the fundamental ft:nc:i:n 
c: - -_ w N m my :n\ e:::gat:om a::c; realized th.at I it; ' d en the 
mresnold of a massive disci-very. 

\ c: one more series of comparisons with ether hihlical h:me- 
legues, to establish the dveibld mean:::; :f "X. An cbvLus 
homologue is : ; c -o'f, where the d drops cut thrruei: aphesis, as 
:n repcrrfc'a/nK'iST ; while the terminal r turns dialectal/.- inte 
z which, in turn, also dialectaily alters te u Au-/:hvr equally 
valid homologue is 7A-0. e.g. JV717 7N hVtv-c T-ecA^e where 
the gutturals — 17 and the sp:r::us iisctr — interchange, the - drons 
cut as :n €prrtr6y ^72 ana C-rr€p's:ir ana - changes to A. A third 
:s cT^r;-; a fourth cAc>. F.::all\\ -cAlv ; h;;_ase :e-me:imes 7X ii 
sn:rt for *7X, and en;e al 



nates w:t:t . ± _. inc.cen: 



222 has two other horn; 



:c;t:cs : -, 



anc r?QAiTT]s 9 e.g. : — ._ . ^__ 

Several proper nouns have more than one possible homoiotrue, 
because of the close similarity between all due structures con- 
cerned without their prcr.xcs, e.g. TA.T2X is likely to homo- 
lugize: with euScupos, on the basis of the hom^lec.* S6a$ n^^r ; 
with €vd<Lp-q£ } on the basis of the homology rucafTlT; with 



IX. PROPER NOUNS 125 

tvTTous, on die basis of the homology tto l;V/Ti£?K. Another example 

is ^OX. 

On the other hand, there arc different nouns which have 
the same possible homology or homologies — e.g. 7N^2i< and 
]T27U"^2S — because they refer to die same person. This pair 
of nouns confirms the accuracy of the inference that 7X is the 
homologue of 7}Ato>, drawn from the homology ]V7iJ 7X ^HeXios 
'Y-tplujv. At the same time ";27I; illustrates the interchange 
of - and l. A different example is: ny77X, LTV7X, and 
1T7 H 7IT2 Jiomologizing wit:- TroXuetd^ij.coy : r-Xioticrz or 'ffAtJS^^. 
First, U*T7K and U~r7!J2 refer to die same person: die di- 
lemma here being, whether ~7LTZ is die homologue of — oAJ? or — 
like 7U2 — that of 7jAic>, <12£\lq$. Then, H3J77X and U7"7^ are 
very similar; so diat it is no: unreasonable to assume that they 
have the same homologue. After due consideration, however, I 
judged die claims of 'HXtdc^ to be of secondary rank. 

"V.jT in Dt 32. 4, 1 8, 37 is the homologue of dec* ; but 7^jT7K 
is synonymous with "- !*!£, both being he mo -cgous with 
e'frnvr.LGcos J:dy. However, 7"jT7X belongs to a series of proper 
nouns compounded of two r.cuns which change w::h each other 
not cases but only places — e.g. U7^7X and 7X1T r, IV 7 X or 
.j 1 /c\ ana /Nj , lj^ /N anc /f\72u y n-^/N ar.c /Niuj, 
11^ /N and 7N iTj>, - ^- ^N and /N l. /1. — wn:cn repay 
soecial scrutiny. 

These names illustrate the cattern or principle of the prefix- 
suffix phenomenon ; and the key to the series is die last pair, 
because it illustrates that phenomenon to perfection. Thus, 
£7D"7X and 7X^D7£ are synonyms, both meaning €lptv 
n\ovrtLjvc$. This is confirmed by another pair, -1T7N IIS 11.3) 
and 7X^1" 'ICh 3. 5), which, refers to the same per:on — Bath- 
sheba's father. Now apart from this proper noun, ~U has several 
homologues, e.g. Srjpos and yapc? (Cn 19. 38' ; so that Z'IT7X 
might mean ttoAJS^o^ or -oXtyauos. But neither homologue 
is suitable: populous is an adjective which applies to a place, 
while often married refers to what a mature aduit has been or 
become, and not to a newly born babe. On the other hand, 
*mv god is people' does not make sense; still less does 'my 
god is unlawful wedlock 1 . But the true homologue of ES7 in this 



is6 IX. PROPER NOUNS 

compound is ya/xcTT^, the synonym of ?t6gls — HC73 — the alterna- 
tive name of Baal. Accordingly, EIT7N seems to mean Baal's 
present. As a matter of fact, judging by 7 XV 'J 165 eip~"T> :: 
actually means 'Baal's young man/gift'; and so docs 7X"CL\ 
Similarly, HS^X and 7X^*11^ mean one and the same thing. 

Here the Septuagint comes to our assistance in a big way. 
To begin with, who in his senses would have equated H-'J/S 2Z" 
in IIS 23. 8, with US ZIP in ICh 1 r. : : ? Ye: this strangest of 
equations is testified to by the Scriptures, without any explana- 
tion for it from the Lexicon. Fortunately, the Septuagint reads 
otherwise: r\2$2 2^T is substituted by 'Uczcc&e in the Greek 
version, and by * haSadX in the Lucian ; while WS2ZP is *haz- 
£aBd in die former. Mark, incidentally, the consonant vowel 
metathesis in * hoSoadt* hoSooed* 'Itctz-zcd — -2ado — -2ad\. 

Gesenius states : TZ^S 22T 1 ('dwelling tranquilly 1 ["sitting on 
the seat"]) . . , in the parallel passages IV-7V J :inc ' ' Fasho'Scr:. 
like D3J2"V ''to whom the neopie turn" . . .' On the other hand. 
the Lexicon simply records the different versions, except that :: 
omits to note die significant substitution 0: i.*.-; -;c;\o :or *lZ"r 
Vhich it states ought to read "122 "H ar.c 0: *liGi£>zc^ :cr 
l-UZ^. However, my theory reconciles ah these versions by 
Drovinor that the differences between diem are uurelv ohilolc- 

?lCal I l€OfSoG€0 LtO€ZaCL*\ i ;-/— '■/ k\ /-^— - v\. 

~ Thus: rQS2 -3^ :s literally ^or rr 3 <7^? mi'ITX, 7t<7- 
zocdi) — 2 ST homologizing with the genitive of rc^os*, ??^°^ die 
v turning into 2 — and EI722T ffd^o^ yauirov. Moreover, 7rcc:> 
stands for *7I72, as does G17 for yau€-nr$. Again, the syllable 6c 
in 'haefiaSd has undergone consonant vowel metathesis from n3, 
while 3 has replaced A dialectally from cA ; so that in the result 
die word actually reads VcceSadA. As for "ZZu^, as usual, the 
word is accurately recorded; and : as is almost invariably the 
case, die purported correction by the L?x:cj>: is presumptuous. 
Now "'lODnn in IIS 23. 8 changes — hitherto unaccountably — 
to TiftDPPp in ICh n. 11. As a matter of fact, this is simply 
because ^DDHn exemplifies the prefix-sumx phenomenon, its 
homoiogue being '.-^cuio^'S^ (the prefix "T- exciianging with 
the suffix -Stjs) or — as die Septuagint has it in ICh ti. 1 1 — vto? 



IX. PROPER NOUNS 127 

Axafidv. Incidentally, mark how the D^n (o) was recorded as 

Y?2p r (a) in the LXX, and as ^liO in T\V2~ jTZJZ- . 

There can, therefore, be no doubt that — as a method of 
philological research — die technique adopted throughout this 
work is in itself absolutely correct; although, of course, it cannot 
be guaranteed that its application has always been successful. 
Mistakes will humanly occur here and there, but they would not 
affect the validity of my theory or the extent of its success. 

Another scries of compound proper nouns — this time made ud 
of subject and verb — foiiews the same patter::, e.g. jmiT or 



■ « ^ * « 



]r.lV and iTLH] or *mr.2, jimrr or ]-iTf and — n. n — 1 1 or 
limn, "jliT or 2 "7 2 V and il^ll In fact, the homologue of 
211V and ]niV is Jlccotg? or ^locdoro^. and that of "pHV 
Jioycvrji'. Indeed, it is v"7U*ri* or p"7UV and ITp~:£ or *irTp"7jI 
which point to the true construction of these compounds; for 
!Tplj> is IT p~»-£ and not IT p~± — so that the compound is 
really composed of two nouns and has for homologue Zev? StVr 
tart ^eus is Truth. 

Lastly, €i-pu3ia$ = €vpvc7€*.rr,$. of jar exUr.de.i rr.:~r.t^ ?n:ghr,\ 
Therefore, *he homology s-J-jviiW 721JO is corroborated bv the 
context Gn 49. 3;, a rare phenomenon for a prober noun. But 
a unicuc phenomenon occurs in Prv ^o + :, where two orooer- 
noun homologies corroborate each other, viz. dyvp-rr^ ~V;>X and 
iKi-rr.s rfi/* 1 . Xo doubt, :hev are oseudonvms assumed bv the 
XI?£ r :idyTi>] concerned and his father. According to the Lexicon, 

"TSS is 'peri:, hireling, Ar. _^b Aram. X~TIX . . . others gatherer, 

fr. :. "1IX\ It so hao^ens that gvi'pttk means croccriv collector , 
esp. heggbzg priest (fakir , and derives from dytipiu. the homolcgue 
01 ^N : 

The fallowing are some relevant components : 

a;x^'t . --it. i-M, *-.-, -, w, t.*w , 



-■j 



Sov.\oi : ~7~? > 

«i>7i-: — i-tS, -nix, -5W-, — .x, -nx, — v, -vv, — :\ rs-r, -Vx, 
-^x. -■??.. "*"?R. "??-; 

£«vy : 1 , , .1 ,1.. , ^ . . ; 

<4>rjSo^, t6a3os: ""-!?, ~~\ "*-?, "22C, *CS; 



ia8 IX. PROPER NOUNS 

rjWeos, TJI-, j}-, a-; fern. rjiOtTj : "1TN, ""X, "TnX, "'"X, ~7"X, ~r"X, 

"tvk, "~it»K, "^-.trx, -rx, ~sx, -nx, "iv t z, "iro, _, n, ""str, — *.r;, 
-bt, -tr, z& t -^, -•»-, -j?;, ^\ -r.-, —r,\ -n-r, -nry-, 
"^ns, -jr.?, —.is, -bp., -v>p, -?p_, *"r ; -r- ; 

i^Atos 1 , aftdXtos : 7X, /X - , ^? - j '^?> 7V""; 

flcoy: K~ (^'?), ^K", "Vx*, "^X, KZ~, 7r", 72'; 

KQpos, kqv-, kuj-: ~"Z1; 
fn-tpaf: — IBX, — ,ZX, Z":Z; 

riXovrajv: ^3*72; 

rroAvr: - ^X ? ^*7X ; ^-Zj ~7irZ> "Z* 

The following are some of the relevant corripounds : 

•pa^x, jiz^-^zx, rrrrx, "v.x, Vx^x, rrvx, ""^x, rvtnx, rvrx ? 

r.vrnx, -p^*" 1 -^ Vzrx, rrz-rrx, rrx, rx\~x ? '-x*'?x, rr'/X. % n"x. 

-pz^x, d^'tx, rVz^x : -t^tx, *nzx f rr-.zx. rx":x f ^x—.x, ^x^rx. 

n^xnrx, bx'-izx, Virx. Tvzrx, T-zrx, u xvz, Vx^z;, rv". 

vtjt, Vxvr, Tx^rT, ^xv:-, 7ncq, tz~z:\ *v:t, zi:z"v, rzz". 

7X"*r, m 1 , in™*, rrz^\ ^rrzv, z^:*^ ^x~t\ rzrz zr % , zrzz\ 



i i -> ^ ^ / *\ ,-« j- t A:*. 



**-^-*^rirj ™**n*^ ^**— *-*>* *7T--» -*-^*^ -.* — v — ^ », -»^^ — r~""* ,* ' : ! - 

/r\ —^ l 7c\* i- i*, . • > 3 ii /. - :maiC. . , n *** .e::i. i, * * /* ^ , — — . 

^irns, nc2"s, ^r^s, Vx^rTD, ^p f ^Vp, K"Vp, rx^^, r^-i ; '^xz^ ; 
K'2T J n^sn^ V^zr, rr:zr ; ^'x—r ; Vx—r. 

rroAuatjUaros' nZH "7!;z Xah 1- 2 *"-.'.' ; / ;.';;i 

— oAJyAcutTcoy jTT: TVZ Ecc: io. i: :?*j.*::r.£ *"j;;v ijrigufs 

rr6\uQ P it -lrr TS= IIR i. 3 *■:":/. ^^. .-:•;:> 

rroAL?i<£pca^ Z^I^pn 7ITZ Dan 8. 20 n^r.y- homed 

7ro\ufj.T]Tis Tm^TZ'T^Z Prv 2-j. 8 or rnzrrs : oiLr.se Is 

rro\v6ufj.aro? Z>7Z Xu 24. 3, 4 rr^rr^eved 

rroXuppayrjs Z^iJ7Z 7i*2 IIS 5. 20 :r::/i n^jnv branches, of a river 

T7oAJao<£o? vZ^ 7JTZ Pr\* 16. 22 :^rv wise 

rroAJrpt^o? T1*T *?VZ, jap. 

iro\vxpoo$ C^S7Z3 ?TT Jud 5. 30 nuny^olouTed 



IX. PROPER NOUNS 129 

The following arc the homologucs of pdirns and their com- 
pounds : 

(icm.), '";-^, /XtTE, :|^ -, -TT-, .iw-3, ^--, .I--"-, N--, 1*-'-, V-> 

^twinn, ]r:5, *2rra, ^a, rrir?, irr^n. 

Another series of procer nouns, short but important, also mani- 
fests the prefix-suffix phenomenon. Each noun Is a name made 
up of a subject, God; and a transitive verb, the implied object 
cf which is the person bearing that name. But the hcmologuc of 
such a ncun is adjectival : it embodies the subject and the action 
of the verb, and implicitly qualifies that person. Thus jmiT or 
j^rr changes back to front into iV-H] or imr.1, "DIP or 
Z~\ZV into ""212, and Tiri'lV or "piTT or ]:n*7X ir.co min 
or limn or *7HIJn. The homologue of ]riIV or ZllT is Aioootos 
or Jtccrooroi, that of flilTX is daoyevris and that of ]iriV is 

Numerous names of peoples 2nd places throughout the Middle 
East — the land conglomeration washed by the Euphrates, ir.e 
Mediterranean, die Jordan, the Dead Sea, the Red Sea, the 
Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea. and the Persian Guif— resemb'.e 
ZkuSt.s and its derivatives. They constitute convincing testimony 
that m verv ancient times that part of the world was ru^ed and 
inhabited by Cimmerians, Greeks, and Scythians, e.g. : 

m: IIR :-. 5, *m; ICh ::. 34, ~n Gn 10. 15, vn lb 15. 20, ziz 
IIR 10. 9, ~r~- IlCh ta. 3, z~rz lb 21. 16, r~r.z Xu 12. 1, \~*2 
Jud 3-3 Hab 3. 7, "« IIR :;. 30, nr.13 lb 17. 24, =TC Gn :o. 19, 
re Ex ic. i, "*s Gn 10. 1-, T= Ex 19. i, i~' Job :. 1. r"-^ - Xu 33- 
35, =-r'J Jos 19. 35 |? Nu 20. i, ~2np ; Jud 5. 2i, " Gn. 29. : 
Xu 23. 7, "~~p Gn 15. :q IS 24. 14 Ez 47. 18, r~~p D: 2. 26, "7 
Ez 27. 2: Car.t 1. 5, yrr.7 I IS 15. 23, r-7 Jud 4. 7, •"■*"_?. Jos 21. 28, 
z-rr G:: 14. 3, rtrr Jud 7. 22. -'rr Jos 2. 1, j'<jj^"\ *jp , Jj- r - 

Indeed, the biblical map — which stretches from Egypt to 
India, and from Sparta to Aden — is sprinkled with many names 
the Greek origin of which has been wrapped up in philological 
obscurity, e.g. : 

=nrj £-!X, Tnrx, en? rrz, rrs-is Vsa, ms:, n?: } ?p-rn, pcin, 
]it, p{?T, pis, mp, ners, nsa, -visa, ansa, rr-p, arc, ^d n.nj, 

M34CT7 F 



130 IX. PROPER NOUNS 

etiso Vm, -ns?, rrrj, =-.x pa, t*s, .".2, -.-j, ]:rs, r.sy*, r?-. ; 
]k7, tis, "nrrr, rvr, "'77, p~^, ~rir.. 

Four cities have no: as yet been definitely identified and 
located, namely: 12272 : HE?ft, "7123. and 2~2H7. Therefore, 
they present a challenge to my theory, which I readily pick up. 

The word Xw^2 is a homoioeue of azi-iizw and is therefore 
Hellenic* It occurs once only, in Gn :o. 3:, where it is said that 
the descendants cf 127" —*x'c?-n> settled all over the land stretching 
from *\E?E to the Scythian mountains. 727* has a distinctly Ar;h.i : 
ring, so that the area indicated most pr:f::ahlv lies between the 
Red and Arabian Seas. This was known as 7272 I): :. 1. 0. i 
the homologue of czr^a, a solitude, d*:ir;^ udd?n:tss — and its : in- 
habitants were caiied 211/ TR :o. 15 cr 2*212 lb :;. 4, i . 
The single desert-dweller was called *X2^27 "212 cr "72*21 

■ ^ or A s~\ — words homolotjizintj with ^-„^cr and ior.iL-.-rr;. 

Xow there must have been several ~z^-n*^ in that Dart cf the 
world — such as the cne presided over bv Jethro — and the fact 
that the one referred to here was sincled tut as a landmark 

goes to show that it was a famous one. most nrcbnbly ^5C. F<„r 
the antiquity and sanctity of this city go very far back, and it has 
occupied a central position from time immemorial. Indeed. s;:t:e 
:ts worship was Apcllcnic. it must ha\e been ::\::\d<td durino the 
occupation and cverlcrdship of the Greeks in that region. Thus 

the A r *5" J the sacred stone in -5L, is ca;:c in shape and, therefore, 
+-jS~ is a homoicgue of k-JSq*. Dijz are also called in Arab:: 

^*jS~. Moreover, the pilgrims go round that rock seven times in 
ritual procession, and seven is the Anclhouc n^ure p<jr ^avaV ■:/.'. 
It is also significant that the heights overlooking Mecca are 
called o5j ^ ooocc:. execs = 6cc6rr ; ';;'; ::h, Jeocci; C ; o.'i.e. 
i.e. his UmpU. 

As to the pronunciation of X2*2 -dC-. a- is pronounced - 
by the peasants in Israel. I recall an occasion wl\c:\ the . o^J. 
cf Lifta — a village near Jerusalem on the highway to Jaffa — 
reproved his young sen for having eaten two generous portions 
of cake meant by my grandmother for both cf them, exclaiming : 

-wo juj; J { ^ <f d ! 

Thus one word in the Bible, rightly interpreted, brings out 



IX, PROPER NOUNS 131 

into die light a whole epoch which has for so long Iain in oblivion. 
Another such word is "HDD, which also occurs once, that is, in 
the penultimate verse of the monocapitular book of Obadiah* 
Here it is : 

It aDDears that there were two Hebrew commercial colonies in 
Greece ; one in TilPo, composed mainly of Israehtish expatriates : 
the od:er in "HDD, composed mainly of Judear-s. In my opinion, 
"IT DO is H-dpr7] and TDIjI G^pd-vr). It will he recalled that the 

name flDT^ was borne by a Phoenician city IR 17. q, 10) which 

• - - - 

is now known as jlJ— This word resembles Bepdrrvr}^, the 
genitive of Qtpd—, -r n even as closely as does r.D~l-£: in one the 
a changes dialectallv into S. and in the other into T:. It is 
significant that the Continental HD^jS was described as HD^-i 
"pVjw 7~X, to distinguish it from another r.D^jJ, presumably 
the one in Greece — just as TO^l) was described in Jos ai. 2 
22. 9 as |i/--, \ iN^ ii/'^J and p-- r ;N-I ii/j/j, pre- 
sumably to distinguish i: from another shrine of the same name 
elsewhere, that on the island of Delos. 

Obviously, C21720 means merchants, as in Prv 3:. 24; and i::t 
respective homologues ofT,7i and 7n arelAaco and o^Ao?. There 
is no record or tradition that these multitudes of exiles ever re- 
turned to the land of their fathers- They certainly did not inherit 
anv oar: of it. What has hacoened to them? In fact, both H7I 
and 7H bear an uncanny resemblance to EDaj^ and EI\<jjttjz. \\ ere 
the Helots, then, Hebrews? Let us examine the evidence, for mere 
is strong circumstantial evidence from Hebrew history, which 
has never been considered because nobody has ever asked mis 
question before. 

To begin with, the Greek annals are scanty and obscure, so 
much so that even the identity of the Helots has not been defi- 
nitely determined. Fortunately, the approximate date of the 
Helot civil war is known and placed circa 650 3.C., a generation 
or so after another war had raged at some distance away, which 
may well have caused it. I refer to the Assyrian conquest of the 
kingdom of Israel and the captivity of its inhabitants, a large 
number of whom must have been bought by Phoenician camp- 
followers who found a ready market for them in Greece. 



i 3 2 IX. PROPER NOUXS 

'What are you to mc, O Tyre and Sidon and ail the regions of 
Phiiistia? , . . for you have taken my silver and my gold and carried 
off my desirable objects into your halls. You have sold the people of 
Judah and Jerusalem to the Greeks, in order ;o remove them f.ir 
beyond their own frontiers/ Jccl 4. 4-6 

Indeed, dao$, the name of a slave, may well be c David\ and I 
am informed by Professor C^tus H. Gordon, of New York and 
Brandeis Universities, that he has it on the authority of Ze'ev 
Ben-Shlomo in Israel, that serfs in Linear B tablets often have 
Semitic names. No doubt, manv were redeemed bv their oros- 
perous brethren who had settled in Greece; but. generally speak- 
ing, the sight of thousands of their compatriots crowding the 
slave markets, the kingdom of Israel completely destroyed and 
that of Judca considerably weakened, must have humiliated the 
Hebrews in Greece, who were now condemned to permanent 
isolation in a strange land. Their hcioiessness could not but 
sorely tempt tiieir native neighbours who had witnessed the 
yearly celebration of the Exodus. Did they resist u\e temptation of 
imitating the Egyptians, or did they yield to it? And in the bloody 
strifc that followed, were the Hebrews once mere subjugated? 
I am afraid this actually ha opened, and what used to be merely a 
commercial rivalry became a chronic friction between Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Phoenicians. This bitter enmity continued for cen- 
turies all along die Mediterranean shores, now and again flaring 
up in bloody feuds, under one pretext or another. 

The iron}' of it is that the Israelites had suffered in Egypt 
because thev were Greeks, and here is die ohilolotricai evidence 
— again, one word. When Joseph was raised from the status c: 
prisoner to that of prince and regent, Pharach gave him the title 
of Pi II* 3 n2i)!!, §ai;~6uvG^ — hey-eaiinz: hence, instii'd. It was 
a Greek Pharaoh who rS.cc Egypt through native officials ; not a 
Continental Asiatic Greek, but a Greek from one of the imncria! 
Isles oi Crete or Cyprus. Then the Egyptians revolted and ex- 
pelled the Greeks, widi disastrous consequences to- the Hebrews; 
'There arose a new king in Egypt who knew not Joseph/ 

riD^E is the homologue of fid^n? (IIS 3. 3 ICh 11. 43, 27. 
16) as well as pavrtlov TIS 20, 14-15}. ;Xote the similarity 
between these homologies and n^S/jicxris-, K~72>yLavT€iov.) 
The king of HDUD is mentioned in connexion with the war 
between Ammon and Israel (IIS 10. 1-19 ICh 19. 1-19), when 



IX. PROPER NOUNS 133 

the neighbours of the Ammonites came to their assistance. 
They were three Aramitc peoples: DHHj CHX, X31S D")X, 

and i"DL73 G"IX. Now since *SC* is synonymous with HD17Q, 

and ±<L> happens to be the principal pavreiov in the region, 
the context seems to indicate that the king of 71DI7Q was the 
ruler of that shrine. But one has to be careful not to jump to 
conclusions, as one risks doing when dealing with proper 
nouns. 

Lastiy, 7riil. This word first occurs in the fourth verse of 
the tenth chapter of Genesis, a chapter which gives a geo-ethnic 
survey of the ancient olxovuevT] (Q3p^). There ^TT/^iD stands in a 
purely Greek setting, together with four other names of undoubted 
Hellenic stamp, i.e.: }Vriwv, 7]ZrbX('EX\ds y ETi^/ApijTiKoi, 
and lTj1~7 JapdavoL It turns up again in the Book of Esther, 
as die name of one of the king's advisers. Once at least, in IR 
22. 49, -perhaps also in Jes 2. 16) Cr^nn seems to describe a type 
of ship equipped with a bank or banks of oarsmen. It is then the 
homoiogue ot rapco*. In Ez 10, 9 and Cant 5. 14- — among other 
texts — it is the homoiogue of OpaKias (sc. Mca), the synonvm of 
QprjLcca Aac>- r Thracian stone said to take fire in water. Other- 
wise, TMHT; refers to a thriving port in the Mediterranean, whose 
commerce ruled the waves — for which Jonah's ill-fated ship was 
bound — and to another one lying east of Suez. 

It is quite astounding that the authorities not merely doubt 
the lauer's existence but positively deny it. This is what Gesenius 
states s.v. 1T™^7\ : 

'Compare my Comment, on Isaiah 23: u ^7^*j rv;x ships 
°f Tsrskish, partly properly so called, the Tynan ships sent :o 
iartessus [m Spain], or returning thence, Isa 23: 1^; 60: Q; parti v 
used as a general term for large ships of burden, although going into 
o^her countries, Isa 2 : 16; Ps 48 : 8 ; and so, 1 Ki 10: 22^ compare 9: 
28; ; 22 : 40 ; used of the ships going to Ophir ; although the author 
ot the Chronicles seems cither not to know, or acknowledge the 
usage of language; see 2 Ch 9 : 2r ; 20 : 36, 37 ; compare my 
Gesch. d. Heb. Spr. p. 42.* 

Here Gesenius does not impugn the accuracy of the copyists, 
but questions the knowledge and challenges the integritv of the 
very author of the Chronicles. He might be forgiven the arro- 
gance of thinking that he knew better than that author, but one 



i 3 4 IX * PROPER NOUNS 

can hardly pass over his reckless charge of dishonesty. What 
possible motive could impel the author to suppress harmless 
information? ! 

On the score of knowledge, I beg to disagree with Gesenius 
that ETETin was TaprTjcaos. Among the examples adduced in sup- 
port of Proposition 29 is Oapaa> — the genitive of which is Gapcrov* ; 
alternatively Spaa<L 1 the genitive of which is Qpaaoo?, con- 
tracted to Bpaaovs — as the homologue of CrETin, QapaL and 
Gpaaco being names of Athena. There were two cities of that 
name: Athens, in the Mediterranean, and <jjj:. 

As to the eastern w^SHD, on careful examination of the 
relevant texts, it becomes crystal clear that the destination of 
the Elath fleet was distant Ophir, and that ^T^HD was its port of 
call on its way there and back- The valuable cargo was put 
aboard at Ophir, and nothing is said to have come from ET^Hr. 
Witness the records: IR 9, 28, 10. n, 22, 49 HCh 8, 18, 9, 10. 
In the circumstances, the most likely port would be Aden, and 
tjjx is a replica of Ad-qnj. If my theory is correct that the very 
ancient Greeks spread their dominion from the Black Sea to 
the Indian Ocean, it would not be surprising to find that their 
furthermost outpost was named after their goddess or metropolis. 
-After all, the Philistine colonists called their two cities on the 
shores of Canaan Tm^X (J4rt?;V, ArdlBos, Attic, i.e. the Attic 
City, Athens} and 71717 (acrru, town* i.e. Athens). 



35 



X. INITIAL 2 



XL VIII. The initial 1 of many verbs beginning with that letter is a 
built-in prefix homologous with iv and lU 

This I indicates that the Hebrew verb is a deponent homologous 
with a Greek verb in the Middle or Passive Voice, or in -lu. 
The comoounds and derivatives of such verbs keep the L 

In the following the initial 3 is a In the following the l is pan of 



orefLx : 

Mr 


the radical : 


"IK? 


aaoouat, or-, *ar- 


f]W 


flOl)(CVUt 


KZl 


TTpO^fll 


'■7 2 J 


vrj-xios 


T 


oaGAo^ 


sa 


voac.^cn 




auyQ^ai 


ir:n 


ayaycucy 


z*t: 


5i5cjui 


nn 


aftSoj (A; 


* "*^ 
>* tj 


ryy € oll at. 


p 


» (B; 




oGvpouat, 


=nj 


fL^TdVO€CJ 




eyxrpart la 


r,Sl 


^£iQCJ 


r 


r^^rrLjj ai/ayajp^t^ 


ri*/2i 


VVllOT* 


~"i}~ 


€ m /*cpar€vofMai 


DC! 


avVi^t^ 


inn 


rrcp-t yaj 


DS3 


£VVO€U>, 'VOLLiOUai 


Tin 


? 7 


cyi 


€VVOW 


)> 


c^-€*yo;, *car- 


>) 


VOOfj VOU9 


"PT2 

f 


€y*cpar€imjs', -ar^s 


F3?3 


av*u£jv*n 


-hi 

T 




* - 

bsi 


avdpa£ 

1/tO^Ai^W 


T3 


apocj, oa- 


r j 3 


avdt^ar 


J 1 


ocpo? 


npi 




133 




111 




n'?3- 


! reXtcjy im-j drro- 


KU1 


avrta^ap 


121 
TJCJ 






Say€t£cu 


nsi 


tupoOjUat 


nn i 


KtTpov 


Vdi 


piiAAcu, TTt7Trai 


]na 


^lavTiS" (pr. n*) 



136 

Initial 2 is a prefix: 



723 


avaj/iu^o/iai 


2SJ 


tar7j^it 


ip] 


opt;a<7cju 


V&l 


7T€iUU> 


pin 


aldofiai 


K w3 


»* 


pn: 


avaBrj/jLa 




j» 


1 **^ 





X, INITIAL 1 

3 is part of the radical: 

niro iiavTtlov (pr. n.) 
71X2 >*6ios" 

2 m *l vdro? 
Hi! n/ycy 
pri2 fivKaGuai 



The words beginning with 3, in the order in which they 
appear in the Mandelkern Concordance under the letter ], 
and those incidentally referred to therein — such words being 
marked with an asterisk — showing ervmolocrical disarrav: 



XI i/uVj wv y vv Gn 12. II, 13 
now; in Ep. mostly as a 
particle of emphasis 

X:"K J vv Gn 13. 8 in 
commands 
G- 18. 3, 33- 10 or entreaties 

x;x cifc-cf Gn 50. 17 pee;, 
contr. for <Z d^cf (lord, 
master, as a title of rank) 
tLvo. Dan 9. 4 poet, contr. for 
iL ava (voc. of ai-af, £1/15, 
always as address to gods) 

n;x Jon 4. 2 

X: ciuof Ex 12. 9 ^J j-l^ prop, 
of flesh, ra^, uncooked 

t:x: ^SuV Jud 4, 1 9 <r:y 3/ ;.^ 
cavities in the body 

HK: ;-€:oV, rw'j, rfa Joel 2, 22 
fallow land 

iTiffi €vd€reco 7 -rt£uj Jcs 52. 7 
to £* suitable, to be timely 

nrtQ cvderos Prv 26. 1 suitable 

rnX3 €^01^9 Cant 1. 5 shapely, 
suitably formed, graceful (mC) 



H13 Jer 5. 2 

PHK* a£tli : tTTivctuj Jcs 26. Q Ps 
132. 13 Job 23- 13 i;:r-.-:u' f 
purpose: :\ p. 240 
aycTTG^Oi, -c^j Dt 12. 20 Jcs 

26. 9 Job 23. 13 Prv 2:. :o 
desire 

mxr.n- Dt 5. 2r PS45. 12 desire, 



™ j 



avaVriia Dt 12. I 



> 



Jer 2. 24 generally, delight 
^J?a* Ps 140. 9 
mXTl* dye— c:f Gn 3. 6 Xu 

1 i. 4 Jes 26. 8 Job 33. 20 

ejection 

nntr» tvdtriu* Jer 10. 7 rr.x: 
CXJ o?7^i Jer 23. 3 1 speak ; ;,n 

p-*j" ; cf. vet utjV 
DX1 OTjjiTj Gn 22. 16 Jer 23. 
3 1 prophetic saying, message 

Jes 24. 7 Thr 1 . 4 ji^A deeply ; 
gencraJly, .ngA, ^roan 



X. INITIAL 3 i 37 

nn:N* crro^ Ps 31. 11 groan, gods; with oracular powers; 



sigh, wail 
nr.riX* rrav\a (rraJcu) Jcs 2 1.2 

rest, peace 
r jX3 ^lot^d^tu, -aivu} % -aaj, -yeuaj 

Ex 20. 14 Prv 6. 32 commit 

adultery {^ ; '3 ; 0. pvKawi) 
r i^ Jcr 3. 8, 29. 23 
^X3 uotYos* Job 24. [5 adulterer ', 

paramour 

rsx; lionet, ~xv> -x** Lev 20 * 

10 fem. of/iot^o^ 
r px: uor^a'a Jcr 13. 27 adultery 
rr.ZXZ Hos 2. 4 
]*X3 c-t'Ciu, -:'cu (-i^ta^cu) Prv I. 

30 not to heed 
?K3 IIS 12. 14 Ps 10. 13 not to 

honour, slight 

fjv^- f r s— ..._ Jcs 52. 5 

rv-Jx; a-^c Jes 37. 3 Ez 35. 12 

dishonour, disgrace, indignities 
7X2 uvxdouzi E2 30. 24 proD. 

of oxen, low, bellow; of 

Heracles in agony 
^pX3 ul'kttj Ex 2, 24 lowing, 

bellowing, of oxen ; rumbling 
"iX; crrcpccuc:, *aT- Thr 2. 7 

imprecate curses upon, curse ; 

IS 10. : : Jer2. 8,27. 15 Ez 12. 

27 to DC a rrpo^Tjrrj^ (prop. 
one who speaks for a god and 
interprets his will to man; 
J tor rr. interpreter \ expounder 
of the will of Zeus ; interpreter, 
expounder of the utterances of 
the ucvris ; possessor of oracular 
powers; generally, interpreter , 
declarer) or interpreter of the 



prophesy 
X2:n ^Tj^t^oi Jer 23. 13 Zach 
r 3- 3-4 prophesy 

jann Nun.27lS10.5HCh 

18. 17 

K^23 -po*p7jT7js: Ex 7, 1 Dt 13. 2, 
34. 10 Zach 13. 2 X23 

mX"3 rrpoovrt^ Ex 15, 20 fem. 

Of TTpOOTJTT'^ 

mX"!23 rrpopTjrcCa, OtJutj IlCh 
x 5- 8 51/i of interpreting the 
will of the gods, gift of pro* 
phecy; concrete, prophecy or 
oracular response ; utterance 
prompted by the gods, prophetic 
saying 

Job II. !2 emdv 



=>6. 10 isr.t 



Oipoua oodtm 
look towards 



Jer 52. 21 

Jes 

Jcs 5. 30 

- —j i cttotttccj, -ouoaaij irrajTrrdtu, 
-d^cj, eoopdu* Xu 23. 2 1 Ps 
34. 6 obstrce ; look upon, behold 

T27 rrtarwac Jcs 20. 5, 6 Zach 
9. 5 assurance, warrant , pledge 

"J2J fiddpov Job 38. 16 pi., 
foundations 

^Zl y.apaiv<jj Jes 1. 30 waste, 
wither 
ap.8\ui'u> Ex 18. 1 3 sfon/, </:///, 

d^oAAu^t Jcs 24. 4 perish, die, 
cease to exist 
H723 iraAatom Lev 5. 2 Dt 21. 

23 Jos 8. 29 IR 13. 24jes 26. 
1 9 Jcr 9. 2 1 mostly in Pass-, 
decay through lapse of time 



i 3 8 X. IN 

Vl2D* vX^fLTjy ~pvpa, -pvpts, 
--qafLT] Gn 6- 17 food-tide; 
food, deluge 

-tcvopai Prv 30. 32 to be 
childish; <$>ti8ofxai: spare per- 
sons and things in using 
them, use sparingly; oavXl^w : 
hold cheap 

bzi tojTTto? Dt 32. 6 childish y 
silly; without foresight, blind; 
<~>av\os: mean, common, low in 
rank; inefficient , opp. <jq<$>6$ 
US 3. 33; in good sense, 
simple, unaffected IS 25. 3 

TV? 21 vtj?tu7) Dt 22* 21 folly; 
pauAoT7j9: badness 

bzz €x3aX\aj Nah 3. 6 expose 
r: pocrrr aXalcj Mich 7. 6 wrestle 
or struggle with 

*722 o^tSos" (ocldouat) IS 25. 3, 
2 5 J« 32. 5 Jpjrf/i^, *AW/fy; 
hence Comedy pr. n. £>€t- 
SuAos" IS 25. 3 
0€;ScuAoV as Subst., niggard, 
miser J es 32. 5; merciful IS 
25. 3 

n72i ^tStil, -SojAtj, -Aid IS 25. 
25 fAn/i 

r.V?22 oJ<nr Hos 2. 12 the 
characteristic of sex ,= pudenda, 
esp. ihe female organ 

*?-? va3Aa f vauAov, -Aa IS 10. 5 Ps 
33. 2 a musical instrument 
of ten or of twelve strings 
vtoiXr) (v€<f>os), k'oo? Job 38. 37 

cloud, mass of clouds 
ottXqv IS 1. 24, 10. 3 Jes 30. 
I4jcr48. 12 Thr 4. 2 tool, 
implement 



ITIAL 1 

<f>€i0ujv IS i. 24 oil can with 
a narrow ruck that lets only a 
little run out ; as pr. n. 0€tS»v, 
King of Argos (conf. IS 

25- 3) 

i?23 Tnjya^oj Prv 1 8. 4 gush 
forth 

yi=3 ^rjyiSiQV J« 35. 7, 49. 10 

Ecci 12. 6 Dim. of -tjv^ 
[running water; fount, source 
V2T1 KzrazzvCLj Eccl 10. I 
putrefy , become putrefed 
fid^tu, OT f ut£<jj Ps 59. 8, 78, 2, 

119. 171, 145. 7 Prv 15. 2 
speak, utUr 

nsnr-x* ^ovBiLu Ex 9. 9 in 
pi., glands; swollen gland = 
Lat. bubo, owl <^ji 

211 voTo?, rou Gn 20- 1 Ex 27. 
o south 

T\2zz vot6vc€ Gn 12- l ±]o$ ! 5- 1 
southward 

T^H 3:Tjy€CL:ai Gn 3. II, 4:. 
24, 25 set out in detail, de- 
scribe 
"Tin Ruth 2. r i 

Tl^ Sixyr.pa Zach 9. 12 tale 
113 tdvy (A), ctoVr Gn 31. 32 
face to face, opposite; cf. cim' 
"713 Dan 7. 10 
"7^3 kct^l's Gn 2. 18 opposite 

r U IIR20. 5 HCh 31- 12 
leader, guide 
Idvs (A), evthk Prv 8. 6 straight; 
in moral sense, straight- 
forward, just 

rill avyd^cv, <rv- Jes 9. I illu- 
mint; shine 

rnn Jes 13. 10 



X. INITIAL } 

T\Z1 auyrj, atr/acfiaj £v- Jcs 50. 
1 Dan 6.20 light of the sun 7 

dawn, any bright light ; bright- 
ness ; illumination 
"13 Jcs 59. 9 

Ex 21. 28 7^6 ^j-^1 touch 
with a sharp point, prick, stab, 



139 

i"BJ vocrrjpos Jcs 53. 4 Ps 73. 1 4 

diseased^ unhealthy 
^13 voGa^uj, -ciZllj Gn 12. 17 

IIGh 26. 20 causal, produce 

sickness ; make sick 

»a^ PS73.5 

Ex 11. I lesion, grievous 



pierce 



ajjliction. sickness 



HIS Sua- EZ34. 2 1 Strcngthd. VZl Karci-txau 



Jos 8. 



;Or vxrr 



rrr oj ; cf. 



/ccra- 



n^rn Dan 11.40 Pass. 

n^ KaraviKauj Ps 44. O 

strengthd. form of wjccu; 

[conauer y vanquish) 
7Vp* ccy^W, -Atj Jer 50. 16 

reaping-hook, sickle, Sicilian 

for 8p<-avov (|2^n IS 13.21) 

Ps 63. 26 .rm^; £00/ : of other 
sounds, twang, of the bow- 
strings 
~ € V- IS 16. 16 Jcs 38.20 Ps 



** * 



^0 o 

jo- 
men: 



sing to or z/i accompam- 



TiVZ cjStj, contr. for cioiStj Jes 
38. 20 PS4. 1,77. 7J ob 3°-9 
song, lay; joyful song -J-_— : 

r!rU2 acr^a (aSw) Thr 3. 63 
song (n*72 ^AajSia Job 30- 9) 

V^ c'ivydi-a, Gn 26. I I JeS 6. 7 
Prv 6- 29 touch, have inter- 
course with 



em- 



Je* 25. 



12 



touch, 



reach as far as 
j?U Ixviouai Esr3- 1 come, arrive 
STL"! do- Ez 7. 12 Ps 88. 4 Cant 

2. 12 Esth 2.15 arrive, reach 
JT12 j/cKrd^uj, -aiuj Job 6. 7 /o Of 

{//, ail 



'0 

W4 * 






■^ ix-yoi lix 2:. 35 1*-- 

r p viK&tu IS 4. 3 IIS 10. 15 n;: 

v:n IR 3. 33 
r ^l voudtuj Jes 10. 22 Vll 
■ <•- vo<rnua All I / _ II i*>j 

nsi-2 IS 6. 4 

r a —aluj Ps Ql. 12 stumble. 

trip ; cf. rrpcaKCTrr^/ 
^m Jcr 13, to 
^ trrct>c 5 -i>l:c Jes 8. 14 

stumble, trio 



T t: 



O - 

/ 



^ P£qj IIS 14. 14 Thr 3. 49 
jhiv, run, stream, g^sh\ the 
fountain ru.zs with water 

"TZH IkpIuj Mich 1. 6 shed, 
let fail 

""iin drropptcj Mich 1 . 4 PaSS,, 
y?oa ? or ru-i oj 

""."in hiarrplZuj Jcr 18. 2 1 
= rrptcu, -i^ujj -:ocj; JflUJ 

otV/cy Gn 12. lojud 5.17 

EZ47. 22 dwell, live, inhabit 

•nu.nn* IR 17. 20 

OiKTJTTJp, -179, OlKT]TT]plOr 

Job 19. 15 domestic, dweller, 



-TS* 



•v* 



inhabitant 



^j^ 



mi* 7rapotK:os' 



Ex 3. 22 



iU 



neighbour, sojourner in an- 
other's house 



140 

nj* oIk^ttjp, -if? Gn 23- 4 Ps 
rig. 19 dweller, denizen 

7VP4* ouoj/ia, -^air Jer 41. 17 
dwelling-place, shrine? dwelling 

TCS* OLKTJfJ.ay ~7)TTlplOV Gt\ I 7. 8, 

36. 7 dwelling-place, settle- 
ment or residence in aforeign city 

T3* €y«>« Jc 5 33- *4 ? s 140- 3 
rouse y stir u{> 

KvpCtu Ps 5. 3 <.£/*■ 6*/tf// 

""4* pdrotKos Gn 15, 13 IIS 1. 13 
settler from abroad, alien resi- 
dent in aforeign city, denizen 

"T=rj* Sei>a Thr 2. 22 06/Vcf 
of fear j a terror, esp. in pi. 

rrr-r:* ouaj/ia Hag 2. 19 store- 






room 

3* olKTjpdriov Joel 



I. I 






Dim. o( oiKTjua riTi't 

Ps 59. 4 gather, 

assemble p:N) 
it^t:* iydpw Jer 30. 23 Flos 

7. 14 Pass., r^LLf^ or ^i:r 

oneself be excited by passion 
"T3* Sct'Soi Dc 1 . 1 7 /*ar, to be 

alarmed, anxious about, dread 
-.-7* S*i>a Jcr 6. 25 "Pis 

ht::* Prv 10. 24 
■vi* &TjpLOK G1149. gNahs. 12 

in form Dim. of frjp (beast 

of prey, esp. a lion) 
ru* Jer 51, 38 Xah 2. 13 
■^1* ay€ip<n Lev I 1 . 7 collect, 

gather 111 
n^4* ayvpfia Lev I I. 3, 7 a/iy- 

/A/n£ collected 
"i^l* Star-pun IR 7. 9 Jau; 

through , jatt> asunder, Pass, 
mr?* Tr/na^ IIS 12, 31 ICh 

20. 3 i'au; 



*U 



X. INITIAL 2 

"Hi* dyp*u> y -€ua> Hab I. 15 
Prv 21. 7 capture; take by 
hunting or fishing; catch . 
auciCa;, ^oiiQt, eV- Ex 5- 6 

Dt 15- 2 IIR 23. 35 Jes 3. 
12, 9. 3, 14. 2 maltreat, 
torture; scourge 

Jes 3- 5 

alKierrpta (as if from a mas. 

aixtcT-rY- she who torture: 

Job3-'i3 
; *yyt £oi Gn 27, 2 i Ex 19. 15 

approach; IIR 4. 27 c. inf., 

to 5/ on .'A* porn/ of doing 
r;; Gn 33. 7 
^n Ex 21- 6 Lev 2. 8 

near, bring up to 
r:n IIS 3. 34 



^ 
~<.^ 



ormg 



terras Ex is- 8 £«m o" 



:rur: 



Ex 



o. 23, 25, 2, 

^rjn/ permission 



loom y ham Zl 
S"v arz^diui IIR 17. 2 1 

35* ?!, 

give freely 

2*7ir,n e^iStociiut Jud 5* -> 9 
Esr 2. 58, 7. 15 ICh 29. 6 
£i;-* freely, give oneself up, 
devote oneself, eso. contribute 
as a l benevolence? for the pur- 
pose of supplying state 
necessities, opp- €looip€%v 
(which was compulsory) 

-*^: Sorrjp, -tikqs Jes 32. 5, 3 
giver f dispenser; inclined to 
give, giving freely 

n-^1 Sorixo'ff Ps 51. 14 in- 
clined to give, giving freely 
S6ots Jes 32. 8 gift 

rmi Scat?, Stipoi' Lev 7. 16 



X. INITIAL i 

Ez 46. 12 Ps 68, 10 gift; 
present, gift of honour , votive 
gift or offering to a god 



14' 



nzT^r."* to eVtStSotV Esr7-i6 
the giving or contributing, gift, 
contribution 

rrZTI* -JtoSoros 1 , -octSotos ICh 
3. 18 given by £eus y heaven- 
sent 

":* Ex 6. 23 short for rr"2 



iArtTCvtu* a-Xd 



a*\7] 



aoftat 



Jcs 



2 1, 



15 wander, roam; Tivdaout 
"I cLXtjttjs-, a\dras JcS 21. I 4 

wanderer^ vagabond 

— ™*T2 aA7i (pl*)» -Tjcti*, -rjrei'a 
Job 7. 4 wandering or roam- 
ing without home or hope 
of rest 

"I c*uij Jes 10. 14 shake 3 
move to and fro V.I 

~r;r; c-o- Job 18. 1 3 shake of , 
mrcw oj 

~r~rr; Job 20. 3 

"TTiirrT «77t- Ps 64. 9 xAiiw j i 
or against; acltu, Med. 

T£^ oticuos PS44. 15 shaking 

P^T ? Ps68. 13 



CTTa^tu j^J y*.**n 1 



>^ Lev 



15. 25 shed drop by drop, 
dr:p\ leek 
ciu>dt<jj Jes 66. 5 push from 
oneself, push away, reject 



oray^ia jj : 



Lev IS« 



O f 



.'Ac/ which drips 
m? crrajcrd? -WuU. ^^^ E2 
18. 6 oozing out in drops t 
trickling 
atSojj -tti^ (atSeo/xat) Lev 20-21 



Thr 1. 8 (n-Tl) Esr 9. n 
I ICh 29. 5 shame, scandal, 
thai which causes shame 
mj Z6ot$ : €6vov Ez 16.33 Sift* 
bride-price ; cL ScDpov 



ma* 



tj.erprjfu! 



Nch 



measure, allowance 
fierpov Lev 10. 35 that by 

which anything is measured, 

measure 
*7:2?2 Job 38. 5 measure or limit 
H"j cr^LCLf Dt 20. 10, 22. I Ez 

34. 4 ": 
H12 <jud€cu t <2}dl^u} Jcs 27. *3jcr 

40. 12 banish 
rrin <rV- IISi5.:4 thrust upon 

"V *£" J es r 3- *4 displace, 
expel, eject, banish, drive out 

mTT^ arrar^ Thr 2. 14 fr:V£, 
fraud, deceit, deccotion (\\ 7 ^ ; 
in pi. wiles - -. r-T 



* ^ .^ 



^L r tcj Jrr :' 



10, 



34; ujOi^jj Prv 7. 2 1 _;c;:.V 
tiyvt^cu Jes 4, 4 Ez 40. 3S 

I ICh 4. 5 wash of, cleanse 

away, cleanse, purify 
m: €$ujdT t Gis Dt 30. 4 Jes 1 i. 

12, 16. 4 expulsion 
"ni* dtOtu* Dt 4. !9jer23. 12 

Ps 35. 5, 118. 13 push, of 

human or other force 
nrn* Karatd^uj PS36. 13 ^hjA 

down, Pass. 

^m"T* utdiouof P556. 14 thrust- 
ing, pushing 

nms* Prv 26. 28 disoute, alter- 
cation 

]13 Soaty, t$vov Ez 16. 33 n*T3 
£77*77 ICh 2 I, 27 sheath (ota 
sword) 



I4 a X. INITIAL 3 

*pi <LQiuj Jes 41. 2 Ps 1. 4 nan?* Jcs 5. 30 

nm, of the wind Gin* Kire'cu Dt 7. 23 disturb, 

"Tin «f- Ps 68. 3 ""175 j//r w/> 3 agitate 

T72 Sc'Scaat Dt23-24 give^ojjer C~3* i^'w ^ x • 45 "^ 

*\"7: Sottjp Lev 27. 3 2-11 c*nn* i*- Mich a. 12 -~J 

tt: 8o»/3ov Gn 28. 20 Lev 7. 16 n.-'.np* klit,ui 017.231514. 

Nu 15. 8 IIS 15. 7, 8 ~Z11 ao uproar, excitement 

n^ 07101/^ poems', ocouv;* ouO o. j ^-n JCi Oj. 13 

E2 7, I I not *'A* least mite, Z m " oZutL^tu. d:-, drr-, *£- — 

nothing whatever 55. 3 ;*/£/■' tf/^W, lament 

1711 Tjyeofiat I IR 9. 20 Cant 3. 2 H*".r:** ou^v^a IS 5. :: 

Thr 3. 2 guide, drive, lead, lamentation, wad. 

conduct K'ti-npc'oiuijyria Ez 7- 7 11 p- 

TZ c0- Gn 31. 26 Uad to a roar; wail 

place Htn* otuidtuj IR 1. 41 Jcs 22. 2 

HT? ijytftorftr/ia IIR 9. 20 make a noise ot din 

leading n^n* Kivt& Jcr 5. 22 Prv ". 

7»1 ^TTTj^ecu Nah 2. 8 resound, 11 -" 

re-echo, accompany or.c :/* "^n* <T.^5o> Prv : . 2 1 <■'--/ 

shouting dinr.g: mise, din, csp. cf :hc 

".: Tjx^y *X~ M*£- *■ 4 sjund cor.: used voices 01 a nu:r. ^cr 

~: Tjvt'ofiat IS 7. 2 1~1 of :::cp. 

v.: tjxV J cr 9* ! 7: : ^ i'9'cfsor- "^r:* Ez 7. 1 1 

row n^n* Jcs 14. 1 1 

r~3, n"J E2 27. 32 ~^n x-u-Zcj Jcr 4. 15 Ca::i 5. 4 

TVni Mich 2. 4 x.':>, ^ « moved 

Ti* Ez 2. 10 oiuujZcj Jcr 40. 36 Ez 7. 16 

77U to-qydofxaL Ex 15. 13 in 2 Ps 55. 18 -"" 

^r^n dv- Gn 33. 14 advance n.^rs *::-ecj Zach 9. 15 P™/ 

Vri? riytpuiv Jcs 51.18 tfu/dV, 20. I set in motion, s!;r up 

leader o- 1 * ^' J <*-*} r^\ r — ~* farcrciy Prvig. 18 r~: 

7 PI rzap€XOJ Gn 47. 17 IICU -'J ^^^ 

28.15 furnish, supply .provide p-P* ^^°^i 5d- IIR 25. :: 

V?ru *ofAos f -i'Aw/iG Jcs 7. 19 Jcs 13.4 people 

of Places, lying in a hollow ]r=«* Jcr 52. 15 

or forming a hollow 7V7TM j?PI ^y/cdouct J-^ Job b. 5 

7?S* JOS 19. 15- 21. 35 p^i 

"J ^v^i^Y 7 ? Prv 19. 12 Jtm/irf, "ly? poos, Xtt\o? Gn 2. IO, 15. 

rarely of articulate sounds 18 stream, fow of water 



X. IN* I 

->ri3* Dan 7. 10 
*nru* Esr 4. 16 
H7H3* Esr 4. 17 
77 HI poTj Ps 137. 1 river, 
stream] freq, in Homer, al- 
ways in pi. 
773 <iaa> Jes 60. 5 shine 
nnnj oao?, <^ci? Job 3. 4 jjj 
/ffA/, esp. daylight 
X7iru.'KTn3* Dan 2. 22 
n^I* Dan 5. 1 1 /:^.', as a 
mctaplu, witii reference to 
the illumination of the rr.inci 

mm? Spvyfia Jud 6. 2 ex- 
cavation, tunnel 

>r:r; cravcua* Nu 30. 6, 32. 7 
/A row M* A<rjJ back, in token 
ofdenialj/naA* signs of refusal 

r;xnn 7rp66aoL$ Job 33. 10 
pretext, pretence; cf. 73X-7 

- - ciijat Prv i o. 3 1 /i^x ; ^n- 
mand, order 
6vcj Ps Q2. 15 £r*x. ^-* 

22" ava-tt$tjj Zach 9. 1 7 

persuade, move to do a thing, 
seduce 

2*3 213 977^77 Jcs 57, 19 ^7 
rciV* or words, speech, saying 

2" £o<7k-tj, -r /( ua Mai I. 12 ybod 

721L7 ovreL-at? Dt 32. 13 Jud 

9. 1 1 Jcs 27. 6 Ez 36. 30 
growth, production, pi. 

1" iWo/iat Jer 50. 3 wander, 
roam, esp. to be outcast, ban- 
ished 773 

"73 aAjynjs' Gn 4. 12 wanderer t 
vagabond 

713 o3upo/iai Jer 16. 5 Job 2. 1 1 
wail f lament \ mourn 

13 oSupfia, */xo9 Jes 17- II 



TIAL 3 143 

wailing, lamentation 
713 Ps 56. 9 

T3 Job 16. 5 

nil ohvputij dsBrj Thr r. 17 

wailing] song, lay, ode 
7^3 aetca IR 1 4. 15 shake, 

move to and fro 773 
77Unn oelto Jcs 2a. 20 
7^37 ck- I IR 2 1 . 8 drive out or 

/or /A 
a^a-, Sia- Jer 1 3. 16 swing to 

and fro; shake violently 
713/3 oeiapc Ps 44. 15 shaking 
713* a^oSo? (A) Gn ^ 16 having 

/w tray or rofli, impassable 
713 rrai/tu Ex 23. 12 cease ftiave 

done, take one's rest 
rP3H ava-, ca- Dt :2. to relieve, 

give rest 



7317 Thr 5. 5 



outwork, fence 
71J.*3 di'CTrai'uCj cur:- Gn 8. 9 

Ruth 3. i Thr :. 3 repose, 

rest, resting-place 
nni3?p IR 8. 56 Ps 23. 2, 132, 3 

Ruth 1. 9 
ni3 HCh 6. 41 
ny T^cnj^aC^ IIR 2. 15 Job 3- 26 

Esth 9. 1 3, 22 nnd rest, rest 

from war 
rn3 ijau^ta Jes 30. 15 Eccl 9, 17 

wf, CuiVf; silence, stillness 
Icr^vs Jes 30. 30 strength, might, 

power 
mn tipTjyeopat, Jes 63. 14 in) 
mn Jud 16. 26 

!T3n KaraTldrjfii Gn 2. 1 5 JcS 
14. i Ez 37. 14 set one rfou/n 
w . . . IR 8. 9 HCh 1- 14 



J44 X. INITIAL 2 

place, put IR 13- 30, 31 S1J Kiviui Am 4. Pass., to be 

lay down, in a place f^'j ; put in noilon, go 2" 

of the dead, h«y y " n — IIR =3- > 8 

nrn ' Zach 5. n sircr.gthd. !or Ww, rrs:r, 

Esth 2. 18 relief, respite: rest ™ -eiwi'w P* 59- l5 ^I"" 

/rem a thing, relisffrorr. &f*r\ ■'-' « « "*»' «/» '*'* 

rr.rr: «ci«n-o'*, -m-oy Gr, 3. 21 ">*" -«'** ?* 83. 16 k^ £ >r. 



Ex 29. 18 uuhoie burr.: ifiTir.g j' :r: 



•■■-»- f rt ^ 



vtiZrUJ. i;"J<-J FTV 7- * 



"": Ex 29. 41 

rn: ? Job 17. 16 *™u:\ rr.ciaph., j*™^:* 

r;;* vat/V^ ^j-i Gn 5-29 -«- 



j*s/z, *z//or r i- : i-'=i«^ ? -wO.-£«i Jes :c. 32 

actaj Ps 90. I ^2 r^~ -S 

u-tvooj +** Jes 5. 27 j4 :;; 1 - l Jus w -^* 

asleep, sleep \ r " Ex -?■ -7 

Pp.- 23. 21 ->^, "— =;-aio-a Ex 20. 27, 3f 

J'j£ :o. :-: rising c 






7 l*t7^ojSi£i Pi : 3 

r:*ss t drowsi-css r *-:77 " : "-- tJ J cs 

re'/c^'Oi' Job 18. 10 .-A..* J rr.';:;:: r r:.._v 

vcjrtCuj, oa'^u IS .1. 17 ^- ---'C*.- Jes jL\ 2-3 :: 






Zach 14. 5 



i'£ai Di 32. 30 .'^': T : -c'^or ?s 40. 






1 J 



one's back crA f*ei\ :rs. in "-- Jcs 

causal sense ~ — J^ : 7 :: 

Z* m J2 oiry^iov ^^ Jcr :5. !0 r ;-* .'-Viiit? jcr 44. r 

Ps 142. 5 £/^ ;/ rr'^gi, rrj: ^r^ Job 39. 

asylum *"- ^--- -V 

"^ otr/rj JCS 52. 12 /T:^: ^1 ^-;:.a Lev I. l5 Ez 17. 2 

CM ivdiuj, -t'^uj D: 34- * i.":-v;.T:. .V:j: :^ :.-.-: .. ;-r; :. : .v b-Jck, e.g. 

bloom, of ihc youthful beard ; wings 

Pass., with silvered hair pr* c?r;Aa^. : : ^cat Jcs 60. iojob 

«ttu Jes 10. 29 "T- 3. 12 :'^^> Odcj) suck 

C*:7 irratijaaj Jud 7. -2 1 as:a:I, ^ip""* r-\\S^ y rirC\v^ Gr. 

assault, SWOOp ; cf £rro:-tyr:^cj 2 1. 7, 32. 10 Ex2. J, Q IR 3. 

n: cd'cj Jes 29, 9 T- 21 Thr 4. 3 ««/* (J.'p; 

y % ;n 5ia- Jes 37. 22 T*:r; "?r=* r-V;^ Ga 24. 50, 35- 

i*:yr2 aelorpov IIS 6. 5 rjr:,V 8 IIR II, 2 [Oduj with 



X- INITIAL J 
rcdupL) nurse] Or/Xaucuv: wet- 



'45 



constellation Ursa Elinor 
nurse 1IJ? Job 38. 32 

piv* d-qXapwos Dt 32. 25 Thr CTj ivdjnov Gn 24. 47, 35. 4 

4. 4 a suckling ( — d, A /I) 
pr* Xu 11. 12 Ps 8. 3 



ear-ring 



npir 1 * floAAd* Ez 17. 22 jr-oa/i.* 
sJicol, young branch 



np*r* Ez 17, 



"T3 y^Vos- IR II. 36 of spring 

n*5 oc:'0?;0anj J Li IIS 22. 29 

n: Ex 27. 20 IS 3. 3 Ps 18, 29 
m*.IE ocvcpio* Ex 25, 3:, 32 

*jb- Dim. offeror *vi 
~* t MT\ tT7vo\' Lev 2, 4 Jes 31.9 

j j~J orw, furnace 
^rc m rrvp Dan 3. 27 /« 
Ky:3* Dan 3. 6, 27 

!TUX d:^}*recrr09, d^KTji' jCS I 7. 
I I Jer 15- 18 Ps 69. 2 I ::> 
curable, desoerate, fatal 

r:x* Jcr 17. 9 

"X:* ;-cca^, -at£cj IIS 12, 15 

to be ill 
nT2 crrtlpi* Lev 6. 20 scaler 

like seed, strew, spread 

T\\7\ Oia-, *tcl7CL- Ex 2G- 2 1 JcS 

52. I 5 scatter or spread about t 
spread as in sowing, dtscerse 

r::*"^>a Gn 25. 29 IIR 4. 

33 ? 39, 40 that which is boiled, 

decoction 
*7U vypalvtu Jud 5. 5 to be iiquef.ed 
Via Kad- Jes 63. 19 liquefy 
Vrj vypov, -pa Ex 15. 3 liquid 
Vn pew, piopat Dt 32- 2 "^ 
Vm «- Jes 48. 2 1 shed, lei fall 
7TS* jo/vd^ovpa, -pl$ IIR 23. 5 

dao'j /jiV, a name for the 



.' * - A ' si >■ * 



pTl dSuaou Esth 7. 4 j wrong, 
damage 
pn* Dan 6. 3 
p]in* StaSixccj £sr 4. 13 do 

wrong } injure 
^•13 dva^wpecu Jes I. 4 Ez 14. 5 
£0 6dcA, retire^ withdraw] re- 
tire from the world 
"ii;n Lev 22. 2 Ez 14. 7 Hos g. 

10 L». p. 512 

"Vin Kadttpooj Xu 6. 2-3, 5 
dedicate, devote 

*VT1 Stpos Lev 25. 5 summer- 
fruit, harvest, crop 

113 edttpa Xu 6. 19 Jcr 7. 29 
AaiV 0/ fA* heed 

i;r? tVpof Xah 317 
temple 

"VTH tKKcddpcj Lc*. 
cleanse out 

"VT3 iyKpaTTj$ y dyc^cjpTjrTjj Xii 
6. 2 master of oneself self- 
controlled, self disciplined; one 
who has retired rrom the world. 

"iTl dt'^os- Ex 29. Zach 9. 1 5 

chaplet ofjlowers 
nni Tjy^OjUct Gn 2-t. 27 ini 
nnin to- Gn 24. _tS in? 
?nj ^Atj^ooj Zach 2. 16 a/Zaf, 

*?runn Lev 25. 46 Jes 14. 2 

/cara- Nu 32.18 receive as one's 
portion, esp. of a conquered 
country 

NU33.54E247. 13 divide 
among themselves^ portion out 



3< 



i 4 6 X. INI 

/111 KXrjpovxtaj) kJKtjpooj Ez 47. 
14 obtain by allotment; have 
allotted one, obtain by lot 

Ex 23. 30, 32. 13 Jos 17. 6 
Jud n.ajcs 57. 13 Ps 119. 
1 1 r Prv 3. 35 infurit 

Nu 34. 17, 18 Jos 19. 49 
divide, allot land 

Ex 34. 9 Jos 14. 1 settle 
one as an allotment holder 
bni Jos 12- 32, 14. : 
V^n:n *77<- 011.38,12.10,32.8 

assign by lot 
Vru Jos 19. 51 
^ran Job 7. 3 Pass., ruzze assigned 

one by lot 

Vmn *cara- Dt2l.i0 pcrtionout 

Vn:n Sia- IS 2.3Jcr3- i3, 12. 14 

Zach 8. 12 Prv 3. 2: a/tor 

iT7r;2 xMjpos Nu 26, 53, 36. 2 Jos 

13. 6, 7 Jud 18. : E2 45. 1 lot 

Nu 26- 54, 36- 2-4, 9 Jos 

19.51,21. 3, 24. 28 Jud 2. 9, 

18. I that 'jchich is assigned 

by lot, allotment of land 

Nu 16. 14, 36. 7-0 Jud 2 1 . 
24 Mich 2. 2 piece of land, 
farm, estate 

Gn 31 - 14 Nu i3. 21, 27. 
7 Dt 12- 9 Jos 13. 14, 14. r4, 

17. 6, 18. 7, 19- 49J cr 3- *9> 

12. 14 legacy, inheritance, 
heritable estate 
rfrm Ps 16. 6 hi 
*?n: pdos Gn 32. 24 Jos 15. 4 "in: 

^otVif N1124. 6 Jj*j date-palm 
■?rU /x*yaAt£o/xai Ps 82. 8 to be 

exalted (jt/J or —a*, — -) 
nVni a^aA/ceia Jcs 17. II 
^a/i/ 0/" streng th, feeb leness 



TIAL 3 

n^rU fuyas Jcr 30. 12 great, 

mighty 
koiAo*, -Xcjfia Jcs 7. 19 47711 
^017 Ps 124, 4 river, stream 
nVm auAoff PS5. 1 pipe,Jlute, 

clarinet 
CmI fi€ravo€cj Jud 2 1. 1 5 IS I 5. 

35 change one's mind or />yr- 

po^, repent 
Enin Gn 6. 6 Ex 32. r 2 IS 15. 29 
crrzr.n Nu 23. 19 

€7Ti- Gn 27. 42 Ez 5- 13 haze 
in one*s mind, intend, purpose 
-niri rrapauvdeouat Gn 24. 67 
Jcr 31. 15 (14) console, com- 
Jori [u J! v. jj.uKaQjj.ai pR~ 

en: Jcs 66. 13 
en:— Gn 37. 35 

=n: Gn 37. 35 Jcs 40. i, 66. 13 

Ruth 2. 13 Thr i- 9, 17, 2: 



spec*: sooimngr/ 



consoler 



IIS 10. 3 
Ps 1 19. 50 

"TIKI 77apC.UV&T]TLK65 Zach t. I 3 

consolatory 
Clwiri rrapniJivdia Jcr 1 6. 7 Job 
15. 1 1 consolation (pi.) 

:rn: Hos n. 8 
=n: Jcs 57. 18 

"pHl avcy/ccTor IS 2f. 9 urgent 

mn* tpvdpiaui Gn 4. 6, 30. 2 
IIS 24. 1 Jon 4. 9 Nell 3. 33 
blush, colour up; to be injlamed 

mnn *ar- lob iq. 11 blush 
deeply {v. mn/7rupoai) 

"•nn* tpv&Tjfia, -dprtpa Ex I K 8 
redness or jiush upon the skin, 
blush 



X. INITIAL J 147 

jnn* Ex 32. 12 jwni* y^' 7 ?*, yoijruco^ Ex 6. 23 

npyrj Ex 15. 7 Ps 83. 17 anger , sorcerer, wizard; skilled in 

urath, pi. rt"]rir; vcrcpato? witchcraft, juggling 

Xch 3. 20 following, next; Xr.rni yoTjnvrpta IIR 24. 3 
€&voT€pdw: to be late sorceress 

mri:* mi£uj Jes4i, I I Cant 1. 6 27H] yoTjrtim^i Nu 24. r spell, 

contend \ challenge charm 

"H"* rrpoa-j aw- Jer 12. 5 TH1 e^tSva Gn 3. I viper 

strive with or against; contend irrn; *£^t3fa, f ^;ft Sector IIR 

1 3. 4 '^-tSvciOb: p.n. or a 
monster; born of ""^x^Si-a 
r""J /cau^os - , ~X' 01 ^ Cretan lor 
XoAktoV Gn 4. 22 LT-^i 
»/>6*r; r. p. 5:3 
irin: Job 6. 12 
nyini Jes 45. 2 Mich 4. 13 Job 

41. 19 
i"wn: job j,o. 1 3 
urn* Dar. 2. ;2 

T - 

xcrni J 



together 



S^!"r= ffupa^ Ex 23. 32 corslet, 
coat of mail 

": cty/cos-, ->'x°? J od 39- 20 

snoring, stertorous breathing 
mn; Jer 3, 16 
*vn: i^ Job 41. 12 rw* or 

j/:oaJ; pL f nostrils, but freq. 

like Lai, :12m, nose [~n) 
"n* jrpaiVa> Job 30. 30 parch, 

dry up 

-.n:« £115.45 

":* Ps 69. 4 

r^n* — -pou* Ez 24. 11 Ps :o2. 

"i* Jer 6. 29 6^r/: with f re 

^n:* Ez 24. 10 

nrpn Trrpcrd? Dt 28. 22 fever 

mn «pcj (A) Jes 24. 6 to be 

clean zone. Oerish, disappear 

^ ■ * * » * 

nm"* iy€ipw> «£- Prv 26. 2 1 

To:Lse y stir up; me:aph. ? a- 

waken, arouse 
-*TiQ* X*pvo-i f -ppos Jer 17. 6 

<^r? /j/it/; pi., barren soils 
?ni iKyorjTcvtjj Gn 30. 27 IlChr 

33-6 strengthd. foryoijrevo;: 

bewitch; fascinate, as a snake; 

p/d7 JA* wizard 
wHl yoijrcic, -€vair Nu 23, 23 

witchcraft, jugglery; sorcery 



Da:: 2. ^ 
*7^p r "™ni x'^^^> tpvi'pc* Ez r. 
7 copper, wi:h reference to 
its polished surface 
mi rr:rrTc^ Ps 33. 3 fall down, 
fall 
-n: Ps 3 3. 3 
~n:* Dan 4, 10 
nrr €tc- Jer 2:. 13 Job 21. 13 
fall into, generally with a 
notion of violence, rush or 
burst in 
rinin* *<- Dan 5. 20 to be driven 
out, to be banished 

nm IIS 22. 35 Ps 65. 1 1 
rrrun Iprp/iopiai Joel 4. 1 1 +^} 
nnn efs% «t? Prv 17. 10 one 
nni Taaaw, -ttcj, :rpo<7- IIR 6. 9 
Pass., to be posted or stationed; 
to be drawn up; placed or posted 
at a place; Hin^/ray^a 



i 4 S X. INI 

nnn* airorld^fit Est 6. i put 
away ) stow away (v. ^ 7 j\) 
xara- Esr 5. 15, G. 5 deposit 

no TTTf/vvp.1 Ga 33. 19 stick 
or fix in 7 pitch a tent 
T107JJII Ps 21- 12 ICh 21. 10 
set, put, piece; order, ordain, 
ofgods; cL IIS 24. 12 ; p. 372 
<jrp<<p<jj Ex 23. 2 IS 3- 3 IIS 
2. 1 g turn about or aside ^ 
turn 

HDn —apaOTp£<t><ij Ex 23- 2 IS 8. 3 
turn aside, alter; mctaph., 
turn aside, esp. for ihc worse, 
pervert 

Hw5 napaarpoori Ez 9. 9 slip- 
pery trick y dodge; distortion 

7*1*1 (TTOpVUflL, (JTpUiVl'VUL JCT I 4. 

3 spread the clothes over a 
bed, sOread or make ud a bed 

vr: GTptuTos Ez 1. 22 Ps 102. 
12 spread, hid ' :\ v. 105"; 

nr? crrpcZpa IS 19. 13 IIS 3. 
31 Esth 7. 8 anything spread 
or /c:rf out for lying or sitting 
upon, mattress , $«; used on 
the funeral bier 

riwD oTptLots Jes 8. 8 spreading 

riwi toww, rctVoi Jos S. 26 Jes 
44- 13 Ps 104. 2 stretch, 
spread, extend [v. ~r:, p. 105) 

r;ri Nu 24- 6 Jer 6. 4 

mCH «<- Jer 6. 12 stretch out 
<Vi- Prv 7. 2 1 ar»* on s incite 
Kara- Gil 24. 1 4 Jer 7. 24 

extend downwards 
Trapa- Ps 27. 9 stretch on the 

rack, torture 
Ttpo* Est 7. 28 stretch forth, 
hold out, offer 



TIAL J 

noi 6trreua> Job 26. 7 c. ace. 
of the thing planted, plant 
trees, esp. fruit-trees 

hot? fiaKTpov Gn 38. 18 Ex 4. 2, 
7- 12 Nu 17. 21 IS 14. 27 
Jcs 10. 5 Jer 48. 17 stick , 
cudgel 

Ti*C72 €V€pd* y -?€*', -3a, l'€p0€ t -d€V 

Dt 28- 43 Prv 15. 24 below 
ncsV Ex 26. 24 Dt 28^ 1 3 Ez 1 . 

Vc: i-gtcoj tfV/5jes40. 15 
Vc: rt5ij/n IIS 24. 12 Thr 3. 23 

7r: *V Jes 03. 9 /?rVi our /jr 

separate treatment 
Vtr; vauAoi^ -Cc^Aor Prv 27. 3 

freight % cargo 
Vr: ;-cuAo^ Zepii 1. 11 passage 

money, !:ire or freight 
TCI* ocpaj Dan 7. 4 iwr, ror:-^v 
' - 'J ' ■?_ : tii a- lj lu. I ! 
Vc:* aia- Dan i. ^ 1 /:>?, rj:.r 

^ ; cf xr: 
Vcn* ptra- Jer 16- 13 Jon 1. 4 

transfer, divert, shift 
Vein* Jer 22. 28; :\ p. 638 
Vr"H* Kararldrjui Prv 16. 33 

place, put, lay down; v. p. 372 
>w2 ttttwvlu Ps Q±. q Dan II. 

oropvuLtt Jes 51 - 16 riCi 
!?C3 oirr«i;<ii Gn 2. 3, 21. 33 Ex 

15- 17 Ps 44. 3 n:i 

S?C3 6vt6v Jcs 5. 7 plant, esp. 

garden plant or /w 
1T3J <£trrapiOf Ps 1 44. 12 Dim. 

ofpurdf 3TC3 
yDD <£trrtt>:a JeS 60. 2 1 that 

which is planted, plant; <j>vtqv 



X. INI 

6xrr€\rrrjpiov i ph Ez 1 7. 7, 3 i . 4 
Mich 1 . 6 nursery or plantation 
c*v?? * ICh 4. 23 

r j5: ora^ Jud 5. 4 Joel 4. 1 8 
Cant 5. 5 shed drop by drop, 
dr:t>: metaph.; cL mi 

7m Am 9- 13 

r .r: (TTaxrrTj (crra£ai) Ex 30. 34 
0*/ of myrrh 

rSCJ craytLv (ard£cu) Job 36* 

27 aVoi, of water, wine, 

milk; deiv-drops 
n£*r: <r<ycr^ta Jud 8. 26 Jes 

3. 19 r^jr/ containing aro- 
matic oil 
It: rr^aj Cant I. 6 iL'C.'jA 

o«r, '*iav cere of, guard, rarely 

of persons 
-.r:* Dan 7. 28 
^r: rreTTTTjs-, -pd<r Cant 8. 1 1 

keecer, observer \ it ar den , guard 
rnr~ et^u^rrpto^ Jer 38. 

ir: riLuuptuj Lev 19. : 8 ^ £* 
2*: avenger y exact or seek to 
exzc: vengeance for, avenge 
1E*U rmcjoot Nail 1.2 avenger 
Klw^ drjpa^a, -pevpa Thr 3. 12 

mr^ Job 16. 12 

rr: ^*>3i'5cmi IS 17. 28 Jer 

12. 7 deliver up; betray; for- 
sake, abandon 

rr: Am 5. 2 

rr: Jes 32. 14 Pass. 

re: oTop^fit Xu 11.31 spread, 

stream ric: 
re: IIS 5. 18 

;r*Cl crrpurros IS 30. 1 6 JcS 21 . 
15 ^03 



TIAL 3 149 

7TST03 -n-pdSoros* Jcsi8. 5 a6a/i- 

]C^3 avftov Esih 3. 7 in Orphic 
phraseology, Spring 

TU2 tcrroV (i'otiow) IIS 2 1. 19 
beam of a loom, which stood 
upright, instead of lying 
horizontal as in our looms 

JC3 dva\xi?, -<r^_ -ilu>9 JcS 10. 

T T ' , 1 4 ~J 

7 Prv 15-13 without strength, 
impotent, feeble; i\ "H3 
H23 IIS a. .1 Jes 66. 2 

T.Xri Krr.pc. {trriofiai) Gn 37. 25 
anything gotten, piece of pro- 
perty, possession; freq. in pL, 
possessions 

TO! IIR 20. 13 

"723 Texvov (r:jCTLy': Job 1 8. 10 
child 

iv Xu 2 2.6 strike, smite 



"3 TTA7JCC€:i' 



"3 TtAtJ 



TJGGCJ 



IIS 



m-] Kara- Ex Q. 3! j.'n.« Coitn 
n^n <7rt- Jes ii, 10 Jer 18. i3 

strike 

7vZ7\ Ex 22. I Xu 25. T4, 15 

nr^ n-ATjvua, -V7j Xu 11. 33 Dt 
28. 61 Jer 30. 17 Zach 13. 6 
blow, stroke; metaph,, blow, 
stroke of calamity, esp. in war 

rcn kqtc'/^ccj Dt 3, 3 IIS 8. 9 
strcngihd. ;or vucaw : conquer, 
prevail, vanquish 

rOTi Ez 33- 21 Pass., to be van- 
quished 

TO?? VLKrjpa Jos 10. 10 victory 

man 4>dyq^a HCh 2. 9 jW, 

p33 rrap^x^ Job 12. 5 7HJ 

]1D1* t 1 ^ Ex 8. 22 Ps 57. 8, 
1 1 2- 7 straight-forward, just 



r 5° 



X. INITIAL 1 



nroi* Wvtti? Ps 5. 10 Job 42. 

7, 8 straightness 
\TO* ytwdoj Dt 32. 6 IIS 7. 24 

Jes 45. 18 Ps 8. 4 Prv 3.19 

mostly of the father, beget ; 

produce from oneself \ create; 

engender 
]22* Job 31. 15 
]r.2* Ez 28. 13 
]M2* oZko&q}±£<jj Ex 15. i 7 build, 

build oneself a house 
pre* otKo86fj.T} t ua Ex 15. 17 

building > structure 
n2: fL*5J, i5u (Adv.) Ga 25. 21 
Ex 26. 35 str eight ;■ opposite ; 

straight towards 

~~i Je* 57- 2 

nn2: €vdvT7]s Am 3. ro straight- 
ness 

2*12: ^J-Sl's, trJs Prv 24. 20 
straight; in moral sense, 
straightforward, just 

r % ~z: }es 26. 10 

*12*-* tuduvuj, Idvidj Gn 20. 10 

Job 23. 7 .Tiiir straight, 

straighten 
n2\m* Mich 6. 2 Pass., /o w 

critically examined 
Jes k 18 
2*n* a-- Gn 24- 44 Lev 19, 17 

IIS 7. 1 4 Jes 2. 4, 11. 4 Jer 2. 

19 Mich 4. 3 Ps 94. 10 Prv 

9. 7, 8 guide aright, direct; 

make straight, restore; correct, 

chastise ; govern, rule; steer (\V) 
Job 33. 19 
1V3V5* euduvTTip, -rrn? Am 5. 10 

corrector, chasiiscr y judge \ public 

examiner , on* who levels or 



n 



n;in* 



nn?m* ev^uvcnSj-uva Jcs 37. 3 
Hos 5, 9 straightening, setting 
straight, correction, chastise* 
ment 7 calling to account 

nrann* Prv 1.23, 15.5,29. 15 
^212 kActtttjo, -tjj Mai 1. 14 

thief, cheat, knave 
*722 iKK\t77T^j Xu 25. 18 speak 

falsely, disguise; Sta- 
hoinrr enr/- Gn 37. l3 deceive. 

elude 
722 k\€ttoz, -<uua Nu 25. l3 

stratagem in war, fraud 
023 jrrnua Jos 22. 8 IlCh I. 1 I 

freq- in pi., possessions; of 

a!l kinds ot property; weaitr. 

nxr; 
222* Esr 6. 3 
"12? €y^€iptCc^ IS 23. 7 par ;r:j 

ofi^'i hznds* entrust 
drroyiyvc^OKLLt Dc 32. 27 Job 

2 1. 20 renounce * reject 
XPiLZiM, ;£SCj- :*:-r lu Jer IQ. - 

121 vtvi-cic^Lj Thr 4. 3 dis:i:> 

guish, recognize; ct. yvtvpi^tu 
1*2 n <Vr- Gn 42. 7 Dt 33. 9 

5taaKOT7fty Neh 6. 12 examine 
or consider well; investigate 
(W) ; cf. ipn, p. 204 

12 inn €~iKpurrraj Gn 42. 7 
IR 14. 5 freq. in Med., 
disguise 122 

12?? yvcjpiuoy IIR 12. 6 i«//- 
A/iotrn; Subst., acquaintance 

n 1 2 n yvwpi au a , a vayvtup t cr 1 ^ 

Jcs 3. 9 :.«/ 67 a-AfVA £i /Ain* 
ij 77W* known; yv<Zois: (yi- 
yvci<7Koj) inquiry; investigation; 



insult 



GKttbis: inquiry, investigation; 

Slcl-: examination 
13! iyx^pLos, -pos Gn 17. 12 

Dt 3 1 . 1 6 in or of the country ; 

Subst., dweller in the land 
n:j Gn 31. 15 Dt 17. 15 Esr 

10- r 1 
■731 *ddo* Ob 12 Job 31. 3 

incident , acciden t , u n/b riunate 

accident; in a bad sense, /7115- 

f or tune, calamity; cL r~*J, "p?, 

TS ?rat?os Job 31. 29 
"13 H* cicr/dtj, -x^ vcu J°k ! 9- 3 

dishonour, tarnish 12V 
nVir* drrorcAcw Jes 33- I 6r:nf 

:a £/: end, complete 
~2* ^0^ Gn 25. 34 Jes 49. 7 

Mai r. 6 Neh 2. 19 treat 

desp itefu lly , ^ ' rtf££ , 

maltreat 

Esth 1 . 1 7 

T ' 

wanton or insolent act, outrage 
mT33^ dprrayuaj dprraxros IS 15* 

o ioo.^Vj p^v; gotten by rapine 
nVr? li/tLoi) *-'*j Prv 6. 6 

winged male of the ant 
V.3* ^aoxc-Xifw Gn 17. 23 Dt 

10. 16 put under the armpit ; 

mutilate; v. p. 667 
'm:* Gn 17. 10; Pass. 
TTr3* uacxaAia/iaTa Ex 4. 26 

extremities cut ojffrom a corpse 
rsn' cfa^oAAu/11 Ps Il8. 10 

destroy utterly 
^73 J* jicpaivaj Job 14- 2 iraJf*, 

wither; Pass., u;ai^ artajr 
Vr^rn* Ps 58, 8 

*?Ti2* *ara- Ps 90. 6 Ctfitf* to 
wit fur; Pass., <AV au-ay 



X. INITIAL J 151 

nW7p* ) b ,, 73 Trvpos Dt 23. 26 Jes 
30. 24 Job 6. 5, 24. 6 *LL[ 

wheats pi.; a gram of wheat 
*?7?3* rrpcti—tiV, -— oi' Gn 21.7 

foretell; cf. —poXaXiuj 
nbn* <^o? IIS 23. 2 Ps 139. 4 

Job 4. 2, 13. 17, 26. 4, 29. 

g, 22, 30. 9 word, utterance, 

speech, tale, song or lay; 131 
picfloptov Ps 10-5 P'-» borders, 

marches 

Jer 13. 23 divided 
233* diLOiBaU'ui Dt 2. 30132. 
10 Jes 6. 15 ^o aiouf or 
around; surround, encompass; 
guard, protect; 231* Gn 19. 4; 
22:2* Ps20.6; 331*Jos6. 1 1 



1 . 1 —j i 



u^pLGua, -/xor Estn 1. 18 



rl3y cvp.ZcZr.KOf ^- ^clivujj its. 

12.15 c ^ ar:ce fien ^con ' ingency 

n33?* HCh 10. 15 

320* crrpcouj turn, convert, turn 
round or about, turn to or from 
an object, turn back, go about 
Xu 34. 4, 36. 7 Dt 2. 3 IS 

7. ID, 17. 30, 22. 22 IR 2. 15 

Jes 23. 16 Jer 6. 12 Ez 1. 9, 
42. 1 g Ps 1 1 4. 3, 5 Prv 26. 1 4 
EccI 1. 6 IlCh 17. g, 23. 2 
35V* Jes 28. 27 

333* dvacTpeOas US 1 4. 20 
turn upside down ; invert 

332* cm- Dt 32. IO IIS 14. 20 
turn or convert from an error, 
correct; 3^37} Mai 2. 6 

30H* ^era- IIR ID. 18, 23. 34 

Esr 6.22 carry across, t ransfer y 

change, alter 

euro-, Sia- Cant 6. 5 IlCh 35. 

22 turn away or aside, divert 



152 



X. INITIAL 3 



130 (310) dtuj (A), t P €7to> Cant 
2. 17 run y betake oneself] turn 

330* (310) tfa IS 16. I I sit, 
sit down; sit } recline at meals 

3310 * r^oi, KaQ- Jcr 31. 22 (21) 
lie in ambush 

30n fa/ui Cant 1. 12 «af 

71303 <irp€fifia Job 37. 12 
conspiracy, band of conspirators 

3^30* a/x^t Gn 23. 17 jAotrf, 
around J all round, the neigh- 
bourhood of 

m2*30* Ex 7. 24 Dt 2K 2 Ps 

79- 3 
1T32 ^a^o^tat TIS I- 22 give way , 

draw or shrink back, recoil^ retire 
raj Jes 59. 13 Jcr 46. 5 Ps 78. 

57, 80. 19 
ron di'axd^aj Dt ig. 14 make 

to recoil, force back 

:= V J cs 59- *4 

ron o-Lryytyvo/^at Mich 6. r^ 

have sexual intercourse niih 
r.C, 1*0 d;iuv8tov Ez 22. 18 white 

lead 
3*:p Jcs 1. 25 Prv 26. 23 
OTO Jcs I . 22 

nr.e £eL/*rd* (^ir/vu^t) Cant 

7. 3 yo/W 
*0; aT5oj Ps 4. 7 /i"^.' £//>, 

~-2 ^cffai'tLoj Gn 22. i Out to 

the test 
r?03 5aaat09 Ex I 7. 7 Dt 4.. 34 
test, trial of genuineness 
Saaaviauos Job 9. 23 torture 
"0:* aeuu Prv 15, 25 shake, 
Pass., metaph., shaken to its 
foundations 
ncj Dt 28- 63 



ncp* «- Esr 6. 11 Pass., 

shake out or ojf 
no? mWw IIR 11. 6 i> c// 

a;c;\r, absolutely 
TJC1 T7j<cj, raxoj Jes 40. 10 

fn^// s nw/J down, of metals 
TjCl <rv- Prv- 8. 23 Pass., to be 

cast ; riKTcu : engendered 
7|0: r*7<T0* Jes 48. 5 melted^ 

molten 
^z: Dan 1 1- 8 
TjCl c^reVooj Jes 29. 10 Hos 9. 4 

rarelv without the relisrious 

sense, simply pour; make 2 

drink-offering; ct. ^w 
T]C: Kara- IChll. 18 pour is 

a drirJi-ojfering 

^on Ex 25. 29 
noo: Dan 2. 46 
j w.j _\u 20. 7 
*~i- Gn 35. 14 ^5.\t ^r^. 1 : or 
oier, esD. a drink-oiTcrir.^ 
7]C) C7ttc;'5tj JcS 57. 6 drir.k- 

ojferzng 
Wr Esr 7. 17 
Tj-Cl D: 32. 38 

■hycutiv Jos 13. 2 1 Ps 33. 12 

m - * - , 

H303 crrTOi-OTjatLior Jcs jO> I 

of or for a drink-offering 
~Z2*2 -rr ; KTDv Ex 32. 4 capable 

of being softened, dissoized* 

melted 
^Zl L<rrnut Ps 2. 6 set uO t 

appoint 
H3C5 tcr-rlov, -to$ JeS 28. 20 

the web cut from the loom 
and finished, web of a 
certain size, piece; web, cloth, 
sheet 



X, INI 

rcca IvTiov, 1<jt6s Jud i6. 13 

beam of a loom, which stood 

upright, instead of lying 

horizontal as in our looms 
CI Iotos Nu 2 1 . 8 rod, pole 
Urriov Jes 33. 23 Ez 27. 7 

sail, web, cloth, sheet 
CC3 avOe'oj, -0i£oj Jcs TO. 18 

bloom, be brilliant, shine with 

colour % fSl 
CCi itravdtu* Jcs 59. 1 9 -'Aoitf 

itr*//", appear plainly] to be 

bright 
CC uTH i<navdi£u> Zach 9. 1 6 Ps 

60. 6 deck as with flowers; 

metaph,, deck as with flowers, 

decorate, adorn, Pass, 
c: a;*tW (A) Ps 60. 6 blossom, 

flower, chaplet of flowers 
yc; o5*l : o, Gn u. 2, 37. 17 

go, travel 
i'C 1 ? oOtfu^a Gn 13. 3 journey 

yc: acta; Jud 16. 14 Jcs 33. 20 

Zach 10. 2 TU 
S3? Jcs 38. 12 

i^Cn ^orjyeouai Ps 78. 26, 52 

VC? 7^/^aoVcuua Nu 10. 2 Dt 

10, I E leading 
yen Siaatuj Job 19. 10 n^in 

yCE c€iapa Job 41. 18 TU3 
L"Cn Staxoai^aj Eccl 10. 9 
cam over or across, simply 
convey 
€ta- IR 5- 31 PS 80. 9 CtfJT? 

in, bring in for oneself 
dzro- IIR 4- 4 carry cway, 
carry back 
SCO «ia#co/iiSiJ IR 6. 7 un- 



TIAL 3 i53 

p03 aya> Ps 139. 8 march, go 
pon* €ta- Dan 3. 22 lead in 

or frcto, introduce rsn 
np r 9?n* «f- Dan 6. 24 lead out, 

lead away, bring out from, bring 

out of prison, release 
y'OTi* Dan 6. 24 
rven* ifcxtldtD Dt 13. 7 /?«-- 

m^rftf completely, over-persuade 

ncn* IR 21- 25 

by: tfAetaj Jud 3. 23 shut, 
close, bar 

brjz KXticr-ros Jud 3. 24 closed 

AVV2 KXeidpov, -icrrpov Cant 
5. 5 bar for closing door 

bi*3 irroBiuj, -€ivai Ez l6. 10 
61W or fasten; csp. under bind 
the feet, I.e. jAo*, because the 
ancient sandals or shoes 
were bound on with straps 

b*y:n HCh 28. 15 

b^:, by:.:: ->oSr ua Gn n. 23 
Dt 33. 25 J-*- : sole bound 
under the foot with straps, 
sandal] cf. KXclBwfia 

cri cvrac'tu Gn 49. 15 IIS 1 . 26 
Cant 7. 7 to 3* tw/J inclined or 
favourable; Pass., to A<r kindly 
or affectionately treated 

ra ^009 Cant 1. 16 a*//- 
dis posed, kindly, friendly 

n3*!?J t^oux Ps 16. II in pL 
impulses of kindness, favours, 
benevolences , gift or present in 
token of goodwill 

cvi Ps 90. 17 

n*3?j ri;vow (crrooy) Ps 16. 6 

Job 36. I I = twoca HD^yi 
pjl avtptLvri Jes 17. 10 poppy, 
anemone 



"54 



X. INI 



DS13 €%€<j}j.a Ps 14 K 4 meat, 

food] pi. eatables ; cf. Q*Dn 
7^7: a^a^tKo? Jes 7- 19, 55. 

13 spinous 
in Gjpuo/^cu Jer 51. 38 Ion. 

and poet. Verb, very rarely 

used in Att., howl, prop, of 

wolves and dogs; of lions, 

roar 
is; ^tj/loco Jes 33. 9 strip 

hare, desolate, lay ivaste 
IS!" €Koeluj Job 38. 13 shake 

out or off; drive out HCUri 
is; Xeh 5- 13 shake out one's 

clothes 
l^s: a*caro? Neh 5. 13 shaken 
is: <7€uu Jes 33. 15 Ti: 
i-»-*.M €7T€yetpcj jes ^2. 2 

Pass., to be roused from sleep, 

wake up\ cf. €kq€llu 
ISII tyetpu) Jud 16. 20 raitf* 

or stir oneself arouse oneself 
6<3<^ Pi 109- 23 Pass., to be 

borne or carrr^involuntarily, 

csd. to be borne along by waves 

or winds, to be swept away 
1SZ Kara- Ex 14. 27 bringdown 
r.lSZ oopirroV Jes 1. 31 aviaf- 

*:vr /A* u/m<f carries along; 

chips or shavings 
vevpa, -pov Jud 1 6. 9 J.'nn^ 

or cord of sinew; sinew, cord 

made of sinew 
is: tppaj (A) Zach m. 16 u-a/i- 

rf>r mn 
vtavitvofiat Gn 37- 2 acf like 

a hot-headed youth, wilfully or 

wantonly, swagger 

13?2 yana'a; (i^'off), -<*pQS, **o* 

Gn 22. 5, 41. 12 Ex 2. 6 IS 



TIAL : 

1, 24 young man; poet, for 
v€o$ (wung, youthful, of 
children, youths, and ef 
men at least as old as 30 — 
cL Gn 41- 12, 46) 

11S1 via, v€Gvi$, -apd Dt 22. 
19 IR 1-2 Ruth 4. 12 girl, 
maiden, of a young married 
woman 

is: Gn 34. 3 Dt 22. 15 

IS! via-, -o — ,- job 36, 14 J'£?h:/: 
D11S! ^ottij Gn 46- 34 Ps 127. 

_t youth, in pL 
rnvis: Jer 32. 30 

IS: 7T€lva Ps 33. 16 hunger, 

famine 
ns: tt^-coj Jer 15. 9 blow, 

breathe out 
rcZTi £<~ Job 31- 39 make ere 

give uo the ghost 
m£: ovecoi J^s 54- 1 5 i.'r;:-, 
pujf \QVp* za±<jj: breathe :c::h 
the month wide open \KZ P; 
iio. 1 31' , of bellows 
m-itu 6vx^ Gn 2. 7 breathe, 
blow 
ms; pf<rnroV Jer 1. 13 blown } 

blown out 
HDI 3lcOL'<7C^ Job 20. 26 s/l)^* 

or breathe through, Pass, 
ns? ol'ct^c Job ri. 20 thai 
which is blown up; metaph., 
conceit 
m3S Oi'O-rjrVjSibv Jer 6. 2g a 
furnace with bellows (opp. 
auTOjxaraptiov) 
n^* ^Tjtiit-lfateliretv PS27. 12 
say s speak, utter 
977/1 t'£ui Hab 2, 3 prophesy 
UDir\n* «iC7v«iui } -4u> Jer 4. 31 



X, INITIAL 3 



i55 



breath out; mctaph., lose 
power , lose breath ST1 



<^>€vy<jj Cant 



1 7 //« 



rrsn* <f>Tj}i^<jj Prv 6. 19 ns 1 

Karairvtuj Ez 2 I . 36 blow Or 

breathe upon or or*r 
d-o- Job 3 1- 39 make them 
£i« :/J> the ghost ; cf. £*- 

rrs* OL : cr7j/ia Ex 9. 8 iujr 
zvhich is blown or produced by 
blowing 

7]S; a*fya£ Ex 28. 18 Ez 27. 
16 precious stone of dark- 
red colour, including the 

carbuncle 1 ruby and garnet *jZ- 



i* 



0/ 



1 «J u 4 , 



cf. EHD Prv 26, 2 1 ^~* 



25. 18 Dt 2:. I 



J^ 3- 24 v 

*?Z1 Sd\*\u> Gn 

Jud 5. 27 IS 26. 20 IIR 6. 5 
lei Jell; pour; to be l-cky. 
successful \ fall, lie down 

V?s: Ez 28, 23 kit with a 
missile, freq. opposed 10 
striking with a weapon in the 
hand; fall, lie down 

V'sn €>- IS 14. 42, 18, 25 Jcs 
34. 17 Jer 38. 26 Esth 3. 7 
/*r one fall into someone's 
hands, hand in, submit a 
petition, draw lots 
Kara- Dt 25. 2 Jud 2. 19 IS 

3. 19 IIR 19. 7 Ps 106. 26, 
27 throw down, strike down 
with a weapon, let fall, drop, 
abandon 
V22Tin im- Gn 43. 18 fall 
upon, csp. in hostile sense, set 



upon 
bZi 0o.Vai Gn 33. 4 fall 

about someone's neck 
bEinn airi- Dt 9, 18 Esr 10. i 

meet as a suppliant, entreat, 

supplicate 
7 33 vcS<\l£ui Gn 4, 5, 6 wrap 

in clouds, in Pass. 
^sn Jes 26. 19 Job 29. 24 

7DJ TTiTrroi Gn 17. 3, 25, 18 

Nu 6. 12 Jud 5. 27, 16. 30 
IS 25. 24 IIS 1. 19, 19. 19 
IIR 10. ioJer25. 27, 38- 19 
Ps 16. 6 Job 1. 15, 12. 3, 13. 
2 Ruth 3. 18 Eccl 4. 10 
Radical sense, fall down and 
(when intentional) cast one- 
self down; fall] fall violently 
upon, attack: throw oneself 
down; fall in battle;^//, be 
ruined; fall short, fail; escape; 
generally, fell, turn out, see 
how it would fall ,'Hdc 7. 
163} ; to be lucky; c. p. 643 
7?:* Dan 2. 46 
7S: Sia- Nu 5. 21, 22, 27 Job 
31.22 fall away, slip away, 
fall asunder 
7E3 rrrcujia Am 8. 6 payment 

which falls due 
n7D?? Jes 23. 13, 25. 2 ruin 
nbon Jes 17. 1 
"Voa Jud 14. 8 fallen body, 

corpse, carcase 

7D2 <j6<L\Auj Jes 14. 12 Prv it. 

14 Pass,, to be overthrown, 

fall, csp. of persons falling 

from high fortunes 

n*?DD rrrwfia, a^xLXfia Ez 27. 27 

triPt stumble, false step t fall, 



i 5 6 X. INI 

failure^ defeat; misfortune, 

calamity 
722 ajx/?AuV N r u 24, 4, 16 

metaph., dim, faint, of sight 
r,?X bt\ dfji^XwdpiBtov Ps 58. 9 

^J ■ abortive child 
•S3 Eccl 6. 3 
^23 ottXov Job 4 1. 15 arms and 

armour, pL; i\ p. 342 
V22 rrerawu/.u Gn 0. 19 IS 1 3. 

11 spread out; Pass., to be 

scattered abroad, dispersed 
r s * Gn ik 4 

fiSi* Gn 10. 18 IIS 18- 3 
7"3*j* «- Gn 11. 9 Jcr 13. 24 

spread out ; scatter to the winds 
Y*—**** aTTOTrerawvaij -a£oj Hab 

3. 6 spread out 
72* drro-, Sta- IR 5. 23 oSen 

and spread out 
TMZl TTtracrfjLa Jes ll. 12 any- 
thing spread out 

7*-- <*>votjt6$ Jcr 22- 28 rr2: 
Jtl orroS/ai Jud 7. 19 pound, 
smite, crush 

72: Jcs 27. 9 

72; arroSeaj Ps 2. Q, 137. 9 dash 
against the rocks 

72: <70a£a> Jcr5i.2O.2i l/uV, 

slaughter, properly by cutting 

the throat 
733 a<fadyfia Ez 9. 2 slaughter 
722 aoay^uV Jcr 5 1. 20 slayer, 

butcher, murderer, cut-throat] 

sacrificial knife 
72Z vi<f>d$, doos Jcs 30. 30 snow- 

flake, snowstorm 
7??* o7ToS*'aj Jcr 23. 29 721 
7?XD* 7ric£uj Job 16. 12 ^r«x 

*ff Af, squeeze 



T I A L 3 

y^pn* cr£a£<u Hab 3. 14 73; 
^23 dvadtuxu* Ex 23. 12,31. 17 

IIS 16, 14 coo/, refrssh; 

Pass,, to be revived, refreshed 
^25 6vxj Gn 1- 20, 30, 12. 5, 

35. 18, 46. 18 Ex 1. 5 IS 18. 

l > 3> l 9- 5 IR ] 7- 21 Am 2 - 
14, 15 Job 2. 4, 6, 6. it Thr 

3. 51 life, of life in animals. 

departed spirit, ghost, soul, {>*t- 

son, seij 

H2I OTTKJua, OTTO} Ps ig. IT PrV 

5, 3 the juice of plants; juice 
X22 aiOouat Jer 48. 9 iur,t, 
bla^e: akin to alQvaotu 

ns ? J« 37- - s 
7^- ciVo* Jcs 1-31 _/:« 
2al urrrui Gn 37. 7 stand 
2"S7i di" IR 16- 34 Jcr 3 1 . -j : 

;2 0^ i<r.' :0, £:/:/</; c^:;'j us 
again, restore: set up a statue 
2!>r; Gn 23, 12 make to s:a?;d ~c 
raise uo 






a£- Gn 21. 28, 35. 



D: 32. 8 set up, ere;*, o: 
stones; set in order, array, o: 
soldiers 

— -* - <» eOMTTTtUL UC 7. 2 J, 

IIS 1 3. 30 Job 41. 2 stand 
by or near; in hostile sense, 
stand against 
aw- Xu i i . i 6 Ps 2. 2, qs. :i 
Job 1. 6 HCh II- 13 com* 
b:ne y associate, unite; stand 
together; meet tn fight , be en- 
gaged ttith; of friends, form a 
league or union, band together; 
league themselves with one 
side or the other 
Z Si lotos Jud 3. 22 rod CI 



X. INITIAL 3 



ITS] Gn 19. 26 anything set up- 
right, rod, pole 
2±: Imardr^ IR 4. 7, Q- 23, 

22. 48 one who is set orer, 
chief, commander; president , 
overseer^ superintendent in 
charge of any public build- 



ing or works 



-\SJ 



IIS 8. 6, 14 IR 4- 19 ICh 

II. 16 I ICh 17. 2 gozemcr, 

administrator 
2 SB awnj^ux IS 14. t IIS 23, 14 

body of soldiers, corps 
z±r: Jes 29, 3 
r^ss IS 14. 12 
r\z^ Zach 9. 8 

2 % S? crrdais Jos 4. 3 ]cs 22. 10 
:he place in iv'nich one : :2:1c s or 
should stand, position, r.ilion 

r.2*S*2 Icrlav, Igtos Ex 24, 4 

Dt 7. 5, 16- 22 Mich 5. 12 



nzs:: Gn 35. 20 IIS iS. :3 
ZSZ atSouai Ps 82. 1, I!0. 89 

rezere, worship] genera -iy, 

pay honour or respect :o 
HUS* ai$u> Ex 38. 8 IS 2. 22 

worship, honour, mostly of :he 

gods; of suppliants 
"2^ ottZaopa Hos 3. 4 that 

for which awe is felt, an object 

of ewe or worship 
zss Jud 9. 6 



2^-71 drro^uVuj, -£€lj 



is 



21 



bring to a point 
2S71 ? Nah Q. 8 

Zach 11. 16 one itho ts 
fasting; not gating, fasting, of 
persons 



i57 
. 8 



n"§: aXTJdeta, aXd- Dan 

truth n=X 
Na'Sl* Dan 7. 16 
2-?;* (LXij^jjs-, L\a-, -du-6<; Dan 

2. 45 tru£\ of oracles, true, 

unerring r^N 
X2-.T* Dan 5. 13 
Kra^l /aSSyy-W, kISSo; Dan 2. 

4 1 dross of gold, dross of si lie r 
run €iac/cj Gn 43. 9 Am 5. 15 

introduce a child to die mem- 
bers of one's opa-rpd] to bring 

a cause into Court 
Kar- Jer 5:. 34 Job 17. 5 

reduce to a s:a:e 
;un *£aiotuj Ex 10. 2a takeout 

of a number, except] el. 

cup to/ = <iyp«jj ; >ccir*vcj 
< ^ c*lcj l ::r _i. : -> 1 <i 



2. 1 






generally, quarrel, wrangle 



rrsri Sic- Nu 20. 9 Ps 60. 2 

fght, contend] resist to the 

uttermost 
rrsr; ^6^ Jes 58. 4 battle, 

combat, contention, strife 
nsn Jes 41. 12 

T&l* aidvGctu Jes 9. 1 7 kindie 
n31* Jer 2, 15 Xeh 1. 3 Pass., 

aidouni.: burn, blaze K-£I 
rrxn* KCTGtcrw Jos3.8Jes27. 4 

&h/tz down, burn to ashes 
VrSl tTTicrraTtuj Esr 3. 8, 9 to 

be set over, to be in charge of\ 

stand by, aid 
fiXlT? iiTtordTTis IICI134. 13 one 

who is set over, pjpervzsor 2^1 
T}y€/j.u>v Hab 3- 19 Ps 4. 1 

leader of a chorus 
HS3 <Vaei'S<u IChl5-2I ]^ sing 



i 5 8 



X. INMTIAL : 



to or in accompaniment ; CrrdBuj : 

sing by way of accompaniment 

nSJ alZiL? ICh 29. 11 respect a 

dtStoy IS 15, 29 (cf- T*2X 
VK1C% 2p3PT2X) Jer 15- 18 
everlasting y eternal 
alhtuis Am 1. 11 eternally 
TiH^? dtStos* J e r 8. 5 ~SI 
ns; rj eV diSto^ Job 34. 36 

for ever } ad infinitum 
HS1 SotcTjjMaj rrpoa-j rrpoaooKia 

Thr 3. 18 expectation 
66vq$ Jcs 63. 3, 6 blood when 

shed, gore 
"Sir.ri* r]y€ouat Dan 6. 4 

r^, Aflw dominion; cf. HS12 
73? <ju>£uj Mich 4. 10 save, 

keep alive } preserve, rescue ; of 

tilings, keep safe, preserve 



• ■■aJ 



Ez T4. 14 



■^sn Ex i2. 27, 18. 10 Hos 2. 1 1 
7?o* Dai: 3. 29, 6. 15. 28 

Esth j.. 1^ 



^-i«i 



aOJT77£}LG. 



deliverance, preservation, saiva- 

tion 
*s m 4* drroavXdtj Ex 3, 2 2 strip 

ojf or /jXv away from 
' cn/Aacu Ex 33. 6 Pass., 



/ ***** 11 1 



72 df#os (A) Gn 40. io bloom, 
flower CI 

ns: Job 15. 33 

ys* Ex 28. 36 Lev 0. 9 Xu 17. 

23 Jcs 28. I crown, wreath, 

garland 

nrs* Jcs 28. 4 

73 a^off (B) Lev 11.16 a kind 

o\bird, perh. theyellow wagtail 
]3I Cant 2. 12 
r.S*S* fi'cci'o^ alovSos Xl: 15. 

38 Ez 8. 3 ffm*/, mcsiiy 

in pi. l fringe 
"SI rroccii Prv 13. 3 ^^ 

o:'tfr, .'jirf «« o/~ guard *1-I 
H^J T7 jp 7; ~^ t -pdr IIR 17. q 

Job 27. 18 jj^^ j*** j^^ 

) ^o keeccr, observer, warden. 

^nar a • — * 
*!S: *«cji€i : u/ Job 7. 20 jt: :;::::- 

r "£'i±t* rraxe ear'ncnn ar^ 
"vsr Gn 2. 7 ? 3 Jcs 45. 9. C4. ; 

Jcr 18. 1 1 

T-iV «pc;;ev* Jcs 29. ID T 45- 9 

Jcr 1 3- 2-6 darter 
~V-T Ktpcuot JCS 29. 10 err/- 
:/::«* r^r^te 0/" poller* $ clay 

■^n lb 45. 9 
■vs: <rc^^ Ps 32. 7 V?; 



to A* stripped, deprived of a ^V-J: <j&<rr6s Ez 6. 12 



tiling 

1 CKia^cj, <rr 



IIS 20. 6 ^ 



;a* a 



overshadow, darken ; 
shadow upon 

j m sz dvQiu* [dvdlW) Ez 1, 7 ^ 
brilliant^ shine with colour 

ps* Ez 7, 10 blossom, bloom 

pn «f- Cant 6. 1 i put out 
flowers, bloom 

psri* Nu 17, 23 



*vs: Jcs 49. 6 

i't'^otu", t'€K*pLd JCS 0j. 4 
burial place; cemetery, pi. 

ns: ff«d^, -*«, -up Jcs 14. 1 9 

Koppo? {A) Jcs I I. I lrur:ko[^ 

tree (with the boughs lopped 

off)* 

rpi Sui^OTTTUi IIR 12. 10, :3. 

2 1 ait through ; Pass., receive 



X. INI 

a gash ; of a coin, have a hole 
drilled in it 
Tiipi hiaKorrq Gil 1 - 27 Lev 5. 6, 

12. 5 gash, cleft <-^> ; ra/- 
/:"«* or canal ihroueh an 
isthmus or mountain, narrow 
passage; v. pp. 1 89, 647 

712P?3 K-cnravov : = kottU IR 6- 7 
chopper \ cleaver 

T.Zp^ Jud 4. 21 

aicdpua Jcs 5 1 . I thai which 
has bee?i dug, tunnel, p:i 

Zpl «fuai Gn 30. 28 Xu I- 17 
Jcs 62. 2 to be ordained, be laid 
down, give, have a name given 

zzz €vvouai Lev 2J.. 11,16 Nu 
23. 3 Job 3- 8 pray for some- 
thing 'good or bad} jot a 
person 

ZZ7* Kar€V X oLLaL Nu 22. II, 
23 . 13,27 2^1 v earnestly ; £rjy 
against or.c. imprecate 

171 6<iKu*Sn$ Gn 30. --5 2 

feckled 

-p: Jos 9. 5 

"p; oarfturd^ Canti.ii lentil- 
shewed, of hot-water bottles 

np: tv'^i Jer49- 12 release, lei go 

r>p: Ex 21. 19 

co- Ex 34. 7 Jer2. 35 J ob I0 - 

I j. k.' *<?, /got*, set free, release 

from a thing, acquit of 2. charge 

*?1 do^Toy laplr^Li) Gn 24. 4 1 
/** /joj*, ranging at large, csp. 
sacred flocks that were free 
from work, released] free 

np: dyvi£u* Nu 5. 28 Jcr 2. 35 

Job 10. 14 wash ojf, cleanse 
away; cleanse, purify; purify 
oneself 



TIAL 1 159 

^pl dyi'Of Job 4. 7 /u/r*, chaste, 
holy; after Horn-, of persons, 

undefdtd, chaste, generally, 
pure , upright 
n pi -1 K arayros Job 22. 30 tf/i- 

c/^a/j, unholy, defied 
]Vpj ayfeia, -t'drTi^ Hos 8. 5 
purity, chastity, integrity 



n*pip ayx-iCTTjptoj' 



! 5- ^9 



instrument or t::r: neat ion 
]Vp2 dyyefo;' dynaTTjpio;' Ps 26. 
6 vessel; of metal, jar for 
water 
Dip* axdo/j-ai Ps 95- 10 ro 6tf 
loaded; mostly of mental op- 
pression, io be weighed down, 
vexed, annoyed, grieved, ct a 
thing, or with a person 
rp:* Job 10. 1 
C'PJ* Ez 6. 9, 20. 43, 36. 31 
wCipr.n* £-- Ps :io. 158, 139. 

2 1 t'o 3ir annoyed at 

Zpi £>cSt/cd^cj, -.<£ty Dt 32. 43 
Jos 10. 13 IS 24. 13 prosecute 
one's r ig h t aga 1 nj 1 a no I h cr \ 
avenge, punish, exact vengeance 
for; avenge or vindicate 

C?l Ex 21. 20 Jud 15. 7 IS 14. 
24 Pass. 

zpi IIR 9, 7 Jcr 51. 36 

=p; Gn 4. 15 

cpir.n Jcr 5. 9 Ps 3, 3 

Dpi SixcaT7:p, -7;? Nah 1, 2 
avenger 

CplTO eicStKGOTTjp, ~tj^ Ps 8. 3 

avenger 
epi BIktj Dt 32. 43 Jud 16. 28 
Jes 34. 8 vengeance, punish- 
went, atonement, satisfaction^ 
penalty; sometimes pi. 



»6o X. IN 

H2p>? Jcr 46. io, 50. 28 Ez 25. 
17 Ps 79. 10,-94. 1 

i?P"* apK€a> £223.17 Pass., 
to be satisfied ttith 

S?pi* Ez 23. 18 /o £* enough, 
endure 

*p** Gn 32. 26 to be strong 
enough 

"^pl"* €7Totyouai Xu 2=;. j. IIS 
21.9 ^rau; near io the gods 
with sacrincial feasts; ap- 
proach with hostile purpose, 
attack (?) 

C^SplDi"!* ol KaroL^ouevoL IIS 
21.13 ^ departed, the dead 

r ip3 k-otttcj Jes 17. 6 «f o/f, 
chop ojf\ cf. cm-, p. 209 

^pl /cara- Jes IO. 34 cut down, 
fell, of trees, in Pass. 

r ,p- €^oj Jcs 29. 1 keep up, 
maintain 

T?" ~<P'- Jos 6. :: Ps 88. :8 
HCh 23. 7 encompass y em- 
brace t surround] surround so as 

co guard 

> 
ncpl oT7?r*Stijy Jes 3. 2-i -OjJ-^ 

<&tjy, putrefaction, in animal 

bodies or wood, or even 

stone 

TP* *~7£o* IlChg. 21 along- 
tailed monkey, perh. the 
nisnas monkey 

riS^pri* to €a\-cro^ Ex 3^. 22 
IS 1 . 20 ike far the si part, 
pL; the end 

p*?\ StaKOTTiJ Jes 7. ;q nzp2 

"Ipi dpi/'aatu IS II. 2 £/i£; 
£0uf* out the eye 

ip? *f- Nu 16. 14 Job 30. 17 
dig out, gouge out 



ITIAL 2 

ipi Jcs 51. 1 

mp: opvyfta Ex 33. 22 «'Jdrdf- 

tion, trench, ditch, moat + 
Tpu htKTVGouat Jcs 8. 15PS9. 17 

to be caught in a net, Pass. 
Spv* Eccl 9. 12 
Sp_2 Dt 12. 30 
^P^* 5i*€iV Jer 50. 24 Ps ij.:. 

9 throw, cast 
£Hp m * OtKTuwros Flos 0. 8 

made in net fashion 
-p^ PS91.3 
U^p^* olktvov Jer 5. 26 Prv 6. 

5 «/, fishmg-nei, hunting-net 
spis* Dt 7. 16 Jos 23. 13 Am 

3- 5 Ps 64. 6, 140. 6 

TVZp^JZ Ps 1^1. 9 

r?I 6*yaxt£a> Ps 38. 13 */jy 

/.v o«Vc^ : cheat, He 
^plTr* crro- IS 28. O delude, mo:*: 
Dan ^. 5 ;;.':/:-, 






0- 



£^j:. /::::\".c 



"T^i vdpdc? Cant 4. 14 :ciie- 
nard, oil of spikenard 

y»~** ' ' ' ' ' * w 

C\**4 Ot'OCU. OilpCU {t'SCyKttVj £V€LK€ 7 

otVeu- Gn 13. 6 Ex 10. 13 
Nu 23. 7 Dt 1. 31 Jes 14. 4, 

46. 3 Jer 10. 19 Ez 17. 23, 

19. 1, 29, 19 Joel 2. 22 

Hag 2. 19 bear or carry; 

of a ore^nant woman- 0: 

wind, wjr along; endure. 

suffer; tell, announce; bring 

for:h > produce, bear fruit; rob, 

plunder; generally, take and 

carry ait ay, esp* to one's own 

home; v. p. 638 

KSi Ex 25. 28 IIR 20. 17 

qtto- Am 4. 2 carry ojfov away 
rrpou- IIS 19. 43 IR 9. 11 Esr 



X- INITIAL 3 

I. 4 present, offer, csp. food, 
drink 
ttt;: ICh 2t- 24 

N~m 61a- IIS 17. 13 carryover 
or £r70j5 
em- Lev 22. 16 innff as a 
charge agaijtst 

Kr: Lev 19.17 

nxvr: 60 pa Jcs 46. I load, 
freight* burden; pL contribu- 
tions, of contributions in kind 

TiKT: ^o^c, -poa- IIS ig- 43 
payment \ bounty ■, benefit ; ybo J, 

xr; ooMutu, -€<jj IS 14. 3 ICh 
5. 18 Frequentat. of o4p<i>, 
imciving repeated or habitual 
action; most commonly 
of c!o:hcs ; armour and the 
like, hear constantly, near 



Xu 11, 11 IIR 5. 



: 7 Jer 17- 21 ICh 15. 22, 27 
I ICh 20. 25 that u:hich is 
carried, load; metaph + ? burden ; 
of a harp 
rf , TKT^ -poo- Gn 43. 34 
IIS 1 1.8 Jer40. 5 Es:h 2. 18 
HCh 17. 11 present; food, 
victuals 

X-: etdouai ICh 21. 24 bum, 
blaze X3J, "S3 

ZK2*1 aliujv Jcs 30. 27 oifery 
smoke 

r.KT2 Jud 20, 38, 40 

KT1 ?T£ldu> Ex 35, 21 persuade 

K^:; c^a- Jcr 22. 27 pemade, 
convince; persuade^ mote to do 
a thing, seduce , mislead 

Ktl ai&copai Gn 18.26, 19- 21, 
50. 17 Dt 10. 17 Ps 55, 13 

fi«iCT7 



l6l 

respect; have compassion upon y 
show mercy; of the homicide, 
obtain forgiveness 
K ? 3 J^s 33- -4 

"1C7J Ps 32. I 

X^r? €tt* I ICh ig. 7 reference 

KtTI cuS^ard? IIR 5, I revered, 

venerable 
Kin Jes 3. 3 

r*Kt? GtScatr G:: 4- 7 forgiveness 
clouts, -3oj Gn 49, 3 reverence, 
dignity; m eta pi:., sublimity, 
grandeur lu^ 
xt: i^dai Ex 6. 8 IIR 25. 27 
lift high, raise; metaph,, ele- 
vate ^ exaii (opp. tc>-£iv6ld\ 
humble, abase --1 Jer 8, 14 
PS37- 7,62.6,93.3, 131.2: 
KTirsn Nu 16. 3, 24. 7 Pass., 
to be exalted 

€^v66as Es:h 3. 1 . 5. 11 
raise up* exalt 

iJi/rTje:*, -tjAcV Jc5 2. 2 j 12, 
6. 1 /«jA, I of: r 
at'Serdi'/i/Jrrjftr^ -TjAd? Nu 7. 
10 revered, venerable; metaph. 
ArjA, lofty, stately; upraised, 
i.e. mighty 
X~tl Gn 23. 6 Xu 7. 1 I 
K*7 Wor Job 20. 6 height: 
metaph., subiimiy^ grandeur 
XT3 «<£or Jer 10. 13 Ps 135. 7 
Prv 25. i-i cloud, mass oj 
clouds 
Kn ^a^eJo^iat IIR 9. 25 Jer 6. 
I divine, prophesy; cf, <f>*pu> 
irviri €7f*- Ez 12. 10 prophesy 
XU9 iuun-€i<i t -€lqv Jes 13- i Jer 
23, 33 Tlir 2. 14 orac/tf, 
prophecy, pi. 



XT1 






xri 



,62 X- INI 

nxira Jer 6. i 

Hmj ^aKru G1125. i4Prv3o. 1, 

3 1 . 1 diviner, seer, prophet 
nTO Gn 41- 51 Jud 1 3, 30 
rroD Ex 2, 10 Jud 18. 30 

KZ1 pvStopai N1123. 7jcs 14- 4, 

37. 4 Ez 19. 1 speak, say, 

recount; cL d>cpu* 
KM tjx**** J^ 4 2 - ^ Ps 72, 3 

Job 21, 12 sound, ring, peal; 

impers, of an echo 
n ^? ixn, fa« Job 13. ii, 31. 

23 noise t rarely of articulate 

sounds; sound? echo 
H? Job 41. 17 
K21 6vuj Ez 17. 23 Joel 2. 22 

Hag 2. 19 Pass., grow, esp, 

of the -vegetable world; 

produce 1 of. $€p<u 
"tfT 6tJ^ta Lev 13. 2 growth; 

freq, of diseased growths, 

tumour , tubercle, e:c_ 
KZl d-.-rid^cj, -dtLt Eiin 2. 1 5 

encounter ; cf. pop€v& 
\cv3dvuj Ps 102- ir :j escape 

one, i.e. to forgtt ^-J 
ofoua£to Ex 20. 7 Ps 16. 4 

name^ specify by naming; utter 

names or words 
octal Nah 1.5 TS 
ri&rjfxi Jud 21. 23 Ruth 1. 4 

Esr g. 12 make a woman 

on* 1 * wife, take her as a wife 
? Dt 24. 15, 33. 3 Prv 19. 18 

Job 11. 1 5, 40. 20 
kt;* <£<>o> Dan 2. 35 Kn 
icmn* u^ow Esr 4. 1 9 Krinn 

K73 tfuxo^ai IR8, 31 IICh6. 22 
««** Jer 23. 39 T12 



TIAL 1 

Sam£w Jes 24. 2 Jer 15. 10 
put out money at usury, lend; 
have lent to one? borrow; c\. 
HOT 

7\vi Dt 24. r 1 

iCffln Ps 89. 23 

KTI SaKtanJ? IS 22* 2 money- 
lender or creditor 

H"Zf?? Savciauos- Nch 5. 7 money- 
lending; borrowing 

nrrcra ScVcic^a Dt 24. 10 

= odvttov : loan 
XT} TTtidtjj, TTtdta* Jes ig_ 13 

prevail upon, persuade, usually 

by fair means; in bad sense, 

talk over t mislead 
x^rn dva- Jer 4. 10 Ob 7 xr: 

)1K372 -zeidd* Prv 26. 26 persua- 
sion ; means oj persuasion ; 
inducement 

m*v:»*;- rs 73" ^ 

l'uojuc Ps 7,l, ^ elevation, 
height; mciapft., exaltation 

XT::* ^ta^-rt-ro:' Gn io. 30 5.-j: 
af an orccle 

nxr* Smoc^ Jes 6. 1 1 was**, 
ravage a country 

nxri* Jes 6. i 1 Pass. 

PlKTri* Kara- Jes 37. 26 ravage, 
waste 

nrn* IIR 19. 25 



rnxr* 



OTjtorTj; 



Jes 24. I: 



battle-strife t the battle; mortal 
struggle y death ; cf. Sai"> 
nxT* Thr 3, 47 

nxr*?n* ckdojiat / dyatoftai, 

ayajxai, ayaoaat Gn 24. 2 I 
gaze at, behold, mostly with 
a sense of wonder; look on 
with jealousy or envy\ in good 



X. INIT 

sense, admire; admire, wonder 

at; v. aw, p. 235 
71X3* irayrj Jcs 47. II "NIC 
~VX)* xajcout Ps 35. 17 maltreat, 

distress tL, 
TttTO* ^exo* Ez38.9Zeph 1. 15 

Ps 63. 10 Job 30. 3 ei-il, ill 

nmK* Zcph 1. 15 

ntf^;:* Job 30. 3 

ns:r* trayrj Ps 35. 8 anything 
thai fixes or fastens, snare, 
noose ; J oil ling net; metaph., 
trap, snare ; cf. nn™ Jer 1 8. 20, 

mNt; t-x<w Jcs 17. 12 kt; 
r«r* r ^ c . ax- Jcs 66. 6 

sound 
Z*w, J** t Zdv y Zt\v 7 Tdv 

Jcr 48. 45 -Z*vs\ c ^ ] N -^ "- 
Jcs 17. i t jL_: ; cf Jud 

!2. 6 

rr: ^;-€u Jc5 40.7 A/ocr.ofwhid 
and air, breathe, breathe out 

Z*z7i item-tin Ps 147, 18 blow 
:hroxgh t breathe out or jorlh 
htaovudtjj Karauofittu Gn 1 5. 
1 1 bloiL in different directions, 
disperse; frighten a a; ay, scare 
the birds 

l~n i^xtcvioucv Gn 44- 4 Lev 

25. no, 26. 5 Hos 10. 9 

reach, arrive at a place; arrive 

at, reach a a object 

eVifJcyya^ Gn 47. 9 Lev 26. 

5 Prv 2. 19 reach as far as 
dvuxd^Qpai Job 24. 2 "OH 

rrr: Aa^avu, Aijfla* Dt 32. 18 
Thr 3, 17 KW 
nr? Jcs 44- 21 



IAL) 163 

cVi- Gn 41 , 51 cause to forget, 
let a ihing escape one, forget, 
lose thought of 
ran Job 1 1- 6 
€*- Job 39. 17 make one 
quite forgetful of a thing 
rr?l AiJ0i7 Ps83. 13 forgetting, 
forgetf illness] after Horn., of 
a p/a« cf oblivion in the lower 
world 
nri tcr^'ae Gn 32. 33 hip-joint, 
in which the ;high turns; 
fleshy parts round the hip-jo tn!, 
haunches 
nn <T£tui Jcr 23. 30 "113 

rldTjpi Dt 24. :: Jcr 15. 10 
rldecBai scemi :a have the 
same meaning as vttoticJtj^u 
(:*. p. 239, ™v; cf. sr: 

n~nn d 0<W--cr Ti'rr-:' Jcs 24. 

2 f« mortgagee] c:. Kr; 
12 nr:n d £?*;? -^-.-v Dt 24. 1 1 

Jes 24. 2 

KZ'j 

rfozivi iJ a deposit or jfCA'*, 
ptfu;n, pledge, mortgage 

M™11 SaVftCTTTjf JCS 3O. I Kwj 

ir nrri Sc^^ Dt 24. to i<r: 
*r; Sa^tok IIR4. 7 loan ^-; 

nr;n £7rc.W5c: ^, -\r.du* Gn 4 1 . 



Dt i> 2 £u: 



nt'*, »'*■- 



*]71 Satcvcj, -vciu Xu 21. Q 
Mich 3- 5 bite, sting 

7]r] Sqkvlctttjp /rorficm;* Hab 2. 
7 Alter, jrz/:^rr; money-lender, 
usurer 

T]P) xraraSaKva* Xu 2 1, 6 A<te 

TJS1 tok t'Cci* (rd<or) Dt 23. 20 



164 



lend on interest 
Tp^H Dt 23, 20, 2 1 
TJ^l tokos (rtKTcn) Ex 22. 24 

Lev 25. 36 offspring; 

met a ph., product of money 
lent, hence interest 

H37J AeV^ Neh 13. 7 

n^^V* Nch 13. 5 lounging 
place, resort of idlers or 
beggars ; later, public building 
or hall, used as a lounge or 
meeting place, esp. at Sparta 
and in other Doric cities, 
also in Attica; at Cnidus 
council chamber 

7T1 tpiXouj Dt 28. 40 strip bare, 
mostly of hair; strip trees 
bare; strip oJF t pull out 
<ru\duj t -,V(jy Ex 3. 5 Dt 7. 1 
strip ojj, csp. j.'r:"a ojj the arms 
of a slain enemy; take off or 
out; take :he lid off the 
quiver; Pass., ;j be carried ojf 
as spoil t to be taker, citay 

T~I arro- IIR 10. 6 ccrry ojj 

s*?Z* avXdcu Ez 26. 12, 29, 19 

Ruth 2. 16 "rr: 
Vnr7;i Jes 59, :^ Ps 76. 6 
777 OT;A7jT7js , t -77Tc^p Jcr 50. 10 

plunderer 
77T* cvAtj, ctvAo^ Jud 5. 30 

Jes 10. 6 booty 1 zd avXa 

booty 
ttoAvV Jud 5, 30 many 
rroXXd Prv 31. 11 in Horn. 

as Subst., much riches } great 

possessions 
Vtw* ^a« Mich i_ 8 

generally, iar*, uncovered; 

naktd } unarmed, defenceless 



X- INITIAL 1 

*?Vw* Job 12. 17 
Dr] tltuxajjTrveuj Jes 42. 1 4 H£3 

rtari Ovpas Jes 30, 33 iiTjrA 



rtrr; m-tvpa Pt 20. !6 in 17. 
17 Job 27, 3 breathy breath 
of life; life, living being 

KEU1* Dan 5. 23 

r,2OT ? Lev 11.18 

^n rrv€w6uxoj Ex 15. 10 Jes 
J.0. 24 "j 

r l™; ;ii£ VuktoV) Prv 7. 9 Job 3. 

9 ^ : 
p |Wr excuy Jes 34. t i a small 

kind of ou.7 (-/AcCf, "Ti 

being ;/:* little homed curt] 

*\*~? LCV II. 17; tCcTKO-Gf 

pri atfltu, -dojxat Ps 73. 2: 
/:fii I'd, kindle] rarely in:r., 
i^- = 5/---; Pass, ns: 

pTn KC.T- Ez 39. 9 f^r- .:_:: *:, 
burn to ashes 

Ozr- Jes 44. 15 poc:-, = C-:- 
tcalc^: burr, by c£5iv:rg \*e 
be lou 

pn aidouci Hos 13. 2 7ZZ 
€gu Ilu Gn 41, 40 r^: ; a:. 

da^rdZoiiai 
lkv€qu,q,i Job 31. 27 -~ 

pri Sdcxrcj Ps 2. 12 prop, cf 
herdsmen, yV*^, f«</; gener- 
ally, Jeed 7 nourish; ma:::tar: y 
keep 

pZ"- darrd^ou^tj donated- Gn 2~. 
26, 2g. M, 41. 40 u-flcc:* 
kindly , greet; salute; from the 
modes of salutation in use, 
kiss t embrace; eagerly cUaze 
to; of things, follow 

pr? Gn 31, 28 IR 19. 20 take 
leave of 



X. INI 

HpT^ dcrrraafiri Cant r* 2 
greeting, embrace ; csp. in pl. ? 
embraces 

P™ dtyydvu) Ps 85. II >13 

p^rn £:rt- Ez 3, 13 rrn 

pVZ rofa^o/xat Ps 78- 9 ICh 
12, 2 j/200/ Ei7"M a bow 

p~ rofoi/ Job 20. 24 arrow 
7£vxo$ IR 10, 25 Jcs 22. 8 
prop, tool, implement', but 
mostly in pi., implements of 
war, armour^ arms, fYcq. in 
Ep. 

"tZ'Z rrptajf JcS 10- 1 5 Jtfir 
"T rrp/tu ICh 20. 3 JCIl 1 

"; jcpwk Lev 11. 13 poet. 

for ^apcrro^ {fierce) , of */r* 

eagle \ CL rairU^rfpo^ (at£TO? 

E™^ long-winged {eagle) 
":* Dan 7. _l -1" 

*t?slc ^—'^ Hos 8. 1 herald, 

pursuivant 
7™ a-.-rAtu Jcs 41. 17 Jer 51. 

^0 bail out bihe water: 

generally, draw water; 

m eta ph., tfraf/i dry 
"?: Jcs ig. 5 
-\"2 criSo? Job 28. 7 trodden 

nay j track , path 
"*ri Ja 43 . 16 

c~r€iSoutvrj (<rr€t'3to) Pp.* 12. 

28 ' 
r-12TuI c: <rr£t3d/j,fvat 0S01 Jud 

5 + 6 the beaten tracks 
7" StacrTT^tpu; Jcs 1 8. 5 scatter 

or spread about 

mTJ ivriiuru* {r^fxa^i^Lu) Lev I - 

6 cut up a victim 
jcara- 3 ^arard^vtu Jud ig. 2g 
ra/ in pieces, cut up 



TIAL 3 165 

nrj ropos (rc/xa^oy) Ez 24. 4 

j/i«; generally, piece 
Cnri rdfiwi (rcoiot*) Lev I. 2- 

g IR iS. 20^39 TO TOflLQir, 

vtctim cut up for sacrifice, 
over which oaths were 
taken; ra rouia, the parts of 
the victim used at this 
solemnity 
Tjra kgt*x€h* Ex g. 33 Jer 7, 20. 
42. 18 Job 3. 24 Dan 9. 11 
pour, shower down ; tijkoj : bring 
clouds down in rain) dissolve 

^ni ttj^oj £222.21,24.11 tjc: 

TjTJri <cr;- El 22. 20 ;**// 

~j\~r; Ez 22. 20 Job 10. 10 

^[TiTS Ez 22- 22 
^"H -rr^cCoi/ Ez 22. 22 
melting* e: snow 

]r.j S^'Sty^t Gn 3, i2 ? 4. 12 ": 
]r.3 Sorrp, -7-? Hos 2. 7 2": 
pru Sord^ Xu 3, 9 Dt 28, 31, 

32 Es:h 3. : ! granted 
ETITJ Xu 3, :5 

■v : 

crr~J Esr 8. 17 ICh 6. 33 
ETrJ Esr 8. 20 Xeh n. 3 
]Hi5 StipTTiia, -pov Gn 34. 12 
Xu 18. 11 Prv :g, 6, 21. 14 
£//;, present, gift of honour; 
votive gift or ojfering to a god ; 
a Ar:« 
nina Gen 2^. 5 Ez 46. 16 
nna IR 13. 7 Eccl 3. 13 
jrj pedirpi Gr+ 31.7 X T u 21.23 
Jud 1. 34, 15. 1 IS 18. 2, 
24- 8 IIS 21. 10 permit; 
allow 
tciVqj, cV- Ex 9. 23 Jer 12. 8 
Joel 2. 1 1 Hab 3. 10 Ps 46. 7 
Thr2. 7, 5. 6 strain the voice, 



i56 



X. I NIT 



raise it high; stretchy hold out 
one's hands, extend to 
rtvoj Ex 2 I - 22, 23 Lev 27. 23 

IR 3- 32 Ez 17. 19, 23. 49 
IlCh 6. 30 pay a price by 
way of a return or recom- 
pense, mostly in bad sense, 
pay a penalty, make atonement 
for, make return or requital; 
punish; make another pay 
for a misdeed, visit it on his 
head 
ridrjfLt Gn 3- 12 IR2. 35 IlCh 
8- 9 set, put, place, assign, 
award, make her a wife; make 
one something 

?x ]m *V- Ex 25. 16 Eccl 7. 2 
Neh 2. 12 generally, put in 
or into; lay to oriels heart 

bv ]r.: *Vt- Xch 5. 7 J7itf. J :^ ^ 
zitembt nit an. attack, make an 
attack 

|V- 5erd<r Neh 13.4 placed, set 

T"^z <Lvd8r]ua Nu 1 3, 6, 7 fAar 
xA^A :j i^' up; hence, votive 
offering set up in a :cmp!e, 
of a slave in a temple; 
dedicator)' offering (\V) 

}?? *21 *T /xo* yivoiro Nu II. 29 

;:r *2 Dt 5. 26 






Esr 7. 20 



r T Ol 



]~~* Btifprjfia, -pav Es 

pa 
tens* Dan 5. 17 
]L"C* Dan 2. 6 
ktVu* Soto? Esr 7. 24. crrj 

]".?* pdiTis!<iv<idTHjji IIR 11, 
H^Ttf?* pairrtiov Nu 2 1. 1 8 



IIR 24, 17 prophet' gift of 
Paean 

!W)1F£2* ^di-r^iSu^prffia Jidf 
T "(J^dy) ICh25^ 4 prophet; 

gift ofZeus 
jm* Si'Suiui IIS 7, 2 (God) gave 
^KITJ* ^AioirfltfoiJ Soipov Nu 1 . S 

51/"* <?/"*-' Sun-god'Cod 
n^ir:* Jt07 flr^dvo^ StDpoi- IIR 

25. 23 the gift oj t^eus Ps.ez r : 
in;:n:* JtodtLoov Jer 40, 8 ;,:<: 

5l/i e/" Z*u 

iTjJ tfareivvvui, -ccc^ Job 4. 10 

yra Lev 14. 45 Jud 6. 30 Jcr 1. 
10 Ps 58. 7 ir^i iTi pieces, 
shatter; v. pp. 217, 254 

^n; Jer 4. 26 Xah 1 . 6 Pass. 

yr; II Ch 31. r, 36. 19 
yT.: Jnc 6. ^8 P:us. 
]\" Lev 1 I. 35 
pnj d-tf£<^ Jug 20. 32 Jer 22. 
2_i ''jty; out. thrust out 
prs Jos 4. :8 Pass, 
prq *V- Ez 17. 9,23. 34 thr^s: 

out 1 force out, wrench out 
p"3n Jud 20, 31 

p\^n Jos 3. 6 

Kar- Jer 12. 3 push down 
p*)-l c^ic-rd* Lev 22. 24 r/arf*:. 

divided, split 
pp.] c v '^ Jcs 5. 27, 33. 20 

Ecci -i, 12 JS/if, clean y :u: 

out, iear^ shatter 
pr: Jud 16. ojcr 2. 20 Ez 23- 34 
pVUC* crror^r EZ41. 16,42.3, 

5 ra:r :"/: en ascending series, 

course of masonry 
pTPX* Ez 4:. 15 
nna t^i8p<x><jK^ Lev 11. 21 



X. INITIAL 3 167 

leap upon] leap over a space, HD} vlrpov t \C- Prv 25. 20 
spring at a bound sodium carbonate 

"17-3 Job 37, I *in?* o-ztlpu* Dan 4. I 1 ^3 

Trn Suix^Aou JCS58- 6 Ps 105. era tifo'w IR 14- 15 pm 

so fo«M, «/flx eni «f- Jcr 18. r 4 pH3 

>CG7crt%u IIS 22. 33 lay Cra tfarayvu/n Ps 9. 7 f^l 
«x'«, moAr a road; cf. Ps 18, S*r.) Jcr 31. 40 (39) "fHJ 

33 I*- 1 '- J cs 43- l &y l 9 ^ r '^ ^ z r 9- I2 *f" 



168 

XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

XLIX. The Greek prepositions homologizt in Hebrew separately and in 
combination with nouns , adjectives \ verbs \ and adverbs. 

All prepositions in compound verbs homologizc with the 
prefix ~H of V^S/Sn and the prefix "TH of /ITDnH- 

cuot, Prep. — radical sense, an both sides: chiefly poetical and 
Ionic prose, replaced by -tpi in later Greek, Of place, about, around 

*?27 Gn 13. 1 1, 18. 2, 29. 2; all around, round 2^20 IR 7. 36 HT2D 
Ex 7. 24 IS 26. 5; by t on, somewhere by, somewhere about ^D"^^ Ex 
14- 9; of persons grouped about one, ol d. flpiaiiov Priam end his 
train ; 01 a. Upwrayopav the school of Protagoras ; 01 c. Eudvcpova 
Euthyphro's friends \ ViTCp Ps 76. 12 r,rZ"2 IIS 4. 4 r.EUSt 
lb 2i. 8 7X1E2 IS :, 20; on both sides rTZ*2 Ps uo. 6 ttt 
IIS 3. 7 271*7 ^ D Gn 35, 22 [cuot 'Vvg*-] ttoXagkU [an atavism]. 
dvd, Aeol ? Thess, Arc : Cypr 6v, Prep. ; by arocope di-d becomes 
ay before dentals, ay before gutturals, du before labials; on y upon. 
without any notion of motion, 7y Gn 1. ii [d, eU, *-(.'] Ez 
:o. 12 [cf, iv] "7y lb 49. 17 U; implying motion upwards "2 

Ex :g. 12-13 [ cr " * y ] "^ J os 2. 3; as advb., up! arise! n*?± 
Ps 47. 6; among, in ~2 IlCh 36, 23 "71? Gn33- r [cf. £-;] ; of time, 
throughout, dvd vvKra all night through Klnn n*?*72 Esth 6. 1, 

dvrl, Prep. — original sense, over against rn* Dt 4. 1 r Jos 1 1 . 3, 
Of place, in the presence of DUPi ICh 29. 24; instead, in the place of 

rnr Gn 4, 25 Jes 3. 24 Esth 2. 17 ; at the price of in return for 
"1TI% IIS 4. ro nnn Ex 21. 23, 24; dvQ 1 <Lv wherefore p7 Gn 4, 15; 
wherefore? why? dirrl rod ITHO lb 26. 27 Ez to. 19; because H" 
Dt 2 1. 14, 28. 47 Prv 30. 21-3; for the sake of Tinn IS 24. 20. 
crrd, Aeolian, Thcssalian, Arcadian, Cyprian drrv, Prep. — 
original sense from* Of place, of motion from, away from 
'2 IIS 22. 16 (cf. Ps 18. 16) Ps 10- 1 Thr3. 15 (cf.Jobg. 18) 
Thr 3. 30 (cf Jer 46. 10) "H Ps 123, 4 (cf Jes 66. 1 1 Jer 46. 10 

Prv 1. 31, 30. 16, 22 Job 31. 31 ICh 2g. 28) "EH IR 20. 33 - ?p 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 1 69 

Dt 6. 21, 32. 25 "1?3 Gn 19. 37 ]Q Ex 1. 10 Nu 23. 7 ]Q Dan 2. 41 
~2?p lb., Job 1 1. 20 ^ ""jfl Job 14. 1 1 ""3D Jes 30. 1 1 ; partitive, 

part taken from "ft IS 30. 26 jft Gn 9. 21 "ft Job 9. 3 \from being, 
instead of "ft Gn 29. 19 Dt 28. 55 Prv 30. 2 ; of time, from, after 
"ft Jes 22. 7 "^0 Job 20. 4; from the beginning ~ ft Jes 41. 4 ""jft 
Ps 78. 2 ; descent from TiK Gn 4. 1 "^ft Jud 5. 14; of the material 
from or of which a thing is made "ft Cant 3. 9; of the person 
from whom an act comes, i.e. by whom it is done HX Gn 4. 1 "ft 
Gn 24. 50 IS 20. 9 ; of the source from which life, power, etc., are 
sustained "ft ICh 29. 14 IftD Zach 9. 15, 10. 7; in consequence of 
"ft Jes 53. 5 ]ft Ex 2. 23 ""172 Ps 88. 10; with one accord drro 
^ttay "THK HD Jos 9. 2. 

Sid, poet. Stat, Aeol £d\ Prep. — radical sense through. Of place 
or space, in the midst of*f2 Jer 25. 27 Ez 19. 2 [cf. uerc] ; between 
■pH Gn 1. 7, 13. 3, 8, 31- 53 [cf. /J-e-c] ; of time, Std -euros con- 
tinually "PftB Ex 25. 30; between two points of time J*1 lb 12. 6; 
causal, through, by "12 Dt 4. 34; of the instrument or means, "2 
Jer 38. 6 : oti xetpaje £y hand rilTH Ex 6. 6 "7 "2 Gn 38. 20 
^ ll 33- 1 IS'28. 15 IIR 19. 23 Ps 77. 21 Prv 18. 2 1 ; of manner, 
~2 [cf. eV] ; through passion, in passion, Sic cp^s Z"^\2 Ps 55. 15 ; 
of persons, thanks to, by c:d or, Bid cc, Std -rov-ro, Bid rcC-rc. by means 
of on account of HIIX Gn 2:. 11, 25 [cf. -cpd] ; of things, to 
express the cause, occasion, or purpose, because of by reason of "Tip 
Jes 64. 6 JIT? Lev 26. 43 ]2T Gn 22. 16 Lev 26. 43. 

et? or <r\-, Prep. — both forms are found in Homer, Ionic poets, 
and early metrical inscriptions. Originally, eV? ; radical sense, into, 
and then more loosely lo\ Latin, ad: of places into or to *™inx 
£x 3- 1 7X Gn 19. 2 Lev 14. 46, 50 [cf. iv, dvd] TK Jud 19. 1 3 
"7 Gn 38. 25 Jos 4. 23 IV Gn 10. 19 IS 9. 9 Ps 36. 6 ""IV Nu 
24. 20 Jes 65. 18 Ps 147. 6 7L* Lev 14. 26, 50; upon 717 Lev 14. 
25 Esth 1 . 2 [cf. eVt'J ; up to, until *7L* Ex 15. 16 Dt 34. 6 Cant 2. 7 ; 
towards 7X Ez 13. 17, 21. 7 [cf. cV] 7i7 Ez 29. 2, 35. 2 Ob 1 ; till 
now, hitherto a? to vvv ]~y Eccl 4. 3 tll~VS lb 4. 2 ; *> dt&iovfor ever 

"I2S " l "7i7, "iy" 1 !!?, "7177 Nu 24. 20 Ps 83. 18 Prv 12. 19. 

eicra>, €ooj — ton* (as «V for ttV) prevailed in Ionic and old Attic 
prose — advb. of ttV, iJirirf*, aiiAtn V?X Job 5. 26 TpH Ex 14. 23, 24. 
18 IIS 3. 27; inside, i.e. by the side of the road 1-779 6S0G «taw "P 
Ex 2. 5 IIS 15. 2 ^ IS 4. 13. 



I7 o XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

iv — poetical «'i, dv, elvi\ Arcadian and Cyprian tV; Prep. — 
radical sense, in, into ~2 Jcr 38. 6 Ps 119. u IIR 10. 15 UCh 
36: 23 [cf. em] *7X Ex 25. 16 Lev 18. 20 Dt 23. 25 Jcs 44. -19 
Jer 38. 6 Thr 3. 41 EccI 7. 2 ~ft Dt 32. 25 ; with names of cities 
or islands ~2 UCh 36.23; on "2 Ex 24. 18; towards *?X Ez2i. 7; 
of the Instrument, Means, or Manner, by '2 Jer 20. 4 ; with '2 
IS 2. 16 Jer 20. 4 ; to see with one's eyes, i.e. have the object ir. 
one's eyes ~2 Jcs 6. 10; of time, ~2 Gn 2. 4, 19. 27, 21. 22. 

(k, before a vowel <?f ; also in Attic inscriptions before a f £ p 
and, less frequently, A ; ly in inscriptions before 3 yh\y.v\ Cretan 
and Boeotian <fcr; i\ frequently in Attic inscriptions before x 4* $ 
(and in early inscriptions before a); also i NavrraK-uj] radical 
sense, from, out of; frequently also simply, from. Of origin ; in 
accordance with ~D Gn 18. 25, 44. 2. In Epic dialect it is used with 
adverbs in -#<ri\ 

c£co, advb. of <=\f; without any sense of motion, outside; to <fc*» 
the outside ; except, besides. 

ZSuiQev rarclv «f oj#e, advb. /rom without or abroad 7\*±\T\ IR 6. 6 ; 
outside "pnQ Lev 13. 46 Jer 2 1 . 4 Thr : . 20 ; besides, apart from p~ 
Eccl 2. 25; = €^oj : the outside pH Lev i3. 9 IT.* "HI Dt 25. 5 Ez 
3 a. 21 ; except, besides pn Eccl 2. 25. [Cf. e^rd?; c'cdff'piTriSin.j 

In compounds the sense of removal prevails : out, away, of. Also to 
express completion, like our utterly. 

i-l, Thessalian (before r) eV, preposition denoting the being 
ui>on or supported upon a surface or point. Of place, u/wn, on 717 ; in 
"2 ; to, towards *7X Dt 1. 1 Thr 3. 41 ; towards Tx'is'Z. ':T\\\D Ez 48. 4; 
«V oIkov homeward irr2~bK Jud 11. 34 [cf. oixaSe] HD-irpri 
lb. nnmrT IS 2. 11 irP2~717 lb.; i/i addition to, over and above, 

T T T 

besides *717 Ex 20. 3 Prv 31. 29 [cf. -rrapd] ; with verbs of eating and 
drinking, with ^X IS 14. 34 *717 Nu 9. 1 1 IS 14. 33 ; according to*D7 
Lev 25. 16 ,, D" : 717 Gn 43. 7 ; in a hostile sense, upon or against 
7X Gn 4. 8 717 Jud 6. 3, 9. 43 IS 2. 1, 20. 33; before DX Gn 19. 
27 IS 2. ii, 17 ^D~717 Nu 33. 7; in the quarter or direction 
towards or in which a thing takes place, to the right or left 717 
Gn 24. 49; on the side 717 Gn 16. 7 ; among 717 Gn 33. 1 [cf. avd]. 
Of time, in ~2 Gn 14. 1 Ps 44. 2 ; at dinner ~2 Esth 5. 6 [cf. iv]. 
In composition, inter alia: of Place, denoting: Support or 
Rest upon, Motion, to or towards : iTripxopai, cTricrreAAaj ; against ; 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 171 

up to a point; over a place; over and beyond boundaries; exten- 
sion over a surface; accumulation of one thins: over or besides 
another; accompaniment, to, with. Of Time and Sequence, after. 
In causal senses: superiority felt over or at. Authority over. 
Motive for; to give force or intensity to the verb. 

Kara: rare poetical, Karal — found in compounds, as in Karat- 
Sams', poetical for Kard3aci$. Preposition: downwards. Denoting 
motion from above, down from; denoting downward motion 
rnr. Gn 2r. 15; opposite, over against jinn Dt 4. 11 Jos ri. 3. 
Of fitness or conformity, in accordance with ^£3 Ex 16. 21 N*u 6. 
2 1 ; according to ^"l? Lev 25. 26 Dt 25. 2; according to a description 
of him, like, D Xu 13. 33 Dt 2, 10. Of Time, Kara is sometimes 
dispensed with [as in Hebrew], e.g. Ka8* rjuipav^ kct' rjfiap day 
by day, daily UV CV Gn 39. 10 Ps 61. 9, 68. 20 Prv 8. 30, 3.1 
Esth 3. 4 [UV2 UV Nch 8."i8 IlCh 30. 21 1CT2 CV Dan 1. 5 
ICh iC. 37 IlCh 3. 14, 31. 16 Qn UV Esth 3. 4) ; periphrasti- 
cally with abstract Subst., by force k<xt* laxvv T\p\U2 IS 2. 16; 
*ad* troi this year nl^n IIR 19, 29 HS?5 Gn 18. 10. 

Kara m compounds, :n!er alia: downwards ^ down] in answer tj } 
::: accordance with; against z in hostile sense ; frecuentiy only :o 
strengthen the notion of the simple word. 

Kara as a Preposition was shortened in some dialects, esp. in 
Ep:c, into Kay, k<x8 7 kzk^ kz^ 7 Kav y kcltt, Kap } K<ir } before y 3 S, k 7 
f±, ^, T7 fori), p, a (or d), respectively. In compound verbs Kara 
sometimes changes into kg3, kcJ\, Kap, /car, before 3, A, p 3 (?, 
respectively; and before or and <r^, the second syllable sometimes 
disappears. 

fierd, poet. /serat y Aeol, Dor, Arc rrtSd : Prep, which, with the 
gen., gradually superseded <tvv; in the midst of among, between 
]*2 Gn 1. 4, 10. 12, 31. 37 Ex 12. 6 Dt r. 16 Jes 2. 4 Ez 1. 13, 
19. 2 Ob 4 Ps 104. 10 Job 40. 30 Cant 2. 2, 3 Esth 3. 8 IV 2 
Prv 8. 2 ; with, along with 'imolvine a closer union than avv) TjK 
Gn 5. 22 Ex 1. 1 Jud 8. 7 [cf. Lat., et (— p)] UV Gn 18. 23 Jos 
22. 14 ~jS* ""nay Gn 3-12; with, by aid of T\K Jud 8. 7; with, 
together with *"inX Nch 5. 15 UV IS 2. 26 IR 14. 31, 22. 50 C)172V 
Gn 3. 12; and! IR 10. 15 UV Dt 32. 14 IIR 10. 15; in T)K lb. 
UV ICh 22. 7; /o seek after ~\ni<. Gn 37. 17 IS 12. 14 IIR 23. 3 
Zach 2.12; after, behind 1HK Ex 1 1. 5 Jud 3. 22 Cant 1. 4, 2. 9 



i 7 2 XI, GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

^nnK Gn 24. 61 lyD Jud 3. 23, 5. 28, 9. 51 IIR 4. 5 Job 22, 13 
Jbw ; beyond^ on the far side of ^lHK Ex 3. 1 ; after "1HX Gn 9. 28 
nnx Gn 5. 4. 

In compounds, perd denotes participation, succession, position, 
change. 

rrapa, Epic and Lyric also rrapal] shortd. -dp : Prep., properly 
beside : hence— from the side of from the side ^XS IR 3. 20 ; beside 
*7I£X Gn 41.3 ^1? lb 33- 1 ; by, near 7I£X Dt 11. 30; without ni 72 
Job 24. io}Vj; before, in the presence of */2p IIR 15. ro [cf — poj] ; 
to the side of to\>±\ Gn 1. 9, 24- 29 ^X Job 5. 20 ^j[ ; on account of 
^y Gn 20. 3, ii, 1 8, 26. 7, 27. 41 ; past, beyond T\V^7T\ Gn 19. 9, 
35. 21 Ez 39. 22 Am 5. 27; over and above, in addition to /£ Gn 28- 
9. 3 1 - 5°> 3 2 - I2 - 

In Composition all its chief senses recur. 

TT€pi, Thess, Delph, also Aeol -ep, Elean rrap (prop, different 
from au<£i, on both sides) : round about, ell round; about , rtrar ^7^ 
Gn 49- 22 Nu 24, 6 2T"!j? Gn 45. 10 Ex 13. 17 Nu 27, 11 IR 8. 

46 Jes 13. 6, 57. 19 i^~J: about, concerning ~2 Xu 31. 16 Dt 
3. 20 717 IIS 13, 22 IR 5. 13; of Place, round about, around 717 
Gn 29. 2 [cf. daot] Jl^; of persons who are about one, esp. a 
person's attendants, connexions, associates, or colleagues ; school 
(*/*") ^9 ICh 9. 40 i 1 /^) ns lb 8. 3 4; 9. 40 2np Esth 
1, : 4 ; yaTTwYy imp Lev 25. 25 Nu 27. 11 Ps 38. 12 Job 19. 14 
Ruth 2. 20, 3- 12 Neh 13. 4 i^j^j- 

In Composition all its chief senses recur. 

-po, Prep.; before, forth] of Time, before Clw Gn 2. 5 DTD? 
lb 27. 4 Jes 28. 4 DT1C2 Ruth 3. 14 C"lu£ Hag 2, 15 Li. Except 

in Jes 28. 4, where u~^£ governs a noun, it always qualifies a 
Verb. In fact, it is quite possible that it is the homologue of rrplv, 
an Adverb formed with a comparative force from rrp6. Hence, 
the significance of the isolated instance of OHD. 

In Compounds, rrpo denotes position and distance. 

Trpor, Ep. Trport', Argive ^por(t), Joannes Gramm npts, Crct 
Troprrii Pamphylian 7rcpr(t) J Ep., Dor ttot/, Cyprus, rrdr (apocope 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 173 

for -on'), Dor 770/, Prep, expressing direction, on the side of in the 
direction of, jjjj; hence '-from, at, to; from ^O IR 7. 5 "PQ Gn 9. 5 
IS 1 7. 37, 20. 16 Jcs 47. 14 Ez 33. 6 Ps 22. 2 1 ; o/z the side of ~7 
Ex 32. 26Jud 7. 18, 20 IIS 20. 11 ; *?TO Lev 5. 8 Jos 8. 33 IS 17. 
30 IIS 5. 23, 11. 15 ~Oy Ex 28. 26 IS 14. 4; towards ^X Ez 6. 2, 
2r. 7 «dJ ^Ift Dt i. 1 *7ii3 Ex 26. 9, 34. 3 Dt 2. 19 IS 14. 5; 
on the north side, on the south side, *XJ, etc. '"7^72 Jos 18. 18 IR 
7. 39 HCh 4. 10 nXD Ex 27. 9, 11, 12, 13 Xu 34. 3, 35. 5 
Jos 18. 14 Ez 47. 17, :8, 10, 20; cf. €-{; Od. 13. I 10; or. the 
face-ward side *7i£ Lev 8. 9 HXD lb 13. 41 jJuJ ; before, in 
presence of ~*? Gn 47. 19 Jer 51. 24 ^IQ Ex 18. 19 '7/2 Xu 22. 5 

72p IIR 15, 10 y^l ^VJ; in the name of the god "2 Gn 44. i3 Jcr 
22. 5 ; £sjt/ £7, near, at\ close to 7K Gn 24. 1 1 *717I1 IS 4. 18 7^£ Ex 
34. 3 70 Xu 22. 5 717 Gn 24. 30, 29. 2 ; of place, towards, to 7K 
Gn 1.9 7 Esr 1.3; with Verbs implying previous motion, upon, 
against 7X Nu 22. 25 717 Gn 24, 47 Lev 5. 9 ; over and above 717 
Gn 28. 9, 31. 50, 32. 12; with Verbs of seeing, looking, etc., 
towards 7N Ex 14. 24 IIR 9. 32 *717 Gn 18. 16 P5 14* 2 ; in a hostile 
sense, against 7K Jer 39, : , 51. 1 Ez 14. 21, 24. 2 ~2 Xu 2 1 . 7 Dt 
4. 20 IlCh 24. ig 717 IR 14. 25 Jer 51. 1 Ez 14. 22 Ps 2. 2 ; :".-: 
consequent* of for "7172 Jcr 1 1. 14 Job 2, 4 717 Thr 1.5, 16, 5. 17, 
18; H'iih the accompaniment of musical instruments "7 P5 121. I "717 
lb 92, 4 \for the sake of~l±2 Nu 21. 7 IIS 10. 12 ~7 Jud 7. 18, 20. 

In Composition all its chief senses recur, 

cvv 3 old Att fuV, Eoeot covv\ Prep., gradually gave way to 
tierd with gen.; with 01? Gn 21. 10 Ex 22. 29; in company with 
21? Gn 44, 33; together with C37 lb 18- 23 Dt 32. 2a, 25; :rr.'A 
God's help or blessing 017 IS 14. 45, cf. II. 9. 49; of things that 
belong or are attached to a person 017 IS 16. 12 IIR 10. 15; 
generally, of personal cooperation 017 ICh 12. 21 (22) ; consult 
with D]J lb 13. 1. 

In Compounds : with, along with^ together \ at the same time. 

v7T€p } Ep. also vTTtip, Arc 6mip f Prep, ; of Place, over; in a state 
of rest, over, above *?y Gn 29, 2 Ex 14. 16 Lev 16- 2 Nu 9, 15, 
17 Dt 32- n Neh 8, 5 ICh 21. 16, 28. 18 IlCh 5. 8 *7i7D 



174 XI. CREEK PREPOSITIONS 

IR 7. 3 Esth 3. i IICU 24. 20; of a ship at sea, ojf a place 
7X Esr 3. 7 717 IICli 2. 15; in a state of motion, over, across 
^U Jud n. 37 "1217 Dt 4. 49 Jos 1. 14, 12. 7, 24. 2 IR 5. 4 Jcr 

25. 22 Esr 8. 36 ICh 26. 30 ; over, beyond ""3217 Dt 30. 13 ; mctaph.. 
in defence of, on behalf of "75 Esth 8. n, 9. 16; generally, for the 
prosperity or safety of in the interests 0/" *?17 Gn 19. 17; about 717 
Gn 21. 12, 41. 32 Ex 18. 9, 22. 8 Dt 22. 19 IR 2. 19; of the 
cause or motive,/^, because of by reason of "7V Gn 26. 7 IIS r. 26 
"11131711 Gn 8. 21 Ex 13. 8; of punishment or reward, for } on 
account of ^2 Jon 1. 7, 12 717 Gn 20. 3, 26. 7, 27. 41 Am 2. 6 
[cf. -apd] T12172 Gn 12. 13; for the purpose of ; for the sake of 717 
Gn 19. 17 Ps 44. 23, 69. 8 ~H2172 Gn 18. 29, 21. 30 IS 1. 6, 
12. 22 IIS 10. 3; concerning 717 Gn 21. 12 Ex 22. 8; of Place in 
reference to motion, over, beyond 717 IR 14. 15 Mai 1. 5; of 
Measure, above, exceeding, beyond ^17 Ps 108. 5. 

In compounds, Crrep signifies over, above, in all relations. 

(rrr6, Prep. ; Acol, Boeot vrrd, Arc 6-v, in £p. Poets vrral: ~2,~2 ; 
of the object under which a thing is or is placed, under, beneath *217 
IlCh 4. 17 nnri Cant 8. 3. 5; of cause or Agency, by: frcq. of 
things as well as persons '1X2 IR 9. 27 nv:X2 Dt 28. 68 ystil 

Jes 49. 22 /,n 2 .\u 36. 2 n'2'2 Gn 15. 8 r.2^2 Dt 4. 34 Trri2 

Zach 4. 6 ; urro freq. serves to denote the appendant or accompany- 
ing circumstances; of accompanying music Pin??t?2 ^lI^X" 
"i* 1 -?^ ^^5 D"'~l£721 Gn 31. 27; in or lci.'A solemn procession 
T~21 muni!} Neh 12. 27; Jo* apjxa.ai under, i.e. yoked to, the 
chariot H7J172 nriSPrnX ErnOKl IS 6. 7 PI 7:272 DnCK;i 
lb 6. 10; advance to the music of the flute-players 7"7n2 ^'7*m2 
Jes 30- 29 ; of Time, in the course of during ("Pi PI 71^2 2 Esth 5. 6; 
about or at the time 0/ Pi XI 2 2 Jud 1. 14 H2r2 Esth 1.2. 

In compounds: under .'in place or rank), agency, underhand, 
secretly, shyly. 

For compounds — indicating under, secrecy — with this preposition 
and their homologues, e.g. wro*fOTw/nnri, V7ro6dov€oj;i\lp. 

ap.6td£w: clothe V2b Jud 6. 34 Job 29. 14 ^27 Gn 27. 15 U2*7 IR 22. 10 
T2*?n Gn 27. 16 Esth 4. 4 ,^-J! put on tz? Lev 6. 3, 4 Job 29. 14 

{ j-~ \ cf. KoXtrrrrw 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 173 

dpufrlaat?: garment TO27ri Jcs 59, 17 -^J^- (cf- jcoAu^c?) 

dfid>iacfia y -}±6$: garment "112 Gn 28. 20 CT2 1 ? Job 24. 7 CT2*73 Zcph 1. 8 

au6tBaivuj\ go about or around 220 Jos 6. 3 IS 7. 16 Cant 3. 3 2210 
Ps 26. 6 23H Jos 6. ri oil?; to reach in his course 233 Jos 15. 3; 
bestride ]312 Dt 32. 10 2213 Jer 31. 22 (21); protect 2213 lb.; of 
titulary deity, guard, protect p12 Dt 32, 10 22H lb 33. 3 r ;Ei"i lb 
33. 12 2213 lb 32. 10; surround^ encompajs "^X Jon 2, 6 (cf Ps 83, 
i3) ?s 18. 5 (cf. IIS 22. 6} 223 US 22. 6 Ps 88. i3 22; Gn 19. 4 

22*2 Dt 32. 10 Ps 7. 3 HCh 14. 6 23in Ex 28, 11 JL Jl^ Sj±; 

= auOtSdcrKuj 
du^LKiiuv: with pillars all round Q^p^DX Job 40. 1 8, 41. 7 
dupop€vs: liquid measure, = ^erpr^-rq^ (a liquid measure) ; 1 \ Roman 

amphorae or nearly 9 gallons ; (shortened form of duotoopcv?* from 

hating tzvo handles) m-.2 Hag 2. 16 
dvo.3adfj.6s, 6: a flight of steps, stair K1273 Ez 46. IQ "737^ lb 40. 31 

Neh 12. 37 nbsra Ex 20, 26 IIR 9. 13 ; degrees n?!;s Jes 38. 8; 

= cva 3a a uos" 

di-d3adpov t to: raised sen or chair X123 IIR 16. iS: = dvdSadpa 
[nigh* of steps K122 E2 46. 19 ~r?vo lb 40. 31 Am 9. 6 rrVy us 
10- I ; going up !"wV2 Esr y, 9 ; going up, ascent DTirr Xu 34. 4) 

dvaSciyu* : £0 ufi, mount HTi* IS 15. 34 IR 18. 42 ; so :/p -^ heaven "1* 
Ps 107. 26; £a r/p to the upper rooms nVs? US 19. 1 c:. lb 19. 6, 8) ; 
£o up to a temple n*?- Dt 17. 8 Jud 2 1. 5, S IS i. 3 IIR 20. 3 
Zach 14. 16 Ps 122. 4; ascend to heaven m7> IIR 2. 11 Ps 68. 19; 
of rivers in flood, rise, overflow the fields V22 Prv :S. 4 m71T Jer 46. 
7, 8 ; of plants, shoot up ";; Gn 40. 10 ; climb on sticks n^S Thr 1 . 14 ; 
generally, shoot, spring up r**?V Jer 4. 7 ; of the male, mount, cover ^7" 
Gn 31. io, 12; surpass n?:? Prv 31. 29; m/*r in:o one's heart, of 
thoughts rPV Jer 7. 3: ; in causal sense, make to go up H7!;n Jos 2. 6 
IS 12. 6 IR 17. 19 HCh S. ii 

dvaSpd^uj : intr., also trans., boil or foam up, varia lectio for 3pdooaj } Atr, 
-arraj, 001/ zccll, seethe "-""1 Ez 24- 5 nTH Job 30: 27 n*nTH lb 

41. 23 rrp-\7[ Ez 24. 10; cf. fSpd£aj 
dvaSpcGLios, 6: prop, boiling up nn*l Ez 24, 5 7*inp^i2 Ez 24. 10 Job 41. 

23; hence a, yVJj- kind of earthquake nnj?nJ3 lb.; cf- 3pdapa 
dfayaAAtV, 17: pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis and --4. caerulea 71752 n Cant 

2. I 
dydytyyttMJKiijy later dv<iytydtOKOj \ after Hom. ? fut, ai^ayvcuco^tai : 



i;6 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

know well, know certainly, aor. Pass, once in Euripides, Helena 290, 
□3nn Ps 58. 6 Prv 30. 24 

avayKa£cu: force, compel; constrain a person, csp. by argiiment*C:x 

Esth 1. 8 
avayKalos: constraining, applying force ; urgent, of compulsory nature pm 

IS 21. 9 vj^ p^ ; necessary fjV; v/f 
avayvos, ov: unclean, unholy, defied ^pl"*X Job 22. 30 
avayvwpt^uj : recognize 1"m Gn 27. 23 Jud l3. 3 
avayvajptats 1 , 17: recognition m^n Jes 3. 9 
a^ayaj : celebrate iin (rTLV* Ex 5. 1, 12. ij. 

dvaStiK^u/zt, also -i/cjj : proclaim pl-l; dedicate pJH Ps 23. 5 -^ 
dvaSea^rj; band for woman's hair, snood; fillet (\V) nrryjp Job 38. 3: 

mCU Jcs 28. 5 Ez 21, 31 ; = di'aSeaud?, dvdl^^a, poet. arSijaa 
avaS«^o/iat: receive /2p_ IlCh 29. 22; receive, entertain as a guest Vzp 

ICh 12. 18 (19); ^« ifpon oneself submit to; undertake 7-p Esth 

9. 23, 27; ««W, r*«£r* "=P Job 2, 10 Esth 4. 4; take upon oneself 

kiv8uvou$ (dangers, hazards) ^b'bzp_ ICh 21. 1 1 ; cf. *Vi-, Trpoa- 
avahtaj, poet. diOtoj : bind, tie up D72 Ps 32. -in Gn 50. 2, 26 TI- 

Prv 6. 21 r > >> ? ; awi^ ns? Ps 8. 6 Can; 3. 1 r Tr^ri Jcs 23. 8 

~i*J Job 31. 36; c:. *V 

avdoTjy/ia, to: (S<£<vcj ; bite J^-^ 

d^cStSoj/ii, poet, di-c- : deliver X^in IR 10. 2Q ; ?ive forth* str.d *jc 
iTSin Ex 3. 10 — esp, of the earth, yield JCjT.n Gn 1. 24 Jes 61. n ; 
inu\, of springs, ftrc, tic, burst, issue forlhXY Gn:, ro 3 25.25-6,27, 30 
Ex 22. 5 Lev 15. 16, 32 Dt 8. 7 IIS 2. 23 IR 10. 2t)Jcr 4. 4 Ez 21. 9 

dva^ujypaSeia : paint completely, delineate; Pass,, to be painted on "vrsn 
Jos 9. 4 (cf. Sta^ur/pac^) 

avddcpa, poet, avdtua, to: prop., like avd&nfia, anything dedicated: 
dedicatory offering "\V} nnr? Gn 4. 3, 32. ia Lev 2. t Ez a6. 5 
n:rc Nu 18. 6, 7; j^vi^Vrg devoted to evil, an acr^rsed thing nr;;^ Jcs ■ . 
13 ; raw J—^; dvcrrua, rd : of a slave in a temple devoted to service 
Hire N u 1 8. 6 pn: Esr 2. 43, 58 pru lb 8. 17; = doalprj^a ; = S^o.- : 
Slf 1 * Sif 1 of honour; votive gift or ojfermg to a god ]na Prv 19, 6 niT^ 

Ez 46. 16, 17 nnc IR 13. 7 Ez 46. 5 nrs Esth 9. 22 

avatfeu: light up liK Jcs 50. 11 2*S*n Ex 30. 7; cf. iirtytipu* 
dvaxatvl£uj: renew vrn IlCh 24. 4, 12; wuy, Pass., be renewed (W; 

snrtnn Ps 103. 5; cf. -v6<n 
dyaxaAvTTTu*, ay*-: uncover; reveal; unveil oneself T\&b} Ruth 3. 8 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 177 

dvdxeinat : depend on, depend Siyirtn Jcs 58. 14 Ps 37. 4 Job 22. 26, 27. 10 

JZy ; /i> at table, recline l^nn Jcs 55. 2, 66. n Ps 37. 1 1 
ayaKri^Li : rebuild Uin Jcs 61.4 Pip. Neh 3. 1 
ci-iWi?, o, 77: without strength, impotent, feeble K?J Prv 15. 13 T\^l IIS 

4. 4. Jcs 66. 2 
avai>S/>o£, ov : husbandless, of virgins dj-u. ; without mat ~X~tO Job 38. 26 
avay€a£tu: become young or /i/h; a^af/z IV^ Jud 16. 20 
cLvaveoouai: renew, revive ll^n Jcs 52. 2 
gVgvcJcj: {Area 1 fA* AW back in token of denial, rnake signs of refusal, 

opp. Kara-, im- ; c^ny, refuse; shake one's head {\V} ^:r; Xu 30. 6; 

r*7>rf *r:n Ps 33. 10 
dvafutu: scrape up or q^; Pass., having the rurface scraped oj\ to be scraped 

down J*?. IIR 16. 17, 18- 16, 24. 13 HCh 28. 24 
cvaTTCL'ua, dfiTr-, to: repose, rest TVER Thr I. 3 TITTC- Ruth 1. 9 ICh 

22. 9 (8) fin: Prv 2g. 9 ; resting-place m23 Gn 3. 9 r.ri -- ICh 28. 2 
avaTTcyciff, aLtir-, 77: repose, rest; esp, relaxation, recreation nn^ Jer 

5-59 
oVa-at'^, aarr-: to rtf/:>r* rv:-j Jos 23. I ; lay it :/: c reposing posture ""71 

Ex :;. 11; ^rVtf wj rr:r; Jos 23. 1 HCh 14. 5; cf. cIct-IOtul 
ivcTTtidw: Persuade, convince "D Prv 25. 1 5 ; persuade, mace to do a thing 

nrs Jud 14. 15; seduce, mislead nns Ex 22. 15 IR 22. 20 K*~n IIR 

10- 29 
araTTtVoaai, cutt- :y?y ud,y?y ca'fljr ^ % -^? Job 39. 20 

avarrXrpow: fulfil K?3 IR 3. I 5 IlCh 36. 21 X?v Lev 22. 2 1 

d>-c7Tv ot;, G*iTT-, 17: irw^ r j^ Gn 27. 45, 3O- 2 Nu 32. 14 Dt 29. 19 

Jcs 30. 30 Jcr 23, 20, 30, 24 Ps 78, 31 Prv 29. 3 Can: 7. 9 [cf. -von] ; 

respiration, breathing ncr? IR 17. 17 Dan 10. 17; breathing organ, 

of the nose *]# Ex 34. 6 Dt 32. 22 Jcr 15. 15 ^ZK Dan 2. 46 ^\ ; and 

noulh r;D Ps r 15. 5 2D Dan 4. 28 «J — only pi. in Trag. 
dVa— vecrtu : undo nrp IR 20. 1 1 Ps 30. 12 Job 12. 18 "rs" Jes 52. 2 

ij ^; open HSD Ez 2. 3 prs Prv 13. 3 nrs Jcs 22. 22 p~2 Ez 

10. 25 HTiD Jcs 60. I I ; cf. TrtrdwvfJLi 
dyarrvpl^uj: kindle, of fire "TKri Mai 1. 10 
dyappiTyvvfii, -Jo*: ir^oi up T251 Lev 6. 2 1 "1?? E* 34- I J Uar °P cn 

a carcase, of lions, 123 IR 13. 26, 28 (cf. II. 18- 582 ; dpavcj) 
dydprtos, a, ov: uneven, odd; at odds with one, hostile CT Nu 22. 32 
dvccrrn/ia, to: erection f building H3S3 Gn 23. 18 Ez 26. 11 n^ST? Gn 

35- 14, 20 IIS 18. 18; cf- o-rafyto'r 



178 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

avaaTp€<f><o } di'o- : turn upside down ^DH Hos 7- 8 ; turn back T]DH IIR 9. 23 
IlChg. 12 3*571 Gn 14- 16; bring back 3^njer4i. 16; dwell in a place 
^32 Gn 25, 18; revoke ^SHI^n Jud 7. 13; of soldiers, face about, rally 
Tpr: Jud 20, 41; to he reversed T]DH IIR 21. 13 Hos 7. 8; retreat 
^DH Ps 78. 9; cf a^arp^Vcu 
avaaa>£aj: recover what is lost, rescue HOQ Ex 2. 10; cf a-o* 
dyarciVaj, avT- : threaten Hwil Am 5. 12 ; extend y stretch out T\ZT} Prv 5. 13 
avartXXco, dvr- : make to rise up nVsn IS 28. 8, 1 1, 15 Ps 30. 4, 135. 7 ; bring 
forth T\bvT\ Gn 50. 24 Eir !. I I ; give birth D7r Gn 33. 13 IS 6. 7, 10 
n?b Job 39. 3 FiTT lb 21. 11, 39. 3; grow, spring up f rise up m» Gn 32. 
32 Dt 33. 2 Jes 60. 1 7YTJ Gn 32. 25, 41. 5 J^ -JjJ 
avartSi]iLL\ dedicate 7?! Ps 20. 4, 23. 5 ^— - ; cf. d^aS^L^u^L 
a^aroATj, r} y am--: njZ7i£ "1*32 Gn 32. 25 (Jj^— <*i,— rJ^ i &* quarter of 
ranrise, east, opp. SJatr (N2 Ex 1 7, 12 K12 Jos 10. 27^ n"i*2 Nu 21. : : 
Jos II. 3 Dip? Gn 25. 6 nn"Tp lb 2. 14 J^— J^— ; the ascendant, 
i.e. the point where the eastern horizon cuts the zodiac JU ±JL- 

a^aroAt/coV, to : x&vficvov (honeysuckle) ^J^ 

avaroXtKos: eastern *:vnp Ez 10. 19 

dyarp€Traj y dvr- : overturn Tjcn IIR 21. 13 Hag 2. 22 Job 0- 5, 28. C; 
overthrow, ruin TJ2n Gn 19. 21, 2gjer 20. i6T::r4- 6; cf. dvacrpt-iu* 

dvarpeibts: turning upside down\ dvaarpopr\: overthrow] dyarpa—,: cut- 
throw, ruin ^-? J J On :a. 20 n^ens D: 20. 22 

dvcptpcj, poet, duo-. lut. dvoiaaj; aor- dvTv^yxc. Ion di/Tji-otfc. also 
inf. d^oicou: bring, carry up XvJ IR 10, II ; r^:;^ uO r ,?I Jes 10. 32 
7^1 Jos 8. 31 IIR 5. 11 Job 31,21 KT: Gn 13. 10 IIS 20. 21 Jer 
52. 31 Ez 44. 12 X7: Esth 5. 1 1 ; d. rrdSa iifi it r?n . . . XT?! Gn 
2g. 1 ; tafo with one Jerri IIS 17. 13 ; utter dvevuxaro fivdov 1772 XT"* 
Nu 23. 7 Vrcn riKm Jcs 14. 4, ^a^V iVp . . . XwTj Gn 27. 33. 

[cpd*] H^X . . . KT71 IR 8. 31, [pavrciov] XT:?r; . . . XT5 IIR q. 25, 

[dvrtfloAlav] n?En rxrn lb 19. 4, [0piji-oi/] nrp xr Ez 19. 1 x~r 

ri'JEm ,in Jcr 7. i6 : cf. IR 8. 28; offer in sacrifice r :*:r: Ex 35. 22 

Lev 9. 21 Nu 5. 25; r. p. 148 
dvrattpuj: = avraiptj [raise against^ xeipds r:w ; intr. rij<f up or jvj^' 

against, withtand), only in Med., dirraecDcacJai x<rpd? Ttl '* wise one's 

hands against one, make war upon him "T C^n IR n, 26, 27; cf. 

IIS 20, 2 1 Ez 44- 12, z.s. dvafcpwI^lTti'WZi 
dyraWdaouj, Att. -ttoj: exchange one thing with another ^Vn^ Lev 27, 10 

Jes 9. 9; change ^/fin Gn 31. 7, 41, 35. 2 
dyra7To&iSu>}ii>: give back -U! 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 179 

avra-TToSofxa, to : requital u^>f 

dvraTToBoats , r) : rendering, requiting, repayment l j^ij^ 

dvravyd^cu : illuminate ojj £-j-> 

dvrduj : come opposite, meet face to face, meet with XS2 Dt 3 r , 17; = dvridaj 
(q.v.) ; 777*^, without any hostile sense NSD Gn 36. 24 IS 10. 2 
II R 10. 13; reach, go up to X->3 Ex 22. 5 Lev 25. 26, 28 Jes 10, 10 
Job 31. 25 (cf. Lev 25. 49). — The simple Verb never in Com. or 

Alt. Prose; but cf. d—avrduj: = dvTid^oj (q.v.], dVrouci 
dirrcirrov: aor. 2 without any pres, (cf dirrtptu, diTLAeytu, dvrayoptvui) 

speak against or in answer, gainsay T c ^ Ez 21. 2, 7 Am 7. 16; a. 

£-09 utter a word of contradiction r jC2 Job 29. 22; c:_ eVoareo^at 
dvridluj : meet face to face ; c. ace, pers., encounter, whether as friend or foe 

XS2 Dt 31. 17 IS 10. 2 IR 2 1, 20 IIR 10. 13; answer TC2 IS 14. 37; 

approach as suppliants, hence, simply, entreat, supplicaU K2- Jer 10. t8 

Hos 12. 5 Ps 32. 6 *\C m j lb 102. 1 f|cys Thr 2. 1 1 "?>" Thr 2. 12 

J—jJ ^Ja*" -\ ; = dirrtdcu II, :\ dvridtu. This verb is never used in 

correct Att. Prose 
drrtduj : cf an arrow, hit X^a Nu 20. 14 Dt 19. 5 ; obtain K^~ Lev 25, 26 

Thr 2. 9; match or measure oneself with K*J2 Nu :i. 22; IL c. cat. 

pers. meet with, encounter, as by chance X^- Gn 36. 24 IS 9. 1 1 ; 

III. hatly meet N-JS Dt 22. 23,27; IV. approach as a r~cci:-::t 7 supplica:e 

xtir Jcr 10. 1 3 Ps 32. 6 rry Ps 102. 1 r |SV~r; Thr 2. 12; = d—duj 

= a;rouci : meet', approach with prayers, entreat 
ayrtzoAt'u : r?z«/ jj £2 suppliant, entreat, supplicate "E Ps 106. 30 ^vr" 

Dt 9. 25 Esr 10. r V??" Dt 9. 26 IR 8. 33, 42 Eir :o. 1 

dirri£c\T,cis t Tj : = a^rtSoAi'a (an entreaty, prayer) 71*7" IR 8. 38 Jes 

^* 

5 °* 7 

cVrLypcpo?, o^: as Subst. dvr'iypapov, to, transcript, c:py, esp. of copies of 

a book -^=_i 
c;-;Oi, lg, lov : set against "Til Ex 10. 10 rSS E2 3. 8 Xeh :2. 24 ; and so, 
ol d*TiQL — ot ivayrlot (one's adversaries, the enemy]. "TV Gn 49. 27 Jes 33. 
23 j-^ ; against, over against, abs., "II? Neh 7. 3, 12. 24 m^: Jud ig. 10 
rvpy IIS 16. 13 Ez 1. 20, 21 «!aj" ; more freq. like a Prep. c. gen., before 
"ilijes 49. 16 mj Ez 14. 4; in the presence of Til Gn 3 1 . 3c, 37 Ps 119. 

46 "^ lb 116. 14, 18; facing in Ez 40. 13 ~;: Esth 5. 1 ray 
Ex 25. 27; against "III EccJ 4. 12 ri03? Ez 48. 13; in the phrase tqv S 1 
dyrtov vCSa, answered nay Ez 3. 13. The word is almost confined to 
Poets and Ion. Prose; in Att. Prose cVa^rio? is preferred, though 
Xenophon uses dvrios ; cf. kclt- 



,8o XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

avrtfapQuj: set oneself against , measure oneself with Tp5? Ps 89. 7 
avTt<f>a>vi<jj : jou/k/ tn answer, reply, rejoin TllV Cant 5. 6 ; esp. answer in a 

loud voice HiS? Ex 19. 19; d. <Vo* u/kr a word in reply nzn 7\yj Jer 

44. 20 Ps 119. 42; c. ace. pers. reply to, answer, con(rui.cri y disagree 

rus? Job 9. 32 
airrXeaj : 6a/* auf bilge-water, bale the ship ; generally, cVsi£/ aa/<rr; mctaph., 

drain dry *7TK Job 14. 1 1 r.W Jes 19. 5, 41 - I 7 ; r. a^r.W 
avrA^fia, to: bucket for drawing water "Vl Xu 24, 7 ^2 Jes 40. 15 
avrAor, o : bucket ^ Nu 24. 7 Jes 40. 15 jJ- J^- ; ^r6 <?/«rn, threshed 

but not yet cleansed b\K IS 20. 19; v. dyrXecj 
dvroXtT], 77: collar, poet, form ofdvaToXrj ; as Adj., eastern ]^"[?- ^ z 47* ^ 
a^w/ioaia, 17: (o^to/xtoui, VZri) oa//i or affidavit f=; Ps 144. 8 ^ 

n^TG^ IR 2. 43 Ez 2 1. 28; cf. avvofivvpt 
am^pta, tj: want of water, drought rn.S3 Jer 17. 3 
awSpo*, o^: (Kaip) waterless, of arid countries ; eso. without spring water 7 

tj dwBpcs (sc. yfj) nn^a Dt 32. 10 Jcs 32. 15, 41. i3, 50. 2 Pr; 

21- 19 
cyv^fVatoj, o*: without the nuptial song, unwedded Vrl^ J er 5 1 - 5 

^1 nrabx Gn 38. 11 Ex 22. 21 IR 1 1. 26 -C-j 1 r J n::r- Jes 54. : ; 

cf. cya/10? 
ciwTroOTjaia, 77 : a £0ui£ barefoot ^IV Jer 2. 25 
dwrroSrjroSj ov : USilhod, barefoot ^JV IIS 15. 30 O"^ J = crtrroSTjucrCi- 

d^w (B), o^ai: Adv. (<ii-c; with Verbs implying Motion, upwards; with 
Verbs implying Res:, c/q/r, on /ugA; above] in heaven, Gpp. *£/:/: 
-*~~ Gn 1. 8 *l— ; geographically, on the upper ride, i.e. on the north 
hxzv Gn 14. 15 Jud 3. 21 bixas Ez 16. 46, 39. 3 J^-f ; *~ *-=; 
Kdruj up arid down, to end fro n:X] r»2X IR 2. 30 7Z7\\ r;;n lb 20. 40 

dvtlr/ciav or apcuyeor, to: (gvcj, yaia) anything raised jrom the ground rv?V 

IIS 19. I Ps 104. 3; ike upper floor of a house T?*7~ IR 17. 19, 23 IIR 

1.2; used as granarv 7?*?* ICh 28. 1 1 ; dvdyaiov and dv6<atov are also 

found in codd.; = dxdytiovy dvuiytwv 

dvutdcv and dvutdc: in a narrative or inquiry, from the beginning, from 

further back ]7T Lev 25. 22 J7*J lb 26. 10; = avA-c^V/, dv€Ka0ev 
dvojdov- d£vv (sharp, keen) ^^^ 

dytowuos : (from Swfia 7 Aeol 6vo[ia) nameless, inglorious ~w"*72 Job 30. 8 
drrdyoj : lead away \ remove 7 carry, carry away (W) PuH (*TiTin) IIS 20. 13 
drra€tp<jj: poet, from drra/pcu, depart TnT Cant 5. 6 1-!? lb 2. 11,5.6; 
trans, remove *^-?y Gn 47- - 1 



XI- GREEK PREPOSITIONS 181 

arratcup^ofiat : hang down from, haver about ^VT} Dt 32- 1 1 

dTTaXtuofiat: keep aloof from nbvnT} Dt 22. I Ps 55. 2; cL dXtofiat 

drroAAay-jJ, 17 ; (aTraXXdcacj) deliverance, release, relief from o**^-^ J 

generally, relief from ^-^; abs. divorce, in pi. E*nV77 Ex 18. 2 

l3^; going away, means of getting away, escape rrtrbp IIS 15. 14 

coUl ; separation -jl J 

drriUof:*, 77; = diraAAayrj III {going away, means of getting away, 

z , -~. 
fjc^dtf j-^^ ; separation \Jiy-) 

cttcXkcgcoj : set free 'f'^rt Ps 7. 5 ; deliver from ]"?" lb 1 16. 8 [cf t^VUtu] 
^7^ lb 116. 4 tr^sn Jes 31. 5 cb? Mich 6. 14 Ps 18. 49 e^cn 
Mich 6. 1 j, >j^*> o^' ; rnake away with, destroy 7^'d-j Thr 2- 8 (cL d-dA- 
Xvpi) C^sn Jes 5. 29; intr. get off free, escape w^ri Job 10. 20 w^2 
Am 2. 14, 15 ; Pass, and Med,, to be set free or released from 3 /*?; IS 20. 
29 Jes 49. 24, 25 Dan 12. 1 ; ^ o£ escape w?^; Jud 3. 29 Jcr 48. 8 

Ps 12.1. 7 e?cnn Job 19. 20, 41 - 11 -j-*-^ lt^ I u * 0€ zcquitud eb:p: 
Ez [7. 15, 18 Mai 3. 15 Job 22. 30; to depart from enmity, i.e. to be 
reconciled, settle a dispute tJ^I £&-*[ £ J U> Cr^ ^ ; C " ^aAAcy*) 

irraW-qroi, 6v : marvellous X73 Ex 15, 1 1 Ps 1 19. 129 X7£l Ex 34. 10 
Ps 139. 14; cf, ocrrcr/Ao? 

arra-Uorptdcu : estrange, alienate; Pass., to £* alienated; to be alienated from 
one 7"!-? ICh 12. 8 (9); of property, alternate wj>; separate 7"" 
Gn 1. 6 :?2 Ps 55. 10 Job 38, 25; Pass., 7^-1 Nch 10. 29 17?; 
Gn 10. 25 \jj\ distinguish /"-H Gn 1. 14 riTpri Ex 8. 18 ^y ; 
(Pass,) K72? IIS 1. 26; afor Jl, (Pass.) u^» : ; cf. da^ 

(iTTaWorptujcjis, t) : alienation <J->j^-> 

avai-dlZu, : pttuk off flowers H C P Ez '7-4 ---* t,— : -^ : J ^-'^ r * or <7 
from flowers n ,cp Job 30. a; all flowers ,J± <J^[\ Pass., to be withered 



r ^~i lb 8. 12 >-**■ ; = a:ro.\cuTi£ti> ; cf. /co'tttw 



c~c.yrc.uj : mostly of persons., and generally, meet, encc-^ilrr T?" Ex 29. 42, 
30. 30 Jos 1 1. 5 Am 3. 3 PS48. 5 Neh 6. 2, <o; freq. with a Prep. 
"'*? *T> - Ex 25. 22 *7X 1STU Nu 10. 3 Vj *7S"U lb 14. 35 ; freq. in hostile 
sensc^TT^nnbattleSyry^Ib-Jb 16. 1 1, 27.3 ; generally, resist, oppose 
in any way 11*13 Nu 1 o. 3 ITJl Jcr 49. 1 9 \face 11*12 lb 24. 1 Ez 2 1 . 2 1 
H3*IR 7. 25 Jes 8. 21 Jer 2. 27 V? HJD IR 17. 3 nan Jer 48. 39; 
freq. as a law term, meet in often court TSTIH Job 9. 19 

dTTOv-nj, tj : = aTrat-njaiS' = aTramj^a, {chance) *-^** 

aa-i^/xa, to : (aTrairacii) mtt/inj 1*^125 Ex 30. 36 Nu 1 6- 2 Dt 3 1 . I Jud 20. 

38 H0S9. 5, 12. 10 Ps 75. 3 Job 30. 23Thr 1.4, 15,2. 7,22 IlCh 1.3 



,8 2 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

a-napx*!* *} - mostly in pi. anapxat; primal offering (of hairs cut from the 
forehead) [cf. Nu 6. 18 nn PHI] ; firstlings for sacrifice or ottering 
TD3 Gn io- 15 Ex 13. 2, I2-T5, 22. 28-9, 34. 19-20 Lev 27. 26.- 7 
Nu 3. 12,13,40-51,8. 15-19, 18. 15-18 Dt 15. 19-22 IIR 3. 2711^33 
Gn 19. 31 ^H ; first fruits 1TD3 Hos 9. 10 mi33 Jer 24. 2 D1133 Ex 
23- 16, 19, 34. 22 Lev 2. 14, 23. 17-20 Xu 13- 20, 18. 13, 28. 26 
IIR 4. 42 E244. 30 Neh 10.35-7, 13, 31; rrtm Xu 18. i2jer2-3 
Ez 44. 30 Hos 9. 10 Xeh 10. 38; cf. alpcros, *f- 

arrapxopai: make a beginning 133 Ez 47. 12 11M31 Jer 4. 31 ; esp. 
in sacrifice 133 Lev 27. 26 ; rplx&s aTrcoyecc'a; begin the sacrifice ivitn 
the hair, i.e. by cutting off the hair from the forehead and throwing 
it into the fire mp Lev 21. 5 Mich 1. 16 nip: Jer 16. 6 mpr; 

Ez 27. 31 mpn lb 29. 18; cf Nu 6. 18; CU £6aip*iu 7 Kclpuj, drro- 

aTrardiu, -€a> : (d-drr)) cheat, deceive 11*121 Prv 24. 28 "3 Jer 20. 7 

, UU* wJJL -^S tJ^i ,JJ : = drrareuuj. The comoc. tfcrraracu [deceive 
or beguile, deceive thoroughly 113 Jer 20. 7 IMS lb 20. 10 "21 
Prv 24. 28 bnn Gn 31. 7 snsn lb 27. 12 *t?tt\ IlCh 36. 16 ^-^ ; 
seduce a woman 113 Ex 22. 15; swindle, trick ^-^ /^ -^- ; beguile 
or asruage 113 Hos 2. 16 lJ^} is more common; cf. r:ei?Lj. a;c-. 

StC-, €771- 

d^rar€(Lv t r6: cheat, rogue M? P^ I. 22 -1™ Gn 27. 12 ^'^ J^ 

ct2t^: trick, fraud, deceit; guile, treachery MS Prv :. 22 
arran/jaai : dishonour greatly r^^J ; = drrart^iiCLj 

dzrarfLi^cj : evaporate y^ m v ^j -X*^> 

aTTCTuiats*, 17 : evaporation ■* _■ n 

drrair/d^oj \ fiash forth ^ ,**-1j 

arra^yaa^a, to : radiance, cjulgcncc, of light beaming from a luminous 

bodv c-^*-^ **-1j c.bk-L-i a n 1 * . » ^ 
a7r<Lxa£cu : form from a model t represent, express, copy ^^ ; cf drrtiKovl^ 

d^TdKaata, r} : representation ^j-a^— > 

arrctxacjfioV, o: representation J^p? Dt 29. 16; r. pp. 037*8 

a^txo^t^ai : (€lku>v) represent in a statue, express; generally, represent ^r^ 

aTTfiAf'u;, later Ep. pres, arreiX^uj : hold out either in the way of promise or 

iArair irbDI Jes 29* 14, and therefore, sts. in good sense, promise N7D 

Lev 22. 21 Nu 15. 3, 8 K 1 ??? Lev 27. 2 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 183 

o.tt€l7tov'. fut. in USC airepai (Ion dircpc'to), pf. aire iprnKa ; speak out, tell 
out, declare 12*1 Ex 6. 11, 28; to give full notice "!2T Jcs 1. 20; to 
deliver a verbal message ~n~T Ex 19. 6; renounce, disown, give uo 
n-"!2 Mai 3. 13; intr., fail, lire, sink from exhaustion f]lT Jud 
4. ai r |!7 Jer 4. 31 ; to be tired IS; Jcs 40. 23, 29, 30, 31 *]?» Gn 25. 
29, 30 Jud 8. 4 IIS 17. 29i73jes8.22.23 

airipxouai: go away, depart from, depart "12 Gn 31. 20-22 Ex 14. 5 

IIS 19. 10 Job 9. 25 V?-m2 Gn 27. 43 Nu 24. 1 1 Am 7. 12 £>l* ry. 

amvdvw. make straight, restore rT3in Lev 19. 17, 25 Pp.' 9. 7, 8 

Job 13. 3, 15 ; guide aright, direct rmri Gn 24. 44 Jcs 2. 4 Prv 19. 25 ; 

correct, chastise rTSin IIS 7. 14; = d-cfluVoj 
dn-e^or, ov. by dissimulation from a.6e6do? (c6<6cj) boiled down, d. 

xpveds- refined gold TD'N =.-.5 Dan 10. 5 ts:x cr^ Jes 13. 12 Job 

28. 16 ID 2rO Cant 5. n T2'X? Jer 10. 9 "rs'X Job 22. 24 12 

Jcs 13. 12 Ps 21. 4 [cf. d©«WCu] 
dire'xw: hold oneself off a thing, abstain or desist from it, refrain from (W) 

-."- X u 6. 3 ; Jfc«^ away from ?2Xr.ri Jes 64. I 1 ; abs.. refrain oneself 

?zxr.r> Gn 45. 1 \fail pcKr.n IS 13. 12 

crriUtj: «.W<; H^SH Ex 8. 18 (nisi leg. drretAA- ■ ; cf. d-a.Uorpcdw 

d-icom: make equal rfti Ps i3. 34 ~*~~ Jes 46. 5 

d-ofecti, 77: landing place K^ Ez 27. 3; = dye^ d-ofcrt*o\- (dytiy: 
gathering, assembly; assembly of the Greeks -.' the naiional gamer, 
d7roSar:x-o?: of or for one who rode several horse: leaping from one to the 
other) ZS-X1I?? lb 33. 31 

ds-oSoAij, n: tow m?>t Lev 5. 22, 23 

d-dSj€v^a, to': infusion nn?12 Ez 24. 10; = Spcyua; cf. odp/iaKot' 

drroyiyvwcicw : renounce, reject iri Dt 32. 27 Jer 19. 4 Job 2 1 . 29 JZ\ ; as 
law term, r*/«f a charge brought against a man. i.e. ccr-rri him ~C: 
lb 34. 19; cf. €tti-, auy- 

drroodw: trans, used by Horn. (csp. in II.) of stripping armour from the 
skin res IS 3 1 . 9 ; c. ace. rei, strip offZZD Lev 6. 4 CTsn Mich 3. 3 ; 
c. ace. pers. jfn> DSD IS 31. 8 CTDH Lev 1. 6 Nu 20. 28 Ez 16. 39 
Hos 2. 5 ICh 10. 9 ; Pass., to be stripped of one's clothes ; awoSuoVevos 
jfn>d«/ o/j'/j jA««, of the nautilus nay Ez 21. 20; Med., rtn> o/f 
«i«Wf, ia& off clothes C7?nn IS 18. 4; = d:roSt,Va>; cf. €k- 

d-oCc'^: &01/ till the scum is thrown of; simply boil VTn Gn 25. 29; = 

aTodcpt'Cw: cut off; Med., of the tonsure of monks 1TJTS Hos 9. 10 



^4 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

arroderaiy al; a place in Lacedemon into which misshapen children 
were thrown as soon as born n?h Jcr 7. 31, 32, 19, 13 ; cf. o-T^at* 
drrodptapa, to': that which is cut ojf~K}Jtr 7. 29 
irrotKia, tj ; (drroiKQ$) settlement jar from home y eilcny, settlement "CK 

J<* 15. 53 
cTroi/ay, 17: pccul. fem. of drroijcos-, a. ttoXis a colony; and without ttoAij 

-p?><Jos 15. 53 
drroixos, o^ : away from home, abroad; mostly as bubs!., of cities p*£K 

E*. 34- r 3 

c-oiaai^aj : bewail loudly C^nn Ps 55. 3 

arroiva, :a: (by haplology for drrd-ou-a '"i;-r". _ r^.-Lrar: or price paid. 
whether to recover one* s freedom when taken prisoner, or to save onfs life 
T£3 Ex 21. 30, 30. 12; generally, atcnemerj, compensation, penalty 
"1*2? lb 29. 36 *j^^~; redemption, rescue from death 123 Job 33. 24; 

cf. GKtrrd^aj 
drroKoXuTT-raj : uncover r.S?! Ruth 3. 8; disc!::e : reveal r"? Job 6. 18; 

arrGKaiirrroV. dy : 6«f r."T~32 IIS 20. 8 

drroKiifirrrcj : d:roK€#ca^t;i«Vov pa;iOo;, curved bta-; "2*2 IIS 20. 

drroKret'ac^ : <:/:£, ra.' 0.7! Droo. of hair m US :^. 26; to Aj;r hair 

j/^m t/oi* JV?\ Jes 7, 20 "ITIm Lev 13, 33; ;:.: ;j r -;r/; hair. esp. in 

token of mourning "?Sjer 41. 5 rr"" Ez 27. 3: ~~*>p\j lb 29. i3: 

Pass,, shorn or clitOed rPi Tud 16. 22 Jcr .i:. ^ "" Ez 20. :5: cf. 

c;7o*:o— oV, tj, d^: severed from others "1" Gn 15. 10 Jer 34. t3, 19 *'^ 
d-oKOTTTtu ; rut off, hew off, freq. in Horn, cf men's limbs "-On 15. 1 

"i-j? lb. ; amputate j~ ; rat ojj ^> ; cf. SicksVtu 
d-o*piV<u : separate, set apart Tj?2 Ez 34. 1:; distinguish "V2 Lev 27. 

33 ; choose; Pass., fa c* parted or separated, parted from the throng ^Z 

lb 27. 26 [cf. dTTcpx°r ai ] ; r ^"-' ^ n «^^:"-*:-" "- Zach 1 1. 8 r.?":: 

Prv 20. 21 ; 17 "JD lb i. 25 
d-drfjuair, 17: separation rnj?2 Ez 34- 12; -V-^:^. anszcer m*- ICh 

29. I [cf. at/3€cr:sj ; c.irxtfr; defence Hip 2 Lev :c. 20 
arrox-uSciVca : glorify greatly "T2? Jes 29. 13, 43. 23 
drroja/Aicu : ro// aa*qy VjH Gn 2g. IO; cf. xrara- 
drroXauSdvoj : tafo or receive from ^2p Job 2. 10; ccw/rt ^2? Esth 4. 4, 

9. 23, 27 ; Awrr, fcern Vzp Prv 19. 20 [cf- cyaot^oaci] 
drroA^-w; fcaw hold of lose nD^n Jos 1. 5 Prv 4. 13 Cant 3. 4; leave, 

allow PiDin IS 1 1 . 3 ; <fer*rf f abandon nD"in Dt 4. 3 1 , 3 1 . 6 Jos 1 . 5 ;/ai7, 



XI. CREEK PREPOSITIONS 185 

flag, lose heart nsnnn Prv 18. 9, 24. 10; of the moon, wane man 

Jes 24- 23; leave off; depart from H3"iri Ps 37. 8 
a-6X\vut or - vuj : stronger fonn of oXAvpu, destroy utterly^ kill y in Horn, 
mostly of death in battle V^X Jes 24. 4 Hos 4, 3 T\bz ICh 1 7. 9 vbl 
Thr 2. 2, 5, 8 V?n lb 2. 2 ; demolish bblZH Jer 14. 2 Thr 2. 8 V2«n 
lb. V^n lb 2. 2 ; lay waste sb? IIS 20. 19 bzr\ Cant 2, 15 bbr\ Thr 
2. 2 bbZH Jes 33. 9; raw a woman (^n) n^n Lev 21. 7; perish, 
die bzK Jes 24, 4, 7 Jer 23. 10 Hos 4. 3 Joel 1. 10 Am 8. 8 bbriK Jes 
24- 7 Hos 4- 3 Joel 1. io, 12 Nan 1. 4 »b3 Jes 25. 8 bz: Ex i3. 18 
Jes 24, 4, 40. 7; cease to exist *bz Jes 25, 8; simply, to be undone 
""/bsN IS 2. 5 Ps 6. 3 xb2 Jes 19. 3 ; as an imprecation, frcq. in part, 
fuL <L tcaKicr* aTroAou^xo'e o destined to a miserable end\ i.e. thou villain, 
scoundrel^ knave \ bbnH Neh 3. 34; of fruit, fall untimely ^"^Xjes 24. 7 
Joel 1. 12; = aTroAAcu, late form 
J4-OXW-, d: Apollo ^K^D Jud 13. 18; ace. AttoXXoj (mostly in adjura- 
tions. V^TJ TGIS IAtToWoj), ^TTO.VlOJt'a J = EvpvaXoS *?X^K HoS 10. I 4 

X-oWuivtor t a T ot- : cfor belonging to Apollo "X7? Jud 13. 18; -un'to?, 6 y 
(sc. ^r>) name of month a: Eiis, Methymna, etc. ^*ft Xcii 6. 15; 
-ojrtcKc>, 0, Dim. of .-!^dX\cjr; statuette of Apcllo ""?? Jer 14. 14 
T'7f< Jcs 10. 10 C^7"7X E2 30. 13 [cf- t rSojAot-j ; A-o\.\u>vtcLv, 6, (sc. 
utjV; name of month at Haiicarnassus bV7K Neh 6. 15 

crToAirr^c^ir, 17: ransoming (pP ; redemption by payment of rzr.so:r. E % 7*?S 
Ex 2 * . 22 

c-oAJuj: loose from; set free, release, relieve from; abs., acquit; in IK always 
= crroAuraduj, release on receipt of ransom ^7P IS 2. 25; Med., set 
free by payment of ransom, ransom t redeem / 750^ lb.; c:. ctTiSoAtop 

d-oudacTLj, Att--TTOi : wipe off Tinz Ex 32. 32 Dt 29. 10 "*;n Neh 13. 14, 
Sdxpva nna Jes 25. 3; xip* :^^i riff a IIR 21. 13 Jes 44. 22 rrnsr: 
Jer 1 3. 23 ; csp. in magical ceremonies rina Nu 5. 23 ; wipe one's mouth 
"a Prv 30. 20 7* — . ^j*-*] cf. ucaatu: wipe nna IIR 21. 13 

a7?6uopyiia f to ; that which is wiped off p^a Jud 6. 10, 20 

drrotid(r/vyut : ;rrp* 0^" or away from p~p Lev 6. 2 1 

arrovtfiuj: portion out 7 impart, assign rua Job 7. 3 Dan 1. 10 

a^oi'touai'.goaway, depart rUD Nu 14. 2 5jcr6.4 Cant 6. 1 T? rUD IR i 7, 3 

drrot-euaj: 6m4 away from other objects towards one "isn Jer 48. 39; 
turn off or i/k/w; towards HID Dt 31. 8 IR 10* 13 Jer 2. 27; Astrom, 
pass away from a cardinal point niSS Jos 15. 2 IR 7. 25 Ez 8. 3 

aTroFi^ca: later -ytVrai, uwA clean npl Job 10. 14 



1 86 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

arrovurrl^ijj ; turn one's back and flee 0^ Jud 7. 21 ; trans, in causal 
sense, D^n Ex 9, 20 Dt 32. 30 Jud 6. 1 1 ; cf. i«iPyaj 

arro^€co: scrape to a point 1"£7\ IS 13. 21 ; = a7rofuu> 

a^of woj : 6rm£ to a pointy Pass.; make sharp and piercing 2*2 H IS 13. 21 

irwnn Ez 21. 21 ; Pass, imn lb 21. 14 lu ^^ 

d^orrAavdcu : Pass., wander away from ; wander from the truth n?Dy Hab 2. 4 

a^OT7vtycL> : choke % throttle, suffocate ,j^l ; = duapl^ai^ dufitd^at 

d-opp€tLj : Pass., flow or run oj/", stream forth "uri Mich r. 4 

drropprqro^^ ov : naf to £* spoken, secret T*l Dan 2. 19, 28, 4. 6 

a— 000 c £du* : /?*/// out by the root, rpt^as* U*^ Esr 9. 3 

c-opptVrcu : poet. d;ropt— tu, ;Arou; art'tr/. £yf away "H Jud 5. 18; of 

words, after, csp. in disparagement rpn IS 17. 26; cf. dprrd^oj 
drTOGKtaopa, to: shadow T]rriS Jes 42. 16 Ps 143, 3 Thr 3. 6; illusion 

T]tna Ps 88. 19; deceit ^ns lb 74. 20 
d7TQGKQ7T€u>: Pass., is visible from a distance "TI Jer 6. 1 Cant 6. 10; 

= -rrevwy -nta^cu 
d-<xrrc&d: standing apart "7*72 Lev 13. 40 Dt 32. 12, 33. 28 
drrdaraai^, tj: (dStarr^iit) defection, revolt ITTD Prv 28, 2 [cf. dQtmuc. 

--rnc:$] inr.71? Esr 4, 15, 19 ^-=-£ ; Medic, suppurative inflammation 
>VP Jcs I. 6 (late form: crocraciai 
d77o<rrzTt&: fall off jyom, fail one ttz I IR :. 1 [cf. cc ? €T€lj] \ fall as ay 
from the divine ^TC Kos 14. 10; stand aloof from: zho stand aloof ~*-Z 

?5 102. 8 

drrocrrdrTj^, d: dcscrtcr ) rebel i~TD Dan 3. 23 

dTrocrrfVUcu : j*7i</ a/f] away from FPr Gn 25. 6, 31. 27 Jud 12. 9; 
send away n*77 Gn 21. 14, 31. 27 Ex 8. 28, 11. 10; banish riTT 
Gn 3. 23 Jud 1. 25; dispatch, on some mission or service, H/y Gn 
28. 6 IS 31. 9; freq. of messengers, r;?r Jes 57, q, 66. 19 Jer 27. 3 
Dan 10. 1 1 HCh 32. 31 PPT Ob 1 Prv 17. 1 : ; or forces, H7T 11R 

2^. 2 rr"7n lb 15. 37; put off, doj ^ ~— ~-+-^ --^ 
d-o<rrep*uj: rob y despoil, defraud one of a thing ZZZ IS 27. io, 30. 14 
r?5 IS 31. 8 IIS 23. 10 :TDn IS 31. 9 — — ; = -pl±u, -piaKiu [cf. 

drroSJcu] 
dzroGTptOuj : turn back 2TH Ex 4. 7 Jos 3. 26 Jud 9. 57 IIS 15. 25, 16. 3 
IIR 19. 28 Ez 21. 35 Thr 2. 3, 8 HCh 25. 13 -^r Ps 60. 3; hence, 
either turn to flight, or turn back from flight Z*?7\ IIS 1 5- 25 ; send home 
again 2*371 Gn 20. 7, 48. 21 IS 6. 7 Jer 23. 3 Ez 29, 14 snw Jer 50. 
19 Ez 39. 27; bring back word 3^H Gn 37. 14 Xu 22. 8 Jes 41. 28 
Ez 9. 11; guide back again 2T7H HCh 19. 4, 24. 19 3-13 Jes 49. 5; 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 187 

turn backwards n^H IIR 20. n Jcs 44. 25; bring back, recall 2~3v 
Gn28. I5jud 1 1. 9 US 15.25 IR 13. 2oJcr8. 4Thr 1. 16 zzrj Jcs 
53. 12 Ps 23. 3 ; turn away or aside, divert 2*un IR 13. 26 ZZ'iV Jer 3. 5 
arrocuAc'w: strip off spoils from a person Vs: IlCh 20. 25 ^_J— ; strip 
off or take away from *?S? Ex 3. 22 ; Pass., Vs^n lb 33. 6 ; carry 0/ b?: 

IIR 16. 6 
iroaxt'Cw: jp/i/ y?b Jcr 23. 29; part them o^", separate them, tfcare ojf, 

*«rr off; sever, detach from 72: Jer 51. 21, 22, 23 [cf. a<£a£cu] ; Med., 

«*irafc on**//" 7x2*7.? Kab 3. 6 7^2: IIR 25. 5 
±7Tocd>^: save or preserve from SS3 Jes 38. 12 "2 Ex 2. 10 ~r2r, 

IIS 22. 17 [cf. dva-] 7TI2 lb 4. 9 HS3 Ps 1 44. 7, I I J *«£ *j/* "D 

Jes 2Q. 22 [cf. <^€t'5ofiat jdar* persons and things, e.g. in war, i.e. no/ 

destroy ihcm] ; preserve S3? Thr 2. I 7 [cf. Sta-paacty, e*- £n'/?£ aso:/.'. 

accomplish, achieve] ; £«/> them m mm^, remember "V2T~ Jes 63. 7 
cTTorctx^: a'fl// o£ by way of blockade "IIS Dt 20. 12 Jud 9. 31 
cT7or€t'xtoft<i, to: = droret\-cat; [walling off of a town, blockading) "V.S2 

Dt 20. 19, 20 
c^orfAe'cj: 6n'/nj to an end, complete zrn Dan O. 24 [c:. rv-rrdo.] Er.n Jcs 

33. 1 Dan 8. 23 p-^J -r^- *'^ -»-'; cf. Sia- 
ctot^'W. «x:j*; Jy/ off, divide, sever Z77\ Ez 24. ic; c::t off. check, px! 

ar. end '.0 ZT-Tj Dan 3. 23; c:. c^-o-reAt'cj 
c-ot;V'_^;, -:Wufii, -in-Jcy, -;Vcj, irrvrft'eu : repay; pay for: Med., c-ortVo- 

iic:, -Miaai, c. acc. rci, tok vengeance for a thing, aaniiA it; abs., 

.'j.c* vengeance zp_l Jud 15. 7 IS 14. 24; cf. €*3iica£ca 
c7To6a;Voj : show forth, display \~ ; make known, declare "".K27i~ Ex 8. 5; 

abs. } m<u« display of oneself show off IXSnn Jud 7. 2 Jes 10. 15 
arro6<:/>oj : Horn, only in fut. -oictu (Dor -otc-di, Med. -oi'oro^at) ar.d 

Ion. aor. d-rrevctKa, Att. aor. -rjveyKa, aor. 2 -Tjvey<of, pf. -cvtjvoxc; 

gcncrailv, bring, hand over as required K21 IIS 19. 43 IR Q. 1 1 Esr 1.4; 

= o€po<vft [a structure similar to *7i'2] 
d-o6i\r/cj : fee from, escape ; ?*: safe away ryn Jes 10. 3 1 Jer 4. 6, 6. I = 



-Ows*sa.vui 



6.tt66v^ : speak out, declare* 'a tly or plainly ST2H Ps 94. 4, 145. 7 Prv 1. 23 
avoodwvBui: causal, make perish *72K Ez 22. 27 Esth 8. 5 1"?5D Nu 

24. 19 Ez 32. 13 ; lose "72N Prv 29. 3 Eccl 3. 6; diminish u -a« ^H 
arroodivtn: intr. in pres., perish utterly, die away "I2X Nu 21. 29 Mich 

7. 2 ; causal, make to perish, destroy, waste away 1Z.K Prv 29. 3 ; destroy 

12K Dt 12. 2 "rsxri Jer 1. 10 -jW 



1 68 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

a?ro<fnryTJ, rj : escape or place of refuge Oirp IIS 22. 3 Am 2. 14 noun Lev 

26. 36 cr^^ n»a Jcr 16, 19 Joel 4. 16 Dan 11. 31 *jl^ jju jLcll 

c^-o^paoj : suffice, be sufficient , A; enough pZZ IR 20. to; deliver an oracle 
p'BITl Jcs 2. 6; t/j* to the full p30 Job 34. 37 

dn-o^upoaj : fortify H23 Jcs 22. 10 Jcr 5 1 . 53 ; Pass., "MS2 Jcs 2. 15; form 
a fence, of trees "1133 Zach 1 1 . 2 

a-o^ij^oj : r//i/?£ tfu:tf)' "E Dt 29. 19 Jcs 44- 22 'f=^ rz — . ; scrape or rub off 
mH3 Ex 32. 32, 33 L>^- J->=- *= ■!=— - ; = c-ooaSyaj; cf. a-o/iccc^ 

aTTcudetu: thrust aicajr, push back mn Dt 13, r ! ; ;*j^j/ azcayfrom onesel' 
""!? Jcr 27. 10; */rir* flarv rVTTi Jcr ^o. 17; drive from mr; Dt 13, -] 
nCH Nu 22. 23 Job 24. 4; thrust aside, spun: Z" Prv 27. 7 ZVZ D: 
32. 15 CXD Jcs 8. 6, Pass. OK?;! Jcs 54. 6 nrn Am 5. 12; reject :x: 
IS 10. 19, 15. 23, 16. 7 Jcr 6. 30, 8. 9 ?$ 1 18, 22 ; refuse CK3 Job 

30. I ; CI. €7TIT€LVQ* 3 <C7a*, GTOpVVUl 

SiaBoX^ rj : false accusation, slander n" Gn 37. 2 Nu 13. 32 

SiayeXdaj: laugh at y mock Z^JV 7} II Ch 2^- i6l*^7^Nch2. igIICh3o. 10 

StaSojfTj, 7}; (Bta&€\ofLctj taking over from another^ succession "TH Gn 15. 16 

Jcs 34. I o, 41. 4 Tin Cant I . ro, I r ; :/: .'l^t: ; r^y, reliefer* Esth 2. 12. 

5:^30^09, 6: a kind of gem jo 

5 tee :3oj : discern ; distinguish >"V Gn 3. 22; cf. dt^root- 

Sia^tcj : boil through T^TH Gn 25. 29 

&ia^ujypa6taj : paint in divers colours "VwSri Jcs c. 4 [cf. era-] 

StacJr'x-jj, 77 : testament -*^Jj -^r^J ; deposit -u; -j 

&ialp<atf t tj ; distribution ; separation ; division r*Z^~ Ex 25. 2, 3 Nu 3 1 - 52 

8iaip€<jj: tear away, pull dozen m* Ps 137. 7 *i"V.:; Jes 23. 13 ; toi* a'^'-: 

part of the wall, ma** a tfrMrA in it "V^V Jcr 51. 58 "jr*!V*v 

lb.; S. ra cira lend an ear ]'X Tvn Jes 50. 4; cf. do-, Sttyelpaj 
Sictpvj: raise up, lift up Z*^r> Gn 14. 22 IR 14. 7 ZZ*n IS 2. 7 Esr 9. 9 ; 

lift up oneself nsc, become prominent 2 2 VI Ps 1 i3. 16 ZZ^TZ 

Dan 11. 36; separate, remove ""in Lev 2. Q Nu 3:. 28, 52 
Sictra, 7}: tt'fl^ of living, mode of life " Esth I. 8, 3. 8, 4. 1 6 ; judgement 

n Esth 3. 15, 3. 17 Esr 8. 36 w2y Ex 12. 12 Prv ig. 29 
Siairdpios, 6: title of a subordinate official ^ZZ* Ex 5. 6, 10, 14, 15 
SiatTau*: to be arbiter or umpircZZZ Ex 18. 22, 26; decide ZZZ Gn 16. 

5 Ex 18. 16, 22, 26 Jes 2. 4 Mich 4. 3; cf. 5i*d£u# 
StaiT7jfia t to: mostly in pi.; rules of life \ regimen, esp. in regard of diet 

"I Esth 1 . 8, 3. 8 ; generally, institutions, customs 7H Esth I. 13, 15, 19, 



XL CREEK PREPOSITIONS 189 

3. 8 icra Job 38. 33 CyS? Gn 40. 13 Lev 5. 10 IIR n. 14, 17. 26 
Ez 20. 18 ICh 15. 13 HCh 35. 13; cf «A>* 
SiaiTTjrTjV, 6: arbitrator \ umpire ^" Dt 16, 18 Prv 6. 7 ICh 23. 4 D^ 

F-X 2, 14 Dt I 6. l8; Cf. dlKdOTT^ 

SiaKadalptu, ~pl£a>: purge thoroughly "SHD Jor 33, 8 Xeh 13. 30 Tnori Jos 

22. 17 ^ ^1 ; prune v-^ <Jj 
2tc*evo;, ov : thirty lank /7n!2 Jes 53. 5 
StcK^vdoj : empty outright mixr; Jcs 19. 6 V^n E2 28. 9 /^f! Jcs 53. 5 

"n lb i_i, 10 ^^n Ez 12. 26 

Ouuc.Wrrraj : steal at different limes Z*A Jcr 23. 30; steal away ZZ IIS 
15. 6 Zli Gn 40. 15 Ex 22- 6; disguise bz: Xu 25. :3 

BiaKXrjpoin: assign by lot, allot ^rj Jos 19. 51 Tn;n Dt 1. 38 Jos 1. 6; 
have allotted to one Vn:rt Job 7. 3 

SiaKouua, to : cut, gash n-p ^ Jcs 5 1 . 1 

hicKQvttu, Sir]*-: (StaKQvof) minister, do service^ sene j" Ex 28. 41 ICh 

5- 36 -J*'? 
OiaKoi'la, v : service n;rp Jos i3. 7; attendance on a dxty, ministration 
^-~^ Ex 29. g Xu 18. I, 7 ^^r^ ; body of srrjants or attendants 

rcr.z 15 2. 36 

SicKoyos, 6t^-, later dic-zccj^: servant ]nj IIS 20. 26; attendant or official 
in a temple or religious guild *ns Gn 14. 18 Ex 3. : Lev 6. 16 IR 2.27 
IIR 11/18 t jz€ 

Slocottt?, -q : gash, cleft "^n Jcr 49. 16 Cant 2, 14 Zpl Ez 28- 13 ^^ ^-P_? 
Gn 1. 27 Lev 3. i Jer 31. 22 (21) XZp Xu 25. 8; cutting or canal 
through an isthmus or mountain; narrow channel or passage nzp: 
.[carved on the stone commemorating the excavation of the Jeru- 
salem tunnel); v. pp. 159, G47 

Sicjcotttoj: cut through zpi IIR 12. io, 18. 21 Job 40. 24; Pass., had 
a hole drilled in it Zip; Hag 1. 6 "pi [TiZip:] Gn :. 27 

Stzxpt—ruj : strcngthd. for <pi—rcj fttde, cover) nzz Gn 18. 17, 37. 20, 
38. 15 Ex 15. 10 Lev 13. 13 Xu 4. 5 Jes 6. 2 Ps 32, 5 riCD Gn 7. 19 
ZZZrTi Gn 24. 65 Jon 3. 3 

StoAcWcy : talk with ; talk over a thing with another *?7*z Gn 2 1 . 7 ; cf -po- 

btoWayr}, tj : (Sia^Aa'aaa/j interchange; change ; change from enmity .'0 

friendship) reconciliation ?^L* ; difference eJ}*^ u-0*c^j; cf arraXVaaacj 

Sta-Uaaaaj: interchange^ exchange rpVnn Jes 9, 9; change r |*?n Gn 41 . 14 

rpnn lb 31. 7, 35, 2iMitf different u-i ; U 
Staptrptcj : measure through, measure out or 0^; measure with the eye, scan 



- 1 



l9 o XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

TTQ Hab 3. 6; to be in opposition, to be diametrically opposite 77:: 
Job 7. 4; cf, eV- 
Sidvota, Tj : Aeol Stavotta, poet, also Stavola, thought, i.e. intention *_j 
Sta-di'^aj: laugh, jest at 71!" Lsth 1. 17 [cL «Vi-] 
5tarra'5uj: convince; Pass., "D Prv 25. 15 
Siarreu/aoj : hunger one against the other, have a starvation match TuV Lev 

16. 31 niynn Esr 8. 21 [cL rretvaaj, -t'aj] 
Sta-epatdcj: (Wpa) take across, ferry over 7"^0 Ps 136- 14 
Siarrepacu : (Wpa) r^/!, Jrn« tf/ a place "l"?v J er -4^- r 7 [ c ^ StGTroptL'Qj] 
hiarripdcu: destroy utterly, sack, u-astc, always of ci:ies =771 Ex 23. 24 

Jes 49. 17 [cf. eVt-, «-] 
SicttAtjpooj : strengihd- for -ATipdw (make full or complete; fulfil) N77 Ex 

23. 26 ; u. ava- 
Sta^A^acraj : Ar^flA in pieces y split, cleave Z7D Ps 55. 10 
Sia7ToX€fi€aj: fight it out with one "£75 IIR 3. 23 vj^--~ v^- 
biapdopat: curse H^H IR 3. 31 77X Gn 5. 29 77p Gn 12. 3 
SiapptVraj, -r*ai, SiapiVrui: Mrou' c&ozii "^7r7 Jcr ". 15; /^rou; icu;n 

Tp7rn IIS 1 1. 21 Thr 2. 1 ; cf. c-op- 
Siaaciaj: shake violently ST" Job 10. 10 
Staa77apdaatu 7 -ttcj : rend in pieces p7£ IR *9- -i; dilate jorcibly p" 

Zach t I. 16 
SiacTTttpw: scatter or spread about 7?^ Ps 63, 31 ;— "V? Zach 7. 14 

7VS Hos 13. 3; squander 7;s Prv 1 r. 24; ^crz- 
SiaartAAoj : command expressly, give express orders rr7T7 IIR 1 5. 37 ; c:. d-5- 
Siacrrpcoaj: turn away, divert ZTTT! Xu 25. :: jos 8, 26 Ez 18. 17 

Prv 15. 1 Thr 2. 8 HCh 25. 13; cL i-o- 
dtaarputwufit : spread, Pass., l?7r~7i Jes 23. 20 
Stccoo^, ayos-, 77 : = ro i?^Al/ adpeor (the female genitals* nrS7 Dt 23. 2 ; 

= Stacr^afts" 
Siacfy^cj: preserve through a danger, of persons, 7*27 Gn 32. 12 Jud 

10. 15 Ps 7. 2; of things, preserve, maintain 7*271 Ex 12. 27 Hos 2. i: 
Sicr^Ww: arm^ ^y ra ^ «<z H72 Gn 18. 33 Jud 3. 18 Ruth 3. i3 

ICh 27. 24 n*73 Gn 2. : ; ;\ p. 197 
Starr}<u,:m^p^nJos 7. 23: ^771 IIR 22. 9 Job 10. 10 ^7!71 Ez22. 20 

7~7 lb 22. 22 
Starldrj^t : arrange HIS Lev 25. 2 I J^ ; distribute .j-^! ^jj ; <jrra/i£* each 

:n their several places n^Jts 45. 12 Ps 78. 23 ; manege, handle U -L- ; flrrc/15* 

jj on* /iJt«, dispose of\ dispose of one's property, aV:-w it 6y aiV/ 7112 IIS 

17. 23 IIR 20. I v 1 u**- ' ° f 5*ari0€^tcvoy, the testator u^>- o^*-^^ * 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 191 

make a covenant with one (nrw) QH1X ^ms ~\UK Wia-nn Jos 7. 11 

(esnx) nrnx ms iro< crrn'*?^ rnn* nm*nx Jos 23. 16 Jud 2. 20 

Ps 1 r 1. 9; settle a quarrel HIS lb 7. 7 ; set forth, recite m:J Gn 50. 16 

[cL t6icrn}}±i] Dt 32. 46 
htarpt^rj, t) : pastime, amusement s-V 
htair/d£w t -yifcu: glcince y shine through ^DT Job 25. 5 ; to 5r transparent 

-pi lb 15. 15; cf. «V- 
StciryTj?: translucent 1 of water; radiant, of gems, o S. Ai<?o? iVS'C] 

Job 28. r; 
SiauAifui: ^tj<Jvcu {delay, pat off) *7~n Nu 30. 3 
Btaotpu*: carry over or across "V22?n Xu 32. 5 IIS 19. 16 [c!. ucc-, 

5ta^€paiocu] X^7n lb 17. 13; endure, support ^Z'jr* Job 7. 21 ; 

Btoodtl p<u t -doptw: destroy utterly -^'QU Jc* 49- J 7 E 2 *9- 7 ^rV^ f"? 
Dt 12. 3 IlCh 36. 19 ; make away with, kill "13 "I Ik 22. 10 [cf. tKTpiStu] ; 
ttiur* a woman ^il u-^' i Pass,, to be destroyed "££ Ez 29. 12 fr-3 
Jud 6. 28 frn Lev 11. 35 3\"m Ez 19. [2; to be murdered -l£v 

IIR 3. 23 [cL StarroXtfiiLuj] 

dtaoOovitu: ency H3p Gn 30. I, 37. 11 Jes ti. 13 Ps 37. : ; ci. €<rlyaj 
8ia63oo<i, -o-n t 77 : <'Sta<i0ei0a/. destruction, ruin ri2"in Lev 20. ? ; Jer .tz. 2 ; 

pi., Jes 52. 9, 58. 12 Ez 36. 4, 10 Esr 9. 9 
Siaopayfia, to: midrijf^ diaphragm r*:D Ex 29. 14 Lev 4. 1 1 ; = tti±6pa£i$ 
Sizoucd^: blow in different directions, disperse 2 % rr; Gn 15. 11 ; blow cr 

breathe through 2"rn P5 147. 18 rrsn Ez 21. 36; Pass., nD3 Job 

20. 26 ; ci- €kOvuj 
btaxujp+tu: pass through ~12V Gn 15. 17 Ex 32. 27 Ez 9. 4, 5; of coins, to 

be current "!J Gn 23. 16 
Si€7€ijo» : irstt up *V3?n Ps 35. 23 ; stir up, arouse TiTi Joel 4. 9 Cant 

2. 7 Esr 1. i, 5; excite m rr^ Cant 2. 7; raise "1Ti2T IIS 23. 18 
oi«rSo^: inf. SuofiV, aor. 2 with no ores, in use {Slopes being used), 

r« thoroughly, discern (on the Homeric usage v. 5ia-€iSu/ ; pi. SiotSa, 

inf. StciSo'ci, Ep. Su'Sfievai, distinguish, discern 2TV Gn 3, 22 
Supairacu : cross-question ; cri constantly or continually n"T Dt 13. 15, 17.4 
5i^y«ofia* : jrf o«f m <fcfcn7 T*in Gu 3. 1 i, 41. 25 Ex 13. 8 Jud 14. 12,16 

IS 8. 9 "T|^ Gn 22. 20 Dt 17. 4 Jos 9. 24 Ruth 2. 1 ! ; describe Ez 43. 10 
SioS^va;: (ravel through H3?X Prv 4. 14 [cf. "TOK/oS<i/w lb 9, 6] 
StoiKttu: generally, control, manage, administer; abs., exercise authority, 

govern 27 1 Dt 3. 2 Jos 12. 2 Ps 29, 10 ICh 5. 8 
Sio:tt€uoj: watch accurately, spy about *TOl Nu 13. 32; cf- detuptw 



ig 2 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

Stoimjp, 6: spy y scout "W Nu 14, G; = oioT-qp 1 Stormy; 0<ajp6$ 
&Lopi£tu 7 &tov-: separate THSH Gn 30. 40 Dt 32. 8 Ruth 1. 17; Pass., 
T]Dnn Ps 22- 15, 92. lo; determine, declare; C. inf. determine one /a be^o 

and so T*1DH Prv i3- l3; remove across the frontier , banish rTn j^d 

I. 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 -> [cf. UTa>p/'ST] 

Siopir/^ta, to : siege-muie, subterranean passage under wall of besieged 

fortress mrua Tud 6. 2 
hiojdtu*: push away K"n IIR 17. 21 n^n Dt 13. 11, 14; cf. drr- 

eis^/iic, «v (/itTjonlyin laie Ion. Prose) — Ep. Uit, Dor 7^- (orig. oT,assi~. 
*V5) . . .) as a Numeral, one >'tv) nx Ez 18. 10 .7«sf-TriX Zach :s. c 

THX Ez 18. io, 33. 30 -^' (-J^-'j; 1"^ Gn 22. 13 Jos 66. 17 "" Prv 
I 7. IO (ety) ETX Jes 40. 20 Ez f . 23 TH Ez 33. 30 •' tua) nX"? Gn I 7. I 7 
-kj^ (-il,, vernacular) ; eU -t V~^ £:t 26. 7 ; in oppes.. made emphatic 
by the Art., 6 tis, 77 pda "rnsn Gn 19. 9, 42. 27, 32, 33 r.rxn lb 32. 
9; «iV cxraCTTo? each c/:* r*X-r*X Ex 36. 4 T*K ~N Lev 15. 2 ; -ji:i:ed 
~nx Ex 26. 6, 1 1 ; c-o f:;c? it-i/A one accord ~?~X ~D Jos 9. 2 ; l-6' €*; 
a:on«nma Prv 23. :3 "SN Esr 4. 13 zxrs Nu 12. 4 ur-p lb 35. 

22 (cf. -ep TToSdy; ;/r.-: ""X Gn I. 5, '6. 5 ; one, i.e. .'.'':; JJ".v THX !';> 42. 

5 Eccl 2. 14, 3. IQ, 20; one opposite another lv ;-*:■ . . . lv ti . . . ~~X 

THX Ex 25. IQ; ct) iiia:- oC-ii ovo not o.'iri* nor iv.ice I'rr N7* "X X~ 

IIR 6. 10; u. p. 361 
tlccxouw. hearken or give ear to one ]">w Gn 4. 23 Ex 15. 26 Ni: 23. :3 

Dt 1. 45, 32. 1 ]ud 5. 3 z-rp- IS 15. 22 Jes 23. 23, .12. 23, 40. :3 ? 

51. 4 Jer 6. io, 19 Zach 1. 4 Ps 17. 1 Can: 8. 13 Nch 9. 34 
tlsBaivui: be imported X'ZH 1R io. i! ; causal in aor., niche to go ::::;. 

est into X^an Gn 6. ioThr3. 13 Dan 1. 2 K=*~ Gn 43. iS; tloBiSdZ^. 

causal of etoSaiVoj ; c!. dyuj, tier-. i~- 
tla3c.\Xw: make an inroad, fell upon IZirr, Gn 43. 18; :■. -poa- 
t'aSaaiT, *) ' on entrance \Z\< Nch 12. 25 ~N2 Ez c. 5 r \Z Jud 19. 27 

IR 14. 17 IIR 12. 10 Jcs 6. 4 ICh 9. 19, 22 
(Iceoxopai. : go in or into, er/.tr, in:' {p^- F^v- ?* ! 39- ^ 
elciStlv: = €iao/>ucu 'Jock in: j, look upon, behold ; generally, Ijok at or gc- 

upon steadily)— derivatives: 17.? Job 16. 19 -i*L:, Kr.nrjr Gn 31. 4" 

€tcv«'w: rni'/n :n/o HHT Jes 25. 1 I p"i* Job 40. 23; cf. -t^w 

etad&Oi, ok : going or coming :n ; ol elooSioi. uir.tors -^ ^ 

tTco^or or €<7oSo<>, tj : entrznee— place of entrance, entry TTK Nu 21. 15; cf 

a mountain-pass T^N Dt 3. 17; visit *2\~; study, investigation r.~"X 

lb 33. 2 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 193 

tlaTToUuj : to be adopted into a family I1D01 Jcs 14- 1 ; bring new persons 

into the public service H30 IS 2. 36; cf. drrrcj 
ttaridrffLi : pu/ m/o, /?/;:££ in TVZ7\ Ez 5. 13, 1 6. 42 ; cf. cra—ai/a; 
doj>tpoj\ carry in; bring in r t ON Jos 20. 4 IIR 22, 20 HCh 34. 2 3 ^cy? 

Ex 9. 19 N'u 27. 13 IIR 22. 20 rpi* Jud 19. 15; cf. ddpol£u> 
daoopd, rj: property-tax levied for purposes of war; in Egypt, special 

tax; generally, contribution m3IX Lev 2. 2, 9, :6, 24. 7 "133;* 

Ez 27. 15 Ps 72. 10 «- j ^ J J *?- S«aro9 
cZoY€tpl£t*j: put into one's hands, entrust "113 IS 26. C IIS 18. 28 "VI" 

Dt 23. 16, 32. 30 IS 23. 20, 30. 15 Ps 31. 9, 78- 62 ^3 3 Jcs 19. 4 
cta^coj: pcur r/i or mfo ?*£* Ex 29. 7 Lev 8. 15 IIR 3. 11 Jes 44. 3 

Ez 24. 3 [cf. psVnjicLj] ?*tt IIR 4. 5 p?vi Lev 21. 10 Ps 45. 3 
oau, <gcj: inside, within *r IS 4. iO ^n Ex 14. 23 Dt 2:. 12 IIS 

3. 27; ro €oqj the 1/1/^r p3*r* Ez 41. 7, 47. 16; r/ir:£>, i.e. 5y .'*/ side 

of the road "T Ex 2. 5 Jer 41 . 9 "^ IS 4. 13 ; cf. Ayvievs; :\ 606$ 
oc3a;^: speak out, declare H53 Jcs 52. 7 Ps 40. 10 —. ; icLf;^ mrz 
€fc3alvuj y €*3duj: step out of, or off from ^ disembark, dismount ni'J Jos 15. 

r3 Jud 1. 14 debouch from a defile; go out of depart from pi] Dt 33. 

22; leave, usually with the sense, outstep, overstep; go cut zf due bounds 

33*3 Jer 3. 5; cause to go out 3317 Jes 47. 10; cf. c-ccrpoio 
€-c3ciCYC-Jw: Pass., to be filed with Bacchic frenzy *1~3 D: 23. 34 IS 2:. 

:5 IIR 9- 1 1 Jer 29. 20 Hos 9. 7; Med., ysr.rn IS 2 :. 15, 16 
€*3<LWlj: throw or cast out; expose on a desert island 73; Nah 3. 6; 

exoel afterbirth; let fail, drop; produce, of women [of premature 

birth'; esp. in case of a miscarriage or abortion; hatch chicks; 

of plants, put forth fruit n73n Cant 8. 5 n?? Job 39. 3 
l<3aai$ y rt: deviation, declension, departure; digression "33 Jer 8. 5 
tVpoArj, rj: i. alrov the time when the corn comes into ezr 3723 Gn 41.5; 

shoot r/733 Zach 4. 12; mouth of a river "33 Jes 27. 12; projection; 

:'from Pass,) that which is cast out; earth thrown up by a mattock, 

upcast, = €K$o\d? (anything thrown out) n733 Ps OQ. 3, 16 
ocyo-vGi**: beget; also bring forth 12TH Hos 4. 10 [cf. y*Vo> : jjj\\ Ai/?^ ]T 

Dan 3. 5] H7n Jes 14. 10 ; cf ckkcvouj 
cKyiyvopai: to be born of 2. father n?n Jes 14. 10 (FES— * ylyvouai —r 

yevor, poet, yivvo. — > yeyvau) 

€icyoTjTevai: strengthd* for yo-qrtvw [bewitch, beguile ^-^ ; abs. />/<rv M* 
wizard vrfr Ps 58. 6 rm Gn 30. 27, 44, 5 Dt 18. 10 HCh 33. 6) 

cjcyovor, o^ «yy-, toy-: born of sprung from, esp. Subst., grandchild; 
grandson 133 Gn 21. 23 



194 XL CREEK PREPOSITIONS 

ocStror: (ckBZw) fastened "tnCp Gn 44. 30 

cVSc'oi: bind so as to hang from ^3p Jos 2. 18 Prv 3. 3: fasten to or^on 

irp Dt 6. Prv 7. 3; bind ipy Gn 22. 9 ™p Jub 38. 31 
ocS^Ao?, ov\ strcngihd. for 077A09, conspicuous ^-Up J>; £://"/* £/j:;: 



^VStjAocu: show plainly H7S Jcs 26. 21 Jcr 11. 20, 49. io Ps 98. 2 Job 

20. 27, 41. 5 c > 

€kSlk£u>: avenge, punish] exact vengeance for ~pj Dt 32. 43 Jos 10. 13 
epj IIR 9. 7 J cr 51. 36 zpn Gn 4- 15 rpir; TS 14. 24 Jcr 15. ; 5 
-piv^ 1 J cr 5- 9i avenge or vindicate a person, by taking up hii 
cause cp: Ex 2i. 20 ~p:~ lb. apn Gn 4. 24 [cf. r;Vu>, *V] 

cKSupdtu: to be parched with drought, of plant ~"n Joe! !. io, 12. 17 
Zach 10, Ii; CI- fVa:Ct r ouci ? £:raia^L : L'o/^ai lb I. II 

oc5oai9, taSoats", ^ : gtitng *" marriage ^I" Cant 3. 1 I 

€K6oTrjp } toS-, €k86tt}$; 6: one it ho gives kis daughter :n marriage ]" E^ 
3. I, 1 8. i Jud 19. 4 [cf. tcvwr^s: a betrother ]r.rt Joel 2. i5] 

ckSqtis, rj: bride* s mother ."—"I Dt 27. 23 

€KOvcj t -vvu>: take oj[ y strip of "};n Prv 25. 20 -T£ Lev 6. 4 IS : <v 
24 Cant 5. 3; strip me, strip me of my cloak, stria cloak r~" 
Gn 37. 23 Lev 1. 6 IS 31. 9 Ez 10. 39, 23. 26 Has 2. 5; Mec.. 
strip oneself of a thing -3?" IS 18. 4; Pais,, to be striated of 2. thine: 
of the clothes, to be put ojfr*** Ez 21. 20; cf. Irro- 

tKCfpa-evcLj: strengthd. for Otpazrevuj; cure perfectly )\Z^ t IIR 2. 21 E^ 
34. 4; Med., get oneself quite cured X5"]" IIR 3. 29 

cKdepl^cu: reap or mow completely *VApn Job 24. 6 

tK$ripaofj.a: i -p€vcu: hunt cut, catch "1."? Jud 20, 43 17.:n Hab 1. s 

€<8vtn: sacrifice !V" Mai I- 13; destroy utterly IT^n Job 31. 39 

cKKadalpui: cleanse out, purify *VTn Lev 15. 31 Kr~ P5 51. Q 

i<<aluj } -K-atu: 6 hit; oar his eyes ~)pi IS 1 1. 2 **.?! Jud 16. 21 [*ip: Jes 
51. r, i\ ^opvcGLj]; light up, kindle p'TH Jes 44. 15 Ez 39. 9; Pass . 
to be kindled, burnt ui> *7^X Ex I. 2 Xah 1. 10 Xeh 2. T 

tKKzXiuj : ctf// oui or forth y summon forth] Med., call out to oneself *?T.?~ 
Ex 35. 1 Dt 4. 10, 31. 28 Ez 38. 13 [cf. €;7i-] 

Ikkzyquj: empty out mTri Jes 19. 6 *7^na Ez 28. 9 V^n:? lb 32. 26 n?" 
Jes 14. 10; c/^r out rr::n HCh 29. 19; /o i><? exhausted ^Vns Jes 53. 5 
[cf. Staxewjaj] 

€KK\rj<jia: {ckkXtjtos) assembly duly summoned *np Xu 10. 7 Jud 20. 2, 

21. 5, 8 IlCh 30. 2; an assembly bnp Jer 44, 15 IICli 20. 14, 30. 
13 ^p Jcr 51. 55 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 195 

t<K\T)otdL.uj : trans., summon to an assembly, convene ^npn Ex 35- 1 

Xu 10. 7 Dt 31. 28 
(**A75ctcaT7]r : member of the tKKXrjoia; €kk\t]to$: {{Vxc-Vo/j selected to 
judge or arbitrate on a point, an umpire TOTip Eccl i. 1 [cf. lb 1. 12 ; 

"j^^/SaatAfUi : judge] 
£k/cAJ£uj: craw thoroughly f^y? J^ 5^* * ! 

£<k6ttt&: cut out, knock out, gouge out (W) the eyes "I [-, oocaia/] 
txXavcdvuj: forget utterly "Z Ga 40. 23; Ac:., ma.« one quite forgetful 

ofTiZTX job 39- 17 n~: Gn 41, 51 nnr Thr 2. 6 rrzrn Jer 23. 27 
U\eytu\ pick or single out, csp. of soldiers 'f^nn -^" u 3 : * 3 5 P : ^' out I or 

oneself, choose Of>? Ruth 2. 2 ep_b Job 24. 6 rp_? Jes 27. 12; £u// 

out 7?n Lev 14. 40, 43; lake toll of levy taxes or :r:bu!e -p 1 ? Gn 

47. I J, [cf, drroA^ycj: />;« out, choose; €££\koj] 
eicAftVcu: forsake, desert, abandon; fail one T2H Jer 50. 12; of the Sun 

or Moon, suffer eclipse "^sn Jes 24. 23 Jer 15. 9 [cf. ctto-] j/::/, « 

wanting VSnn Jes 33. 9 
^Aa-rc'^ tj, d^: (cVAcycu) SjV.W au/, ttfcrt yv?q Nu 3:- 5 

<<At;tj: unloose J^- ; dissolve J^-^ 

€<udc(7Lj: wipe of, wipe away nnsn Jer 18. 23 Xeh 13. 14 

i<ix€CvGKu: -rake quite drunk "Cr Jes 63. 6 Jer 5:. 7 — Z" D: 32. 42 

IIS 11. 13 Jer 51. 39, 57 
i<u€To*vj: Treasure out, measure "3 IIS 8. 2 Ps 60. 3: ~ea^re 7 calculate 

position by the stars l"> Job 7. 4; cf Sta- 
€<vi&: swim out pry Job 40. 23 nnt? Jes 25. 1 1 [cf. c.V.Vlj; p. 638] 
€<vi±i£j: wash out, purge ait ay "Z Joel 4. 2 1 ; wash clean, purify np: Job 

10. 14^ 

ticxayXdouai : to be struck with amazement, to wonder greaiiy, only used 
in part.; wonder at, admire exceedingly K??? IIS :. 20 Ps Ii3. 23, 
139. 14 Prv 30. 1 3 
Urray\oi : ov: terrible, Violent; in later Poets the word free, signifies 
merely, marvellous, wondrous K7D2 Ex 34. 1 O Ps 1 39. 14 [cf cTrcAA^rdsJ 
€<rratB<vuj: train thoroughly, teach one a thing r.*TS P5 iS; 35 
tKrrtpduj: pass beyond *V-*n Jer 46. 17; cf. Sic-, 5tc:repc;daj 
t<77tpd&: destroy utterly, sack, of cities 0"in Ex 23. 24 Jes 49, 17 
ixrrr€GCiu y -rru>\ cook thoroughly b?*2 Ex 1 6. 23 Xu II- 3 IS 2. 13 IIS 

13. 8 IIR 6. 29 HCh 35. 13 bvi Ex 12. 9 Lev 5. 21; hence, of 
plants, ripen Venn Gn 40. 10 
<ioT€T<iwvfLi: spread out, of a sail ^pan Job 40. 11; scatter something 
to the winds f^SH Gn 11.8 Jer 13. 24, 18. 17 



r 9 6 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

€KTr7jyvv/xt, -Jca! congeal X^DpTi Job JO. IO; cf. Ik^v-^uj 

€Krrr t Sduj : leap out 7 leap, jump (\V) fDp Cant 2. 3; ttt/Occj'HCS 
cKTrlpTrXn'Mi : fill up N?" I IR 2 I . I 6 Jcr 41.5; ^hV-'r them /';// f X**? 

^ x 35- 35 J°k — • : ^; H^a Cant 5. 14; sauate >o~ Ps 107, 9; 
/«/£/ Kb?? IR 8. 24 Ps 20. 6; Jill up or complete a number IT? 7 

Ex 23. 26 [cf. cV-^rrAr^ii] 
€K7r\7]£ia 7 -t9> ^7 : consternation; terror caused by misfortunes ; mental 

disturbance r.lS^D Jes 21.4 [cf. qtto-, rrAff:,*] 
tK—X-npocj; Jill up ^7^ IIR 21. 1 6 Jer .: : . o: -"/::: :;£ 10 a c^r:a:r. 

number sba Ex 23. 20; fulfil X72 IR 3. 24 ?s 20. £•; cf. 0^;— -_ 
<<— atjc-co^ -ttcj: dn:e out of one's senses by c sudden :h.:h XT'? -IT} Jes 2^. 

14; amaze, astound tT"n Jud 13. 19 Joe; 2. 26 IlCh 2. 3 
(Krrstuj, -et'cu: breath out or forth; 3iov *\ breathe cne\ last, expire: lo;e 

breath n: Gn 0. 17, 25. 17 Ps 88. 16, 104. 29 job 13. 19, 27. f ; 

metaph. lose pouser ~£\" Jer 4. 31 ; but simply, iA;~\ cf wind Z~r 

Ps 147. 18 
€<rrpluj: saw of, excise "i IR 7. 9 
€<77vpQLu: burn to ashes, consume utterly ^V- D; 2'j. :_: IR :s., :o E2 

39. 9 rr^yn Gn 22. 2 Lev 1.^. 20 Jes 57. 6 Am 4. :o ~"r" 1^ r. : 

IlCh 28. 3 ^"1,™ US :2, 31 IIR i6. 3: :; - ^-.vj. :j :- ;:::..--. 

heated "j? Hos 7. 6; of. ivrrtpdu* 
€<rrjpa€vuj: kindle "V- Ex 35. 3 Jes 50. 1 : Jer ". :f IlCh j.. 20 ^V- 

Jer 36. 22 T::njud 15. 5 n7*7j Xu 3. 2, 3 ?rv : 5 . 1 
€^cTri?pa;ci>, 7}: conflagration mi*? Ex 22. 5 "V" Xu : :. 3 
octtljuc, aro^, ro; crirJcin? cuo STZ1 Gn ^. 2 Ex 2 = . ": "17 Tcs - ; 

17 [cf- x^'H-y 7 ], ya~<z?6v] 
ttrrTaiLLdriQv, ro: Dim. O! /.-CTTQjua H^H? Tes S- - I " 'c: .<VLi£-jr\ vufuil'Ji * 

€Vp<to: jvW, k/yi/: i"=S Job 36. 27 "Pin Mich :. 6 ^*:^ Jes 40. 2: 

p^n Mai 3. 10 Ecci 1 :. 3 
*pt£c<u: root out "Ipl" Eccl 3. 2 rT7 Ps 52. 7 [cf. *7^:;cc^] 
^jooi. contr. -poL-i, 0: outhou.\ issue I"H7 D: :\ : : fcf Jco>" 
Karrodid^cj : remove ashes JT~7 Ex 27, 3 Xu .:. 13 
<trrpu>vwfti: spread Hw" P< 38. 10; Pass., ^A-Vct f^j-jcji-'j Diogenes 

Cynicus, Epistulae 37.3 {:!ic couches arc snreac 1 IT"" Jes 28. 20 

cVcu^oj, Ep. <Kua6aj: preserve from danger, keei> sa'~e "JTT Job 33. 10 
prn Jes 38. 17 STTir Dt 20. 4 Jud 2. 18, 7. 2 Jer 15. 20 Ez 36. 
29 Zcph 3. 19 Zach 12, 7 Ps 7. 2, 20. 7 V^sn Gn 32. 12 Ex 5. 
23, 12. 27 Jos 2. 13 jes 44, 17 Zcph 1. 18 Ps 7. 2, 70. 2 IlCh 

32, 14 [cf. Sta-j drro-J 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 197 

€KT«iVcu: stretch out irtfin Esth 4. n non Jes 31. 3 Jer 6. 12, 15. 6; 
stretch, spread HDH IIS 16. 22, 21. 10; «/m</ nrn Esr 7. 28, g. 9 
[cT eVar/xiji'vu/-u] 
^rfAturacu, -*oj : bring to an end, accomplish, end, finish (\V) H7D Gn 

2.2, 18. 33, 44. 12 Ex 5. 14 IR 6. 9 Ruth 2. 2i, 3. 18 V73 Gn 2. 1 
iKrepvtu: cut out; circumcise females ]nn Ex 4, 25, 26 J^ 
£KTi07j^u: pick out for separate treatment Vb3 Jes 63. 9; u. p. 148 
iws (ixBos): (€k) without, outside fin Gn 6. 14 Lev 18. 9 Jud 12. 9 

Ez 4:. 17 n^H HCh 24. 8, 33. 15; except, besides, apart from p.n 

Eccl 2- 25; :\ t£uj8€v 7 p. 170 
itcTperTLj: turn civ ay "^51 Cant 5. 6 
itcrptou*: bring up from childhood, rear up HDS Thr 2, 22 7\2~\ Ez ig. 2 

Thr 2. 22 Jij 
€KTpl3w: rub out, i.e. to destroy root and branch] uripe cut "!57 IlCh 22- 

IO; cf. etcrptTTuj, €r€T7cy 
«rirtrdai: model or work in relief; Pass., formed on 2 model, to be shaped 

szrn Prv 8. 25 Job 38. 6 
ixicpa*: bring forth, in various senses: ofworr.cn, bring to the birth 

"H Job 3. 3; of the ground, bear fruit IViSn Jes 17. 11; publish, 

deliver "=" Job 35. 16 wtrn Ez 12. 10 "V-*v HCh 30. 5 
€<6\€yw: to set on fire rP? Jud I. 8 Ps 74. 7; i\ <c-rz~ 
(<X^ ,Jj: P 0UT GUt : P r op- of liquids; p!T Lev 2. 1, 3. -5 IIR 3. 11 p^sn 

IIR 4.-5 psin Lev 21. 10 Ps 45. 3 K*pr; Jon 2. 11 *~*£L 

w. — » t_-J ; Ct. etf-, «»r-»7>ccy 
(Kilnj-^w : lose consciousness, swoon H'Dp Zcph i . 1 2 
i?3<L\.\u>: let h'\m fall into Achilles' hands {II. 2 1. 47) ren IS 18. 25; 
Ac/zJ j.-:, jac/ni* a petition Veh Jcr 38. 26, 42. 9 Dan 9. 18, 20; 
Lhroiv upon or against Vcn Nu 35. 23 Jer 3. I2 ? 22. 7; /ay oneself 
to the oars, pull at the oar Vzn Ez 27. 29 Jon 1. 5; abs., draw 
lots Vcn Jos 23. 4 Jes 34. 17 Jon 1. 7 Ps 22. :o Prv 1. 14 Job 
6. 27 Esth 3. 7 Neh 10. 35, ii. 1 ICh 26. 13, 14 
(iiSoX-n, 77: the head of a battering- ram, bctiering-rcm Tip? Ez 26. 9 
tpSoXos, 6, or -ov, to: anything pointed so as to be easily ikrusl in, a peg 

j_*;U.; brazen beak, ram V^T Jos 6. 4, 6 
tyLp.arr€uj<;: (p.a?r(€iv, pdpTTrcu) quickly, hastily, speedily "irra Ex 32. 8 
Jos 2. 5 Zcph 1. 14 mn:? Nu 17. 11 Jes 5. 26 Joel 4-4 Ps 147. 15 
(fj.TTat.yfi.ovq, -fj: mockery 7\Y\2 Neh 3. 36 

€>rraiy^of, 6: mockery, mocking T13 Gn 38. 23 Ps 31. 19, 1 19. 22 
iuTTalfa: mock at, mock nil IIR 19. 21 Prv r. 7, 6. 30, 23. 22 Cant 
8. 7 nnn Esth 1. 17 



j 9 3 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

c^-eipos, ov: (iretpa) experienced or practised in a thing, acquainted ui'.-i 

•vrra Prv 22. 2g Esr 7. 6 
cfi*{fjxr\r)fjLi: Jill quite full K?? II R 21. 16; ////-.': 0/ N 1 "': Ex 35. 3^ 

lOa Cant 5. is; Jill a hungry man uithf d. . ..:_:? S7": 7> :•■;. 

^fulfil, accomplish IR 8. 15 Ps 20. 5, 6 Tree, written --J-A-, 

but the evidence of the best codd. of Alt. writers is in favour of 

--(u-A-) 
Zu.-i-toKu>: give to drink 7,??7} Gn 2. to, 24. :s Xu 20. 3 Jer 35. 2 

Joe! 4. 18 
€U-\(Q$ } a, ov, At 1. -— Aecjj; cjr, Ep. e/i— Ae:o>-. e.^.'^o^, 77, o»'J later 

«YiVAeo-: quite full of a thing N^a Ez 10. :2. : 7. 3, 28. 12, 37. : 

Prv 17. 1 
eu-oAaa>, -Ae'a. : £ii by barter or traffic; get by szle: C-rchase . buy "i~.r D: 

2. 6 *V~.:"ri Am 8. 5; procure "IS"? Gn 4:. 56 jc£ 55. 1 ".*ZV~ Gn 
4.2. 6 Dc 2. 28 Am 3. 6 [ci". ayopd^cu] 

(u-oXt], 17: merchandise ~!-~ Gn 42. 1 Am 3. 5 N'eh 10. 32; :r.zf.:. 

purchase "12"? Gn .12. 2 0, ss. 2 
t^-octLoi', to: later form of eurroptov [trtdin* ::::::-, r^jr.' ; 77: jr.^;- 

centre for a district which had no tto-u>_ ^— ^ 
cLL—cptvua* r6: merchandise "-I*? Ez 27. 24 
eiLTroptvopai : .'rj;r- ; ^-- Jer 2, 10 Am 6. 2;:u.V:*-V Ex 32. 2 7 Jos :. : : 

Jes 5!, 23 Prv 4- 15; :rs':elfor traffic or bus:-.?::. ::■ be s rr:e*:z2:::. :: 

:rsde : traffic \ import 7" Ez 27. 3, 20, 23 : J^-zz*Z:iizi. Pasi.] 
iiL?rcplc>i -iTf, 77: (Ju-Qpcf, commerce; mostly usee c: ;\r.-7: r^r:^ or ;-_:jr 

iv ,r*_- n72") Ez 23. 5, l5 : 18; merchandise "~7 lb 20. 12 
eurroDos, ov: one who goes on ship-board as a passei^er ~**2'J Jcs 23. 2 Ps 

3. 9; wayfarer, traveller ^2* Jcs 51. 23 Ez 5. 14 Thr 1. 12 

I; J* wU, , 1 wU; merchant trader, distd. from the /Y.'azV Jr^^rr 

* -f 

(<cmj.\o?) by his making voyages and impcr::r.r goods himself 
7rn Cant 3, 6 r.7n Ez 27. 3, 20, 23; as Adj.. = k*j.-oqi<6s '.i 
tu-oQiKa xpTj^tard money :a s* hjvJ in trade "- Gn 23. :6) 
i^rrpGcfa, -d*v t sts. also -se : Adv. of Place, i^fv. ir.frzn: 7Z£ 1 1 R 

15. 10 -^; of Time, i^rr J-j; o/"o/J -" Mich 5. 1 Ps 74. 12 Thr 
5. 21 ; as Prep., before, in front of 31p Jes 9. 1 : - -^ 
tu6pLjv: intelligent, sensible +jdL± (Iraqi vernacular 
€vcvr:y: = iv ava iLv, under a curse , ^-^i ; or coiiuticn ^^ 
tVctxi^cj: scour ge\ cUi^: maltreat; Pass., rj $* t ':r:_v_' ~~ Dt 15. 2, 3 
IIR 23. 35 Jes 9. 3; more freq. in Med. -Couc: prL* Lev 5. 21, 23 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 199 

ivaipaj, also twa- : slay jm ; cf. evapa 

ivavrtos, a, ov : opposite = dvrios (which is rare in Prose) on the oppo- 
site side, opposite "Til Jos 3- 16 HD2 Ex 14. 2, 26. 35, 40. 24 Esth 5. 1 
nc» IIS 16. 13 ; hence, fronting, face to face 113 Ex 10. 10 Neh 12. 24 
riss lb, ; i^/br* "TX3 Gn 3^ 32, 37 "3: Jud i3. 6 Jes 57. 2 E2 14. 4 
Esth 5. r ; in the opposite direction H33 Jos 15. 7 7X5 EccI 5, 15 ; in hostile 
sense, opposing, facing in fight HD3 IR 20. 29, 22. 35 ; contrary HES? EccI 
7. 14; opposite, facing *7ij Jos 8. 11 nm Nu 19. 4 rrr Ex 25. 27; z.i 
the face "TH Xu 25. 4 Ps 23. 5 ; in hostile sense, against "J^ J cs 50. 12 
EccI 4. 12 nss Ez 3. 3; cf. xar- 

Ivapa: (ivaipaj) only pi., crrm £/?</ trappings of a slain foe C"Hjj Jes 10. 
4, 14. 19; cf. £vapl£tjj 

cYaptftu: {tvapa) j7ay in f gut i^H Gn 4. 8, 25; generally, j/ayi"in Gn 4. 
14, 15 Ex 4. 23 Lev 20. 15 IIR 1 7. 25 n^n Ex 20. 13 Xu 35. 27, 30 

ivavydtw: illuminate; intr. jAr« nlj Jes 9. I 7\*17} lb 13. 10 

tvavyacuG, to: illumination Hi: Jes 4- 5 Joel 2. 10 717ZZ Jes 59. 9 

h'hari ouai : distribute OT f:ng about ^2 Ps 1 . 4 r ["i? Lev 26. 36 '"p" 
Ps 63, 3; jp^rut in detail, i.e. in bad sense, reprzech, revile r fCn Ez 
2:. 2 Am 7. 16 Mich 2. 6; dwelt on, celebrate "rn Mich 2. 1 1 ; 
scaler or shower abroad ^23 Jud 5. 4 Can: 5. 5 "-^ Am 9. 13 

tfVSixo?, Arc u-Si*or, o^: (5iVn) o! things, according to right, just, legiti- 
mate p~rs Lev 19, 36 Dt 16. 20, 25. 15 p"* lb 4- 8; truth pv.S 
Prv 8. 3 p % ~r? Jes 41. 26 XI 2 Dan 3. 14 3?n?> *- -dAi^ a city ::: 
which justice is done p"^4*J "^ J^ 5 '■ 26; of persons, upright, just 
p^rs Gn 6. 9, 18. 23 Dt 32. 4 Ez 3, 20 Jz 1 -* ^ji-^l Adv. 
eYSt'jcu/? right, with justice, fairly p"T?3 Lev 19. 15 

tvoov: Adv. within ]V2 IR 7. 20 Jon 2. 3; ol L these of the house, the 
family, esp, the domestics TITZ? Gn 26. 14 Job 1. 3 [cf. ott^St]^*] ; 
below r:r^ Ex 26. 24 Dt 28. 13, 43 IIR 19. 30 Prv 15. 24 EccI 3. 21 
[cL evepet) n 

tvSviia, to: garment, covering HITS 2 Jcs 61.3 "CST^ lb 3. 22 ^VS Ex 
28, 34, 29. 5 Lev 8. 7 Esr 9. 3; = SOfsa 

eVSirroy, d^: to, garment, dress ]*T3? US I. 24 

iv&uu* or oSuVcj, with Med. cYSuo^tat: of clothes, put on, wear HIS Jes 
61. 10 Jer 4. 30, 31. 4 (3) Ez 16. 13 Hos 2. 15 HS3? IS 28. 14 
Jes 59. 17 Jer 43. 12 Ps 104, 2, 109. 29 [8/5] n ,t:y lb 65. 14; put on 
another, clothe in, clothe my Jes 6 1 . 1 o Ez 1 6. 1 1 EST Jes 61.10 ney 
Jer 43. 12 nosn Ps 89. 46 n^SD US 1, 24 [5/AJ 

iv^yyx^ : falsa lectio for eyyvs, of Places, nwr, nigh, at hand, hard by, 
near to "P Vs? Ex 2. 5 Nu 13, 29; cf. *yyi£ui 



2 oo XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

eVrrot, Icngthd. <wIttuj, ivicnruj in later poets: tell or tell of TV." 
Job 15. 17 "IS? Gn 24. 66 Ex 9. 16 i?c Hab 1. 5 Ps 83. 12 Job 
37. 20; tell news or ta/« ISO Gn 40. 8 ; 4:. 8 : 12 Ex ro. 2, 1 3." 3 
Job 15. 17; speak^Z' Gn 12. 4, 24. 33, 27. 6 Ex :.i. 2 IS 3. 9 il"i 
Ps 87. 3 Cant 8. 8 

€V€p(?€ and -dfv, Zvcpda, also vtpQt and -c«v: Adv. /wot ber.ea'h, up from 
below; without sense of motion, beneath, ht.j-x r~: Job 36. to "T. 
lb., Gn r. 7 Ex 38. 4 rrr~r, Ex 19. 17; csp. of the nether- 
world, oc«. the gods 6ffi3££-.".nr. Dt 33. 27 T'TT.T D: 32. 22 Ez 3:. 14: 
c!. KQ.rtii 

(V<Vw: Pass., /o 6* .Wrf, rai^A.', entangled "~X Ecc: 9. 12 t~K: Gn 22. : 3 
Eccl 9. 12 

cVtj.Wov, to: as Subst. mostly pi., r.vn^- s;"^ Izdie*, which prefixed :r. 
the poles or sides rV7i; , 2 Ex 20. 26; cf. ci-=£cr^cr 

cv£c, Adv.: Demonstrative, of Place, there IT Gn 2. 8, 48. 7 n~r lb 
23. 13, 49. 31 rJ — U* ; also with Verbs of motion. :/::.'/i<rr IT IS 9. 5 
n~r Gn 19. 20, 24. 6; «. kg! «'. /ij'r.^r and thither ~:xi n;x IR 2. 36 
n:m "in HR 2. 8; tthen; with Verbs cf mo::cn. ahither n; - "K 
15 9. 18 IR 22. 24; j; the place whence rv:"X Gn :6. 8 IIS ;. 3 

€-,cdc€ : Adv.: of Place, .'.*::;.7<rr "2 IS 20. :o: ::::r ~~ Gn 15. ro: 
after Horn, more free., = tVrc, .-^r^ ~z Gn j3. 2: IS 2:. :? 

[cf. JiSc] run Xu 14. 19 IIR 4- 35 '^. or there rr: lb. -^ : of Time. 
^rrtf, ^00; HI 77 Gn 15. 16 Xu 14. 10 Jud :~. :j 
ofc-tp, Adv.: there where, where] stronger form of *Vf*a ^"XI Gn 2:. 
17 Jud 5. 27, 17. 8 Ruth 1, io ; 17 "r'^ lb :. 16 

t/^ua, -^/j/ia, rd: thing put in, graft ^^ ; = U\—uz\ :\ ivrlO-nui 

ivitv* Adv.: Demonstrative, :/u.t« "*: Gn :i, 3 Lev 2. 2; Rela:., 
for o5o s of Place, xA*t_v "2 "X IIS 1.3 =T~ Gn 3. 23 ; <F. uc . . . L 
bk . - . t on on^ j:i* . . . c;: 'Atf oi^r .... riir . . . r:ri IIR 4. 35, . . . nT~ 
. . . ZVZ\ Ex 17. 12, 26. 13; L xal L> ^ :■;:.: ::"->: ;*". . ., "T^ 71V; lb. 

*\f/;3*, Adv.: ^^ftf "7*: Gn 37. 17, 50. 25 

€vC3vaLa£<jj, -iaoj: to £* inspired or possessed by - /:-'. to 3^ ::: ^ri.\:r/ -*"T 
IS 2 1 , 16 Jer 29. 26 VL-rn IS 2 1 . 15 

ocoucica/ids, o: inspiration, enthusiasm, frenzy "^"T Dt 23. 28 IIR 9. 
20 

fViaurds-, d: (€vl t avros) prop, anniversary (pi.;; --£-^ of a year CTIN 
IS 17. 12; cViairruJ on ?A* «/>iVy of a year T.+ ~ Gn 18. 10 IIR 4. 16 
[cf t^wkclS*] ; and so, any long period of !:x:e y cycle, period \TS Dan 
7. 25; times QTiy Esth 1. 13 Dan 11. 13; cf tVo^; v. -rpoSaivw 



XI. GREEK. PREPOSITIONS 201 

IwaiQVy to: falsa lectio for vatov ( = vaov . . .) [wo?, temple; inmost part 

of a temple, shrine] ]1SO Ps 26- 8, 68. 6 
€waLo>: dwell m!S7 Jcs 1 3. 22 Hos 2. 17 
iwodcu: — Alt. also Dep. eVvoou/xat — have in one's thoughts \ consider , 

reflect; intend arunn Gn 27. 42 ^^ l> j^ ; cf. cVi- 
ooTrrj, tj: (o^Vcu) generally, roi^; of things, uunrf Z" Jes 57. 19 
o'c^o*, ov: = £vtx6fji€VQ$, held m, bound by; connected with ~HX Eccl 9. 

12 Esth 1. 6 7HK3 Gn 22. 13 Eccl 9. 12 [cf. oV^] 

tvpi^ocu: implant in~n Ps 80. 10; Pass., metaph., to be rooted, grounded 

in ~"~ Jes 40. 24 Jer 12. 2 
ivraros: (ii-r€ivw) stretched **Z1 Ex 6. 5 Jes 3. 16 Ps 102. 12 ICh 21.16 
tvravda, tvdavrcty ivrovda, ivraxrra: Adv. formed from €i-t?a, but 

more common in Prose; 01 Time, at the very time, then *J *zS : c^T ; 

of sequence, thereupon ^ .1— \ *z-*J 
<Vrea-cj: stretch or j/raia .':?;:*' H-I Jos 8. 26; csp. of any operation 
performed with straps or cords rir; Gn 33. 19 [cf. -njyn/ut] Jcs 44. 

13 Ps 104. 2 S23 Dan 1 1. 45 [cf. rr^yvu^t] ; pr.'^ the tune /r:'*A ]r.: 

Jer 12. 3, 51. 55 Thr 2. 7 J-^j-; 5/j^ exactly :.-:, esp. 5^: ;^ fc O :*r^ t 
'*.' :^ rr:^f;r ]?X Eccl 12. 9 J -J- [cf. r*iVa», *Vrard*1 
(rf:^^: xc/J :n, i.e. blockade ~\VS D: 20. 12 Dan 1. 1 ICh 20, 1 
€it€lxiq$, qv\ -vt'StOi, ov : enclosed by walls "^Sp Ez J.6. 22 
i-tu-vu: cm up a victim "4 Ex 29. 17 Jud 19. 29 IS 1 1. 7 IR 18. 23 
o-Tfpov, to; in Horn. always pL, except Od. 2:. 408, guts, bowels 

Z"JZ IIS 16. 11 Jon 2. 1 Cant 5. 4 Thr r. 20 *L»- ( ^*-, ^^ 

C^TS IS 4. 19 Dan 10. 16 C x --*-*\ womb, belly ]ZZ Gn 25. "24, 

30. 2 Jud 3. 21, 13. 5, 7 Ps 44. 26 Prv 13. 25, e3. 20 Cant 7. 3 

Eccl 11. 5 S*5?!3 Cant 5. 14; r. hrrcs 
*vr€vd€v i Ion tvd€VT€v y Adv. (related to €v6ev } as o-revda to Zvda) : of 

Time, henceforth nni % 5 Jes 9. 6. ^3. 6 
<v~kuj: pour in while molten ^Zl Jes 40. 19 Tp: Ez 22. 2! *7r; IIR22. 

9 Ez 22. 20 T n: ? lb. p*SH Jos 7. 23 Tjnr; Ez 22. 22 ; to be cast ?±"ri 

IR 7. 16 Job 37. 18 [cf. 8ta- t tV^tfaj] 
tv-rnpeu: guard 1D1 Cant 1. 6, 8. 11, 12 T!*2 Prv 13. 3, 27. 18 [cf. 

rrjpcaj] 

tvrl&Tjpt.: generally, put in or zr.ia IT*" £25. 13 ZT^.n Gn 50, 26; laid 
it to *:j heart (Od. 21. 355) "7 bn ]ru Eccl 7. 2 2^ IIS 13. 33, 
19. 20 Dan 1.8; engraft ?VJ Jes 5. 2 p-*^> 

€YTo\ij t -7: injunction, order t command, freq. in pi., orders, commands min 



202 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

Gn 26. 5 Lev 7. 37 Nu sg. 2 Dt 33. 4 Jcs 1. 10, 24. 5 Ez 22. 26, 
43. r i, 12 Ps 78. 5 Prv i. 8, 3. 1, 28. 4, 7 Dan 9. 10 
iirros: Prep., Adv., within, inside, opp. cktoj, ]Z2 Gn 25. 23 IR 7. 20 

Jon 2. 3 n^a Gn 6. 14 IIS 5. 9 am Ex -3. 26 zr—n p rv i3. 8 Tpn 
Ex 14. 23 Dt 21. 12 IIS 3. 27 Ez 15. 4~'~- Gn 1. 6 Ex 9. 24 IlCh 
23. 20 T>rin Gn ig. 29; within, i.e. on this side, «. 3Auoy rrorayuiv 
br,m :pm Jos 13. 9, 16; o «\ inner, interior (W) pn*C (px) Ez 
40. rj |TU*K Dt 32. 10 tjl— : J; between JU"- Gn 3. 8 Ez 6. 13, 29. 3, 
31. 14; to. i. the z/i/;*r ^ar/j of the body -~*? Gn 15. 4 Jon 2. 1 
Cant 5. 4 [of oSo^, tvTtpQv] 
tvrocde, -€v: = tvTo?, within, inside ^3"2 Ps : 10. io, 135. 9 
ivnr/xdvu>: light upon, fall in with, meet with;fna XS-- Gn 2. 20, 4. !_;, 
J 5> 8. 9, 31. 34, 35, 37, 36. 24 Ex 22. 5 Xu 20. 14 Dt 4. 29, 19. 5, 
22. 3, 23, 27, 28; v. *vt«Lu> 
tvvTrvtov, to: (urrvor) thing seen in sleep, in appos. with ovttpos', a vision 

in sleep ^ t^» 
cvto&tov, to: = iviuriov, ear-ring CTJ Gn 24. 22, 47, 35. 4 Ex 32. 2 

Jes 3. 2 1 Ez 1 6. 1 2 Prv- 11.22 
tvujQtuj: thrust in or ui)on mri IIS 15. 1^ 
h-urrraBlsj Adv., = -Itui , -rri6:cji ; Adv.: : [iy<^ tt/ :n one' s face, to or.**: 

face *ps - 7£ Job 2. 5 yis-Vv lb 1. : : "S.Z Job 10. 8 
tvarrn, Adv. : i^/or* the face, openly *72p 1 1 R 15. ;o : cf. L-rrorrpd or ^6 —c 
o-cin-ios, ov: facing, to the front *3S37 Gn 6. 13. iS. 22 Ex 16. 3^, it. 

5; neut. ivwmov as an Adv.,yjj* to face; in tenon Z"£ IIR 1^. 3 
ivarri^ofiat : (ov$) give ear, hearken to JTX Ecci 12. 9 [cl. evreivui] pxn 
Gn 4. 23 Ex 15. 26 Dt 1.45, 32. 1 Jes 20. 23 Ps 17. 1, 54. 4, 140. 
7, 143- l 
t? : W-r C? Gn 7. 6 IIR 13. 19 Prv 6. 16 r™ Efr 6. 15 -^ 
tfayye'-Ua*: te// 01//, proclaim, make known, w>:h collateral sense of 

betraying a secret X~l IIS 19. 28 [cf. Trc^avytAAcy] 
^cyy^Aob, o, 17: messenger who brings out news from within Vnc Gn ^2. 

9 Jos 2. I [cf. rrapayytXtvt] 
i$ayop€uuj: tell out, make known, declare ^r—^ 

cfayu*: /<W ou/, karf 2x9' X^H Gn 15. 5, 45. I ; bring out from X*^*~ 
Gn 15. 7 Ex 12. 51 XX-n Ez 38. 8; /mi caj to execution X^S" 
Gn 38. 24 Jud 6. 30 Hos 9. 13 HSin Gn 38. 25; bring out of prison 
iCSin Gn 40. 14 Jes 42. 7 Ps 68. 7, 142. 8 npc:-77 Dan 6. 24 pzr> 
lb.; of merchandise, etc., carry out, export iTSnn IR 10. 29 IlCh 9. 
28 [cf. ££oddu>]; bring ojf, produce iC^n Ps 104. 14; draw off water 
*0Xin Ps 78. 16 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 203 

€^aytuy^ t rj: evacuation HX? Dt 23. 14 HXS Jcs 4- 4, 28. 8; cf. KaKK-q 

igayutyipos: unsettled^ migratory , of people XS13 Ez 12. ±' t for drawing 
off water XS1Q IIR 2- 21 ; cf. cfoSiaoyio? 

i^aydtytov, to: duty on exports X-TtQ IR 10. 28 

iZaytuvt^ouai: jight, struggle hard ppv Joel 2. 9 ^vpr.^n Nah 2. 5 

€^aip€r6sj tj, oV: taAv/i or//, and so, picked out, chosen, choice; esp. of 
booty and things given as a special honour, not assigned by lot ilTC? 
Jer 24. 2 nTC? Hos 9* 10 "T,;: Ex 23. 16 Lev 2. 14 

i^aip<cu, i^aypiw: choose for oneself, carry off as booty II "7*71 Esr 1. 1 1 ; 
take out of a number, except VSi\ Ex to. 24; remove people from their 
country; generally, remove "SH Gn 50. 24, 25 Esr 1. 11, 4. 2 
HCh r. 4, 8. 1 1 ; set free, deliver jj^ [non-biblical ^lv?J 

tZaiptu, Ep. i£a€ipa>: lift up, lift of the earth n?3;n Jer 38. 10 Ez 29. 4, 
37. 12 ~^*n Ps 9. 14 E"in Gn 14. 22, 41. 44 Lev 2. 9, 6. 3 Esr 9. 6; 
raise in dignity, exalt, magnify nT^n Ps 137. 6 C^^ Ex 15. 2 IS 2, 7 
Prv 14. 34 can Jcs 33. 10 Neh 9, 5 D^nn Jes 14. 13 Ps 75. 3, 
113. 7 rannri Dan 11. 36; remove TCH Gn 8. 13 Ez 21. 31 II Ch 
34. 33 *vvr; Joel 4. 7 n^yrr Gn 50. 25 IIS 6. 2, 21, 13 Esr 1. 11 
I Ch 15. 3, 12, 28 C 1 " Lev 4, 3, 19 Nu 17. 2, i3. 30, 32 Jcs 57, 14 
Ez 2r. 31 "P.n Lev 4. 10; arouse, stir up TmV Can: 2. 7 "V^n Jes 
13. 1 7 Jer 51. r Ps 78. 38 Cant 2. 7 Esr 1.1,51/0 ,r:T: -' "-•*» IS 2. 5 
^s IIS 23, 18 Jes 10. 26 =m Ps 107. 25 =^ri Gn 14. 22, 39. 18, 
41. 44 IS 2. 8 Esr 9. 6 

efatovrj: Adv., an a sudden ^-=- ^^ -^-^ 

ejcAAdcaar, -— qj : change utterly or quite, strengthd. for cAAdaaar "f^nn 
Gn3i.7 Lev 27. 10; changes of raiment; change one's clothes (W) 
r i^n Gn 41.14 ^^nn Gn 35. 2 ; take one thing m exchange for another 

T"" J^ 9- 9 

€^2ucprdi-cu : m:J5 Mtf mark, fail, miss one's aim X^rir* Jud 20. 16 ; ^rr, do 

wrong, commit a fault -TX Lev _:. 13, 22 Jud 21. 22 Jer 2. 3; Pass., 
.'0 itf mismanaged, to be a failure ZZVZ Joel 1. 18; ci. do- 

€^audaj (A) : mow or r<ra£ out, finish mowing or reaping 12S Ps 129. 7 

«-£ci-<?*'oj ; £n: out flowers, bloom JUj Cant 6. r 1 

^arrardu;: deceive or beguile, deceive thoroughly nnp Jer 20. 7 Ez 14. g 
nrs lb. *?nn Gn 31.7; beguile or assuage nnD Hos 2. 16; cf- rret'eta 

«f aTro<rr€-\Acj : dispatch nVr Gn 43, 4 IlCh 24, 23; Pass., /a 6* dispatched 
n7r Ob 1 Dan 10. 11; send forth nVtf Jud 12. 9; send away nbv 
lb 7. 8; j*nJ aavy, dismiss, e.g. a prisoner r;7C Ex 8. 17, 28, 13. 
17, 14. 5 Lev 14. 7 Dt 2 i. 14, 24. 1 Jer 34. 9, io, 1 i, 14, 16 Zach 



2o 4 XI - GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

9* 1 1 ; £. riva K€v6v (03H) send away empty-handed n*77 Gn 31. 42 
Job 22. 9 (cf. Ex 21. 2, n) ; divorce a wife nbv Dt 24. 1 Jes 50. t 

Jer 3. 8 Mai 2. 16 t-^~ <jikl; destroy, ra oxvpdiucra ^a-oareA^ts <V 

rrvpt LXX 4KL 8. 12, nV? IIR 8. 12 [cf <4Aoyi'£oj] ; expel nb? Gn 

3. 23 Dt 24. 1 
t£a?7ooTo\T], -q: sending away Tvfrv Ex 18. 2; discharge of an engine or 

projectile o*M>[ 
i^aTTTco :fasten from or (as we say) to "i?v Ex 26. 6 T?n Ex 28. 7; ;**' 

/r* to n^n IIS 14. 30, 31 Jer 51. 30; kindle ZT^Tx Ex 30. 7 
t^aprvuj: equip thoroughly, ft out p*HH Gn 14. 14 
€£ty*Lpu> : awaken T2?n Zach 4. 1 ; Pass., to 6* awakened ~m2nn Jes 5 1 . 

17; u;a£* 1//) T'Sn Jes 50. 4; raise from the dead mi!7 Jes 14. 9; 

a'j£* u/>, arouse TSTi Jes 41, 2 Jer 51. 1 Ps 35. 23, 78. 38 Esr 1. 5 

[cf. aw-, ££aip<J] 
cfcXauvw: drive out, esp. drive out, expel from a place; banish TO\T\ IIR 

15. 29, 16. 9 {e\auj is a rare variant of *Aguvcj, and mainly Poet.) 
i£i\K<i*\ draw, drag out f*?n Lev 14, 40. 43; rescue from J^n Ps 1 16. 8 

,^- s .:. ^ j cf. a 77 a AA a acre; , eVAtytu 
i^epTjfiouj: make quite desolate ; empty ^W] rnr Gn 2_t. 20 
efera^aj; examine well or ,\W/y, scrutinize, review "pn Jer 17. :o Ps 

139. I, 23 Prv 25. 2 "V" Xeh 6. I 2 ; rrrj.c^ inquiries into a thing/r^.-: 

^■pn Dt 13. 15; examine, approve ^pri Ecc! 12. 9; examine or quest:?*: 

a person c/a^/yTpn Prv 18. 1 7 ; estimate; Pass., to A* numbered ^pn IR 

7. 47; cf. UKorrioj, Sic-; ?. p. 150 
efcVaatr, 77: c/oj* examination, scrutiny, test "pn Jud 5. 16 Prv 25. 3; 

<m inquiry *lpn Job 8. 8; comparison ^?T: Jes ^o. 28 Ps 145. 3 Job 

11,7, 36. 26; Cf. CTKtilttS 

t^rcapo?, 6; = cgeraai*, (pi.), kJf ^p,"" ? s 95- 4; cf, oxe^o? 

l^rjyiotiai : to be the leader of; lead, govern 7" Ps 78. 52 

<^tdofiat: cure thoroughly "OX IIR 5. 11 

iiiKviouai : reach, arrive at a place "" Prv 2.19; come to as a supplian: 
Tisn Jer 36. 25; arrive at, reach an object :TH Lev 26. 5 Jes 35. \o\ 
accomplish rj?n Zach 1.6; rj/fcr rrn Lev 5. 11, 14. 22; i\ p. 214 

*fiaa£uj: ma£* rtfrw/ T^H Thr 2, 13 

e'£ccdaj: mat* *jua/ TO IIS 22. 34 TOH Thr 2. 1 3 ; or /tuzA* *«/i nr? Jes 
40- 3> 45- 2 n ^ n Ps 5. 9 TO Jes 28. 25; 6nn$ to a foW with n^? HCh 
32. 30 HW Ps 1 3 I . 2 ; Pass., to be reduced to a level with mp?) Prv 27. 
15; Pass., is levelled, equalized, i.e. resolved in harmony 1^ IR 6. 35; 
to be equal or /ifo JTW Esth 7* 4 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS ~o 5 

t^larvfit: stand aside from, stray (W) H027 Nu 5. 12 Prv 4. 15, 7. 25 
<£o8e6<u : march out Kir Jes 37. 9 Jcr 37. 5 ; depart N!T Cn 27. 30 ; egress 
k:t lb 25. 26 

(£o&iaa}j.6s, 6: = ego&ia {expedition, journey) XS*J2 Xu 33. 2 

cjcooj (A), 7}: pi., discharges from the bowel TV&'i Jes 4. 4 Prv 30. 12 

nX'i Dt 23. 14 Ez 4. 12; cf. <£ayaiy77 
egoiSaivu* : = -8«cu, ra*// or £* swollen up TiM'STh Xu 5. 22 
c;oi^ia£bj: n/cz/ aloud DTI" Ps 55. 3 
(^ofioid^uj : compare, liken nZ~] Cant 1. 9 ,k 7"t7~~ jes j.6. 5 J-"i-; Pass.. 

become or A<? /ft; br^nr; Job 30. 19 
e£op»f« (A): w/irf £*>W the frontier, banish r^H Xu 2;. 32, 33. 

52; Pass., -ill] Jes 53. 8 HCh 26. 21 T-J03 Ps 31. 23 ; *.'.' r/4 o/t-j: Dt 

28. 42 pis Ex 32. 2 pisr.ri lb 32. 3 
ciopvactu: dig up *ij?3 Jes 51 . 1 ; uproot (\V) "lpr EccI 3. 2 j-v Job 31. 

12 i "P? i^"£' our the eyes Xu 16. 14; v. p. 525 
J$vy6aj: exalt, elevate xri IIS 5. 12 Esth 5. 1 1, 9. 3 xtTL-.r; Xu 16. 3, 

23. 24, 24. 7 IR 1. 5 Ez 17. 14, 29. 15 HCh 32. 23 
tV-^, Adv.: with Verbs of motion, out or out of "p.T\ Dt 23. 13 ~j"~ 

Ez 34. 2 : ; without any sense of motion, outside *f- Gr. : 5. 5 Dt 23. 

13, 14, 24. 11 IR 8. 8 IICH 5. 9 riJJin lb 32. 5; t5 I. the cL-.vj'isr 

T~" Jud 12. 9 I IR 4. 3 EZ47. 2 mm lb 40. 44; i. roStvfizroi out cf 

range of arrows "lUyZZ Gn 21. lb; without, except, besides "*." Ecci 2. 

25 :;«\- w is Adv. of cf, as €:'c^ is of ei»; cf. c<ro»; : cf. rcfe-uue. 

tfto^eu : :Aryj.' out, force out scsvi IIS 13. 1 8 pr: Ez 1 7. 9 p*r.ri Jos 8. 6 
F"tV J uc * 20 - 3 1 ; cvcn t>>' pulling, wrench out ?TZ Ez 17. o. 23. 3^; 
<2Vj£/j« p-r.sn Job 9. 5; «*:', */>c, iamV: jrs-.n Esr :o. 3, 19 pv.srn 
Prv 25. 1 Job 32. \y, put forth p\-..- Jer 12. 3; cf. cvt^ 

fVayc-Uo^ai : Pass., f/ory :*.•:, «a/r i> 7 l ;nnri Jcr q. 22. 23 Ps 97. 7; cf. 

e-cvfipaj: ^.'^r together, collect, cf things mi" Jer 30. 23; of n:cn. 

as::mhle -vsr; Joel 4>9 
*V~y*cA^o^at; embrace p-H II R 4. :6 p2H Prv 5. 20 Cant 2. 6 [cf 

1/TT-] 

<VavAa^w: £r:cfc oneself on a thing, */ory or «u/f :/i it D^tfrrs Prv 7. 18 
^TTayojt't^ofiGt : contend with p-Kri Gn 32. 25, 26 pns Gn 21. 9 Ex 32. 6 

pnr Jud 16. 25 
fVaet'So;, contr. Att. irraBaj; sing to or tn accompaniment nsj Hab 3. 19 

PS4. 1 ICh 15. oj 

erratverd?: praised, praiseworthy, laudable ~£^>* ->j~*-; to i. the object of 
praise "120? Ez 24. 16, 21, 25 ^nn Thr 1. 7 *?ana E 2 24. 21 



206 XL CREEK PREPOSITIONS 

€iratv€oj: used instead of <uVa> (Poet, and Ion. Verb, very- rare in 
good Attic) ; approve, applaud, commend ~2^ Eccl 8. 15; assent, agree 
IViX Gn 34. 15 IIR 12. 9 h*K\7t Ex 2. 21; /;iti/j<: nlV Jcs 27. 2 Ps 

83. 1 n::? lb 145. 4, 147. i2 nar.?? lb igG. 47; undertake Vjct; 

Dt 1 . 5 ; cf. alvi^Qfiai 
liraipui, Ion and poet. i-atlpo>\ raise H7Sn IS 2. 6, 28. 8, 1 1> 15 Jcr 
38. 13 Ez 37. 13 Ps 30. 4, 40. 3, 137. 6 c".n Gn 14. 22, 31. 45 IR 
16. 2 Jes 37. 23 22n Jcs 1. 2 Ez 31. 4 Esr 9. 9; lift n^yrf Gn 37. 28 
IS 2. 14 IIR 2. 1 Jcr 38. io, 13 Ez 29. 4 Hah 1. 15 enn Jos 4. 5 
==n Ps 9. 14; exalt, magnify ^TJn Ps 137. 6 =*" IS 2. 8 Ps 75. 3 
Thr 2. ij on Job 17. 4 ==n Ex 15. 2 Jes 25. 1 c:rn Jcs 33. :o 
Ps 75. 1 r Neb 9. 5 s^ri" Dan 11. 36; j-r/r ~/> ; £.vW/<r rPirn Jcr 50. 9 
Ez 16. 40, 23. 46, 24. 3, 26. 3 -r:;n Jes 13. 17, 42. r3 Jcr 50. 9 
Esr 1. 1 Ills Zach 9, 13 Prv 10. r 2 Can: 2. 7 ":m Ps 107. 25; praise, 
approve] esp. in religious sense, glorify God *7" IIS 14. 25 Ps 104- 35 
ICh 16.4, 23. 5 HCh 23. 12 V?n Ez20. 17 Ps 113. 3; Pas5.,;.'j:.vr 
oneself nbvnn Jcr 51. 3 V^nnn IR 20. 11 Pry 25. 14. 27. 1 [c:. 

alyi£ofiat } i^atptcu, efaoej, e—ayuAAo/iatj 
(Tralaauj, contr, t-cacu : assad, assault *"7~ Jcs 7. 6; wjay .0 sn-Z'.p 
C"H Jud 7- 2 1 .j-^- : i; C"- drrorcjrt^aj 

€-ct(7^uVo/iat : ic? be ashamed r"2in Jcr 10. 14 H-:s 2. 7 mr.n Gn 2. 25 
eVairiaoftai : 6rr/r£ a charge against* accuse: lay : : :e blame upon ~*TXn Ps 

5 " " 
^ttcxol'oj: Awr *irX Job 29. I I .'^ax~ap<.'Ccj : congratulate Gn 30. 13 

€-cd\dtu>: heal, cure >-' T ^=- 

trravOctu: bloom, be in f oner ]"<j Cant 6. 11 nr.p lb 7. 13; M £* 6r:V;; 
cc; Jes 59. 19 DC^^r.r* Zach 9. 16 [cf. <7- F di-SiZtj] 

fVai-w, Adv. : (dvaj) above, on the upper side or part "C 7S Gn 1.2,7. ! 2, 
8. 3 IR 7. 42; 6*/a/^, ir. front *;s ?S Xu :;. 3, 20. 10 Ez 41. 4 
^:d nx Dt 16. 16 IS 1. 22, 2. iu 17, 18 "2 r-v Ex 33. 19 IR 6. 3 
% :27 Gn 6. 13, 13. 9, 32. 17 Ex 1 7, 6, 33. 19 Jud 6. to Jes 66. 23 

>L1 ; in the presence of "S.7 Ex 33. 19 Jud 13. 15 Ps 76. 8 Xeh 6. :a: 

informer times CTI^ 1 ? Dt 2. 10, 12, 20 IS 9. 9 Job 42. 1 i Ruth 4. 7 

I ICh 9. I I ; c[. tvurrrcEU 
irrapdofiai: imprecate curses upon; curse solemnly "Xn IS 14. 24 IR 8. 

31 ^-13 IR 21. 10, 13 (?) -)Xl Thr 2. 7 T?p Gn 12. 3 Ex 22. 27 

Dt 23. 5 IR 2. 8 IIR 2. 24 Jes 8. 2 1 ; cf. *ar- 
i-rrdp^w: rule over; rule besides '^ Hos 7. 5; begin /mH Gn 6. 1 
hraoxecu: Pass., set on one against another p?Vtt Gn 26, 20 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 207 

eVaE/ya£aj: examine carefully \y IS 18, 9; cf oicj^o/iax 
irravMoj; accompany on the Jlutc bbn IR 1. 40 [cf- -poa-] 
cVauAc^o/iat: encamp on the field; pass the night VnK Jcs 13. 20 
t77avptov t Adv.: on the morrow ^UT2 Ex 8. 25 n ^y2 ^h 2 9* - 1 "l n? ?^ 

Jon 4. 7 mnnn Gn 19. 34; ttj £. -q^cpa nn^ zvz Gn 30. 33 

mnari ev Xu 1 1. 32 

cVc/ycAaw: /ffif*A J/, «:/// o«r -*S"7n IlCh 36. 16 ?**T\ lb 30. 10 [cf. 

Sic-, «•/-, *ara-] 
t-tytlpaj: awaken, rouse up 1T5 Jes 14. 9 "l*!?n Zach 4. 1 ; me tap h., 

awaken, excite^ stir up ^iX Jes 50. 11 [cf. avaiOcS\ "J Prv 15. i3 

rrzrr* Dt 2. 5, 9, 19 iTir'-n Jcr 30. 23 ^nrs Zach 0. 13 Car. t 2. 7 

TSnJes 13- i7jer 51. i, u Cant 2. 7 [cf. #-, tf=:>o] 
e-cTSc^, aor. 2, inf. tmStL:^ with no pres. in use, cooper being used 

instead: look upon, behold, see; esp. of die gods, look upon human 

affairs, T';n Job 29. 11 J^ 1 ^ 
<Tctra T c-£t7£;V) : Adv., (*Vi, €tra) ; of mere Sequence, without any 

notion of cause, thereupon, thereafter, then cr.SN Esr 4. 13 [cf. rrapi 

^c3ci t ttcj rrodoV] -^ ; ji/jf /A«i, at the time ]"X Dan 2. 15 ]"N2 
lb 2. :4 yim Esr 5. 5 

t-evovue, to: -upper garment 7.Z*±Z Jes 3. 22 V- - Ex 28, 34, 2C. 5; cf 

£T7€t-3i/rtj r -ovw: put on ever "CK Ex 29. 5 Lev 8. 7 rrvr; Ps So. 46 

^Li. e^'Oucj. crro-J 
trrcvcvTrs, o: r{?6tf or garment worn over another -1-N Lev S. 7, 13 ">> 

Lev 3. 7 n"^ Ex 28, 8 Jcs 30. 22 0^3 Ez 9. 2 Dan 10. 5 :t: 

IIR 23. 7 [cf. £aSS<Vj trs ^cs Dan 3. 21 
im^tpxouai: carry out, accomplish, execute (\V) V32 Zach j.. Q Thr 2. 

17; CL drocuj^cu 
^Trfpva^ouai : encroach upon y esp. encroach upon sacred ground pTiTrt 

Gn 20. 20; cf €7raaK€oj 
<-«pycaic : encroachment upon sacred ground pZV Gn 20. 20 
trrepxopai: come upon; esp. ro^ suddenly upon ^7^ Prv 6. 11 T"" 

lb 24. 34; *o o£rr or <m a space, traverse, mostly of persons, walk on 

~pn Ps 104. 3, 142. 4 Prv 6. 28, 8. 20 Thr 5. 18 EccI 1 1. 9 Tpnr.n 

Gn 3. 8, 13. 17 IIS 7. 6, 7 Ez 28. 14 Job 18. 8 Esth 2. 1 1 ; go the 

round of visit TjVn Ps 55. 15 Prv 6. 1 1 TjVnnr; Gn 3. 8 Zach 1, io, 

ii, 6. 7 Job k 7 (€Vi-/€V/V5?D~Jin) 

cV^yfOftct: boast ^^r 1 

cVc'x<u: affflrf, j^rwrf out pin? Mich 7. 18 IlCh 26. 8 TJTO Ps 85. 6 



20 8 XI. GREEK PRE T05 ITIO.N'S 

-J722 Jcs 13. 22; simply, hold ?"'nri Dt 25. I r "ps jud 5. 14 Am 
9. 13 Cant 1. 4 ^ — •; of writings, contain p*"J~n HCh 4. 5; cm at, 
attach :pa Jud 4. 6; hold bock, keep in check Z>ZXr.r> Cn 43. 31, 45. 1 
Esth 5. 10 2pS Gn 27. 36 [cf. Kor-] ; slay, pause, lurry ZVZ Ex 32. : 
Jud 5. 28; preserve (Wj p*inn Xch 3. 4, 6; cf. o^'C^ 

cViaAAcu : j<?n<f u/>3n n % 7rn I IR 15.37 [cf. 5taCTr£.ULj] ; lay hands aicn H7T 
Gn 22. 12 Ex 22. ;, 24. t: IS 26. 9 Ps 55. 21, 138. 7 Job :. :2. 
28. 9 Esth 8. 7 ICh 13. 10 n'77 Prv 31. 19: CI. imareW 

€T:iBo7}0duj: come to a:d, ~ucc;ur ~T"m IIS 22. ; 
Jer 49. 25 ^VJT] I ICh 23. 23 

e-,£ C £>a>: make to roar r'-~" Ps 29. 3; rs^r j--: ="*"■." IIS 22. 14 jo 



\u> 



cf. u~ ocruvU' --- 



J/' T 



^-tycuSpturrJy, o: a« :jr,?:c:Ud by marriage --* D: 25. 5, 7 ^-^ I J 25. 

7, 9 Ruth 1. 15 
€77iyau3p€Viu: take a woman to wife as ker k-sbcrSs next or km Z" 

Gn 38. 8 Dt 25. 5) 7 
cmycvpow: make proud ~>Z1 Z^ch 10. 6 
er:ytyi.-ouct, -yivoiia: cf things, rotf.v J.' i/.V t-.TJ -"2 Jos 1 6. 7, 19. : : : 

c:ne upon, assault, a::a:k r:2 Jud «. = 1 . 15. : 2 IS 22. 17. :3 ll\ 

'-- ^5> -9; 3 : - 3-: 34- 4'-; : - ?• - r 4 

^rriyiyvoja^'oj, -y;;c^c<cjl . J \ ::5q?i, Witness* CSSCTie ;-■-* V ^ *^ 3" * * _■ — 

31, 1 rrzrr; Jes :j,- :'5 Pi 33. 14 Car:* 2. f.: -V-vn :j /;r::i ;r"~~ 

^ t th inn 'H' . 1: r_"L ~ in :C. ci-v- — .--l-^ii. rtr 1 /:-:. 



D s 119, ioo, :o^ ""H he: 7. 10 id. c 






«VtysuviV, i'<5o>-, r: 5.:r: .:::;.' :/:.' h:ce -*« -<*=» ~r-' ; £-. r ' -o^:-' •"--' v\-'f. 

^r;^r muscle cf t::e ::..fi, tJiscn as a sign oi s:rcr.g:h ar.ci vigour 

~r:2 Job 40. 1 7 
iTT-.yzaoui : 77?<jrA .*.t* .^r/jr.-.'. ^r— e p?7, Xu 2:. :3; wite up or., :ns::::e 

~~~ Job 19. 23; cf. iryvvtii 
€Tn.d<\auat: receive 72? Esr 8. 30; tceicome 7" ICh :2. iS : !G ; :u.^.' 

•_\- oneself, undertake 71? Esth 9. 23, 27 I ICh 29. 16; s.-.^r: ~" 

Prv 19. 20 Job 2. :o ICh 21. 1 i 
«-iS«'w (A) : £>;>?J ^r. bandage ::H jcs 30. j'i. '2 : . • Lz 34. 4 lies 6. : 

Job 5. 18 tzr. Ps 14-. 3 n- Jcs 1. En 30. 2: ; cf. ^Jyi :.■-., *'-.- 
fT:S;w«tu: /»u«u* u;h"- 7'-T~ Gn 31. 23 Jud 20. 45 IIS 1.6 
<Tr:5ooarcV, i'3o», V : den'.ap _niii legeP.dun 1 . (--.Copd tl$ vcl <V:ooci; 

.oL! ^jJoJ JjjJ.j [Arabic confirms correctness of izribopar^ J 
t '-;'5oCTif, -q'-free giving; free gift, esp. voluntary contribution to the sta'c, 
' benevolence' , benefaction ZZtl Ex 35. 29 Lev 7. 16 Ez 46. 12 nTrr 
IS 9. 7; devotion, addiction, to a thing "73 Hos 14. 5 [cf. Boa-.;] 



XL GREEK PREPOSITION'S 209 

«h£ijt*o,: seek after tfpii Gn 37. 16 Dt 4. 29, 13. 1 1 IIS 4. 8 Ez 7. 26 
Hos 3. 5, 5. 15 Eccl 7. 28; wish for Bp3 Ex 2. 15 Xu 16. so IS 23. 
ro, 24. 10 IIS 20. 19 IR n. 22 Jes 1. 12 Jcr 45. 5 Ez 7. 25 Prv 17. 9 
Esih 3. &; make further search for Vy>'Z Gn 37. 16 IS 9. 3. 16. 16,23. 14 
Jos 22. 23 IR 1. 2, 3 Jcr 5. 1 Ez 34. 4 Hos 2. 9 Cant 3. 1, 2 Ruth 
3. 1 Esth 2. 2 cpn Jer 50. 20 Ez 26. 21 Esth 2. 23; request ~p2 
Esih 2. 15, 4. 8, 7. 7; seek for besides Dp? Prv 23. 35; demand, require 
"p2 Gn 31. 39, 43. 9 IIS 4. u Dan 1. 20 Xeh 5. i3 

tVi^Tjnjaij : desire, craving ~~p5 Esih 5. 3 

eViflaAAtu: flourish n ,l 7Sri Gn 39. 2 Jud 18. 5 IR 22. I2 ? -5 Jes 55. 1 1 
Jcr 5. 28, 32. 5 Ps 1.3 Dan 8. 12 ICh 22. 1 1 'ro' II Ch 7. 1 1 ; cf. 

dyXat^aj, KaropOotu 
cTrideuptaji examine over again or carefully; inspect ~ZZ Xeh 2. 13, 15 

[cf. dttupfto] 
cViftjyto : whet or sharpen yet more inxnn Ez 2 1 . 2 1 T~~ Ez 2 r . 14, 15,16 
€-l&nfia. aro?, ro : something put on; hence, /i<f, ror^r "r~H Nu ig. 15 
c-riKdiyiZw: renew, restore w"TH Jes 61. 4 II Ch 24. 4, 12 ~~>? Xeh 3. 1 

[cf. dva-, trrtKrl^ut] ; ?""."" Ps 103. 5 
(-iKalc^: bum on an altar mr: Gn 8. 21 Ex 29. :3 Lev 2. 12, 26. 31 

Ez 5. 13, 20. 28; bum on the surface, scorch "7-X Ex 3. 2; brand 

"p?p. Lev 19. 28 
t-iKc\eiit: invite; call before one, summon, of the Ephors "7^?" Xu 20. 8, 

10 Dt 3:. 28 (^fjp T -7) *~7p/.i j V7r;p , "i IIS 20. 14 

(~iKd\Crrruj : cover over, cover up, shroud HCD Gn 33. 15 Lev 13. 12, 13 
Xu 9. 15, 22. 5 Ps 73. 53 Job 36. 30 Xeh 3. 37; Pass., to be 
covered over, veiled nC-" Gn 24. 65 Jes 59. 6 Prv 26. 20 TS^ri 
Ruth 3. 3 *y?2; Cant 5. 14 *pynn Gn 38. 14 Jon 4- 3; put as a 
covering, cover no? Gn 33. 14 Ex JO. 5 Lev 17. 13 Jer 51.51 Ez 32. 
7 P s 85. 3 Job 31. 33 rss3 Gn 7. 19 ICh 21. iSncrrn IR 11. 29 
IIR 19. 1,2; conceal (W) "12D Jes 47. 1 1 [cf. i-ixpv-mv] 

i~iKa.p-T<jj\ bend into an angle TSSn Ps 50. 19; Pass., ber.d or turn, form 
a curved line 72X IIS 20. 3 

irrUaiiun, tut: curvature T2S Gn 24. 22 Ez 16. 1 1, 23. 42 [cf. ^lOrj^a] 

ivUetuat: to lie in or on STSn Ps 139, 8; to be laid upon ^TKn ]cs 58. 5 

V-SH Esth 4. 3; cf. ^^JKOirdpiOV, Dim. of <otrr; ; i"y 

i*tx€vd&: conceal, hide in? Gn 47, 18 IS 3. 17, 18 Jcr 50. 2 Job 27. 

11 Tnsn lb 20, 12 ^Ij^O'7 IIS 22- 45; V. tVi^v'So^c: 
imKOTTTw: top, pollard ^pJ Jes 17. 6; dress blocks of stone ZVV\ Ps 

144. 12 2^n Jes sr. 1 



2io XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

eiTtKpLvcu: select^ pick out; Med,, choose for oneselj \ pick out \7 ^"ip^ Xu 

35- " 

i7TLKp\rrrroj: throw a cloaJ: over, conceal H2U Job 24. 4 N"nn Jos 6. \j r 

25 IR 18- 4, 13 Jes 49. 2 xsnnn Gn 3. 8 IS 14. 1 1 , 22 ; ircq. in 
Med,, disguise irifin IR 14, 5, 6 csnnn IS 28. 3 IR 22. 30 Job 30. 

l8 HCh 18. 29, 35- 22; cf Kara-, tVucaAinrrw 
tViKTt^ai: found in addition or anew 57"* n Jes 61.4 ~p X~eh 3. 1 
e—tK-nr77€<jj: make a noise upon; stamp on the ground with the feet Xr: 

Job 39. 24 
cttikvOtjs: glorious^ distinguished, brilliant, successful "-? Gn 34. 19 \u 

22. 15 Dt 28. 5 3 IS 9. 6, 22- 14 IIS 23. 19, 23 Jes 3. 5 Xah 3. ;o 

€7TiKvStdaj: vaunt oneself ~»Z2r*7) Prv 12. 9 

€—ikw<uj: kiss on the lips pTI Cant 1. 2 [cf da-cCotiat] 

€77vKHiKvujZ lament over H22 Jer 3 1 , 15 (14) Ez 8. 14 

€mX€yw: say against one ~7" Ps 41. 8 [cf. au.\-U'y^l 

c-xlacixuj: lick l]nV Xu 22. 4 IR 18. 38 Jes 49. 23 pp7 Jud 7. 6 

cTiXTjdai: Pass,, to be forgotten ~zrvn Eccl 3. 10 [cf- €<\aivdvu>] 

€muavT€vopat: prophesy IT"^ Ez 12. 10; cf. ctccepa/, rrpo- 

€ttlu€V€oj: stay on, tarry, wc:: "~f<n Job 39. 24: cersist :V,\ clean tj 

r=xn Dt 28. 66 ]cx: Ps ;3. 3, 37; ™^- j^x; Dt -3. 59 IIS 7. : 5 

Jer 15. 18 Ps 78. 8, 37, 93. 5 
imv€ua>: allot, distribute 7\V2 Job 7. 3 Dan 1. 10, 1 ; ; xztg-; distribute. 

allot, freq. of pasture; plunder, ravage T\ir: Ps 63. 24 
€ttivo€u>: think on or of contrive: have in one's rz;r:d : intend, purpose 

znir.n Gn 27. 42 
€VivoTi£tti: sprinkle on the surface nrr» Ex 29, 21 Lev ± m 6, 



7, 5- 9> 



! 4- 7 



tmJavdlZu*: brown over or toasting ZH-JH Esr 8. 27 

€tti£vu3: grate over STSpH Lev 14. 41 nspri lb. 

t—iQupot, o : = ovpos (B), guardian, watcher, ward jr^- j-±i ; wooden Ot?, 

£—i77c.iZ<jj: mock at nizn Esth 1. 17 
^TTtrrerdwufti : spread over T^SIj Dt 4. 27 Jes 23, 25 
€TTt7r775dcL>: /*s^> 1/^0/1, rajA af, assault PI 3D IR 18. 26 
imTrU^uj: press Upon fE!ip Job ID, 12; cf. 7rte£cj 
trriTTiuTrXrjiii : see p* 343 

€^i^ori^oi: ti/a^r nprn Gn 2. 6, 10 Dt 11, 10 Ez 17. 7 Ps 104. 13 
Eccl 2. 6 [cf. ttotl^cj, a different word of which this is a compound] 
eViirroipaj: sneeze "mi IIR 4. 35 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 211 

tTTtppd-xTQj: sew or stitch on "12H Ez 13. 18 
impptw. lean towards, incline p3"tnn Cant 8. 5 
irrtppTJywfii : break DH1 Nu 24. 8; cf. Kara- 
iTTiceumjvofiat: pride oneself on a thing E^nn IIS 22. 26 
^Vtcnj/iatVcUj -aafiaivcij: mark l indicate, signify** distinguish', €TrtoTj/iatVo/-tat 
= e-iCTjfi€t6opai (distinguish, observe) pT Esr 10. 14 Xeh 10. 35, 

<Vic«:rc£u»: ca:*r over H2H HCh 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 n£2 Ex 25. 11 IR 6. 
15, 20 HCh 3. 6, 4. 9 ri2^ Ex 26. 32 Prv 20. 23 [cf. ^^cJoj, 

i-iGK€vd±oj: make afresh, repair , restore p"2 IlCh 34. ic 12 D Ps 48. 14 
j^-^ (the Hebrew homologies incorporate the preposition) 

€77iGK€vr h rj: repair^ restoration pT^ IIR 12. 6 

t-icKidltu: throw a shadow upon TjCH Ps 5. 12, 91. 4 Job 3. 23 Van 
IIS 20. 6; conceal, obscure ^pri Ex 40. 21 Job 33. 8 

1-lckqt£cj: (aKoros) throw a shadow over ^^p^ Ez 32- 7, 3; meiaph., 
throw darkness or obscurity over ITIpn lb 31. 15; = imaKord^uj, 

t-icKGTTiGLS; rj: darkening, obscurity, of the sun cr rr.ocr. in eclipse 

-*"" JeS 3O. 3 [cf. GKQrijjGtf\ 

irriGrr €*<&&: pour upon or over, esp. as a drink offering "T^: ICli 11. 18 
rpcri Gn 35. 14 Xu 2S. 7 IIS 23. 16 "qon Ex 25. 29 

iTTiGraGis, rj: (€<f>l<mjpit) = €TriaraGia II (authority, dominion) , superin- 
tendence "pp Jer 37. 13 

imcrar€ia y rj: {^rTtarariat) ojfice of i^nord-r^s HipD Xu 3. 32, 4. 1 6 ; cf. 
—apaKaTadrjKT), ipTjff>tau.a 

<-igtct€clj: to be an imcrrdTT^, to be set over; to be in charge of to have 
the care of -31 Riith 2. 6 ~p2r» Gn 39. 5 IIR 7. 17, 25. 23 ipa 
IIR 12. 12 ipon IIR 22. 5 IlCh 34. 12; stand by, aid 2S\nri Ps 
94. iG IlCh 20. 6; exercise the ojfice of emcrd-m.; Ill (president, 
overseer, superintendent, in charge of any public building or works) 
ns: Ps 4. i Esr 3. 8, 9 ICh 15. 21 IlCh 2. 1 [cf. <V« t '5u/, C^dS^] 

tVioranir, o: (tfiiarcLfiai) one who is set over, chief commander -*SJ IS 
13. 3 IIS 8. 6, 14 IlCh 8. 10 vps IIR 25. 19 Xch 11. 14 low 
Dt 1. 15, 16. 18 Prv 6, 7 ICh 23. 4 I ICh 26. 11; supervisor VpD 
Gn 41. 34 Jer 20, 1 Xeh 12. 42; president, overseer, superintendent, 
in charge of any public building or works "IDT? Ex 5, 10, 14, 15; 
governor, administrator 2^3 IR 4. 19 I ICh 17. 2 Tp£ Xeh 1 1. 9 

tTTiGTtyd^w : roof over c-ii- 



2i2 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

fVtoreAAio: enjoin, command nbtf Job 38. 35 

€7Ti(rrp€<f>w: turn about, turn round ojl? ; turn towards r fwn Ez 21. 2, 7 [cf. 
tvSarcofxat] * 

tVia^aAAa;: trip up, make to fall /^DH Ez 6. 4 

iTTtaxvuj: make strong or powerful pm Ex 4. 21 Jes 54. 2 Xah 2. 2 Job 
4. 3 HCh 1 1- 17 p^nn Jer 51. 12 Ez 27. 9, 27 ^"3 Jes 9. 10 
Zip Jes 9, 10 Ps 20. 2, 59. 2 2;^ Prv 29. 25 X";~n Job 36. 24 Z"tr\ 
Job 36- 22 71+57} Ps 73- 12; fo be or £roa- strong p*tnn Dan 1 r , 3Q 
pinr\n Nu 13. 20 IS 4. 9 IIS 3. 6 ICh 19. 13 HCh 1. 1 

CTnrayuVaj: hasten on, urge forward uTHH Jes 5. 19 Ps 55. 9; cf. rax'll^ 

irTirelvaj: = c7riTavva;, stretch; stretch upon or over rzr; Jes 54. 2 Jer 15. 

6; urge on, incite nsn Prv 7. 21; Pass., suffer more intensely % to be 

tormented, racked, to be tortured Hon Am 5. 12 Mai 3. 5 Ps 27. q Prv 

*77tr*A*ioo>: (r^Aoff) complete, especially a sacrifice n7D Jud 3. 18 IS 
13, to IIS 6, 18 IlCh 29. 29 

«VireA«ej: (r£W) complete, finish, accomplish TX^Z Gn 18. 33 IS 3. 12 
Ruth 3. 18 ICh 27. 24 7V7Z Gn 2. 1 Ps 72. 20 rr: Jcs 33. 1 Z" 
lb., Dan 8, 23; esp. cf the fulfilment of cracics Z*~ IIR 9. 26 
Z^ZT} Jes 44. 26; brirg Id perfection Cr.TT Job 22. 3; Scv :/: _/!':.' 

n'rvri IlCh 9. 15, 16 etc Gn 44, 4 Ex 21. 34 Jud 1. 7 IIR 9. 20 
Jes 57. 1 8, 65. 6 Jer 16. 18 Prv 7. 14 "T Ps 05. 2 Prv 13. 13; 
;o A^r/ '0 />av, ir subject to a burden n"7-;r: IR 9. 15, 2: ; cf. d-ro- 

€Tr:rtOTjai: /ay, pyf or place upon, of offerings /-:£ jn the a':ar E m r Gn 
22. 6, 9 ]ru Lev 2. 15, 22. 22; set meats on the tabic -~.T Gn 43. 31 IIR 
6. 22 ]rj Ex 25. 30 IIR 4. 43, 44 CCTn Gn 24. 33; .'uni towards e:t 
Ez 6. 2, r 3. 1 7> 2 1 . 2, 7 E*Tn lb 2 1 . 21; put on a covering or !id 
"U Ex 40. 19 |rj lb 25. 2r ; />ur /o, c^, ^r-rr or £*:■* besides r z* 
Lev 22. 14 Jes 38. 5 ~C:n IS 3. 17 IIR 20. 5; impose, irfisi 
burdens Bit? Jud 1. 28 Es;h 10. 1 ]ru Jcs 17. 13; sLv* a helmc: 
on his head D1T Ex 29. 6 Es:h 2. 1 7 ]n: IS 1 7. 38 ; laying one's hands 
upon Z*& IIR 13. 16 rrzr* Gn 48, 14; make an c::a:k E" IR 20. 12 
Job 37. 15 jra Xeh 5. 7 

t—toalvuj: Pass., «/n* into view, show oneself appear, of a divine mani- 
festation ITDin Dt 33. 2 Ps 50. 2; show light, dc;'j7i ITS VI Job 3. 4, 

37* *5 
c'mofpcj: irin^ a charge against, impute folly /o inrn Lev 22. 16 

rmpd€yyofiai: simply, utter 7 pronounce KD3 Lev 5, 4 Ps 1 06. 33 

trrto&ovtuj: bear hate or a grudge against VZp Xu 5. 14 Jes 11,13 [ c ^ 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 213 

irrtydovos, ov\ liable to envy or jealousy ^ jealous (W) K:p Ex 20. 5 XU£ 

Jos 24. 19 Nah 1. 2 [cf. <f>Qovcp6s] 
€-t<t>\€y<duj y -\eycj: heat, inflame; metaph., inflame, excite p^^T\ Jes 5. 

1 1 ; metaph., to be brilliant np^nn Ex 9. 24 Ez 1.4 
ori<iuAAi'£a>: glean grapes in a vineyard bbw Lev 19. 10 Dt 24* 2 1 
<Vt<£uAAtV: (<£u'XW) small grapes left for gleaners 7V?bv Jud 8. 2 Jes 17, 

6, 24. 13 (^uAAoi>: leafnbv Lev 26. 36) 
€77txctp€tjj: make an attempt on, attack (*T) nVr Ex 24. ri IS 26. 9 
(•rixdp-nua, to: undertaking, attempt ("P) H^rp Dt :2. 7; esp. of a 

military enterprise (T) "V772 Jes n. 14 
<77tx\€vd£uj: jeer, make a mock ofZ"2pjTiTl HR 2, 23 Hab 1. 10 
irrtxptcu: anoint, besmear nrs Gn 31. 13 Ex 29, 7, 30. 26 IS 9. 16; 

irrlxpiat*: smearing over nri"2 Ex 40, 1 5 Lev 7. 35 Xu 1 8. 8; cf, XP^ ai ^ 
t—lxpLCpa: unguent TkTW12 Ex 25. 6; cf. x/n/ia, -Tenia: anointing 
izrlxpLcrros : smeared on n?78 Ex 29. 2 IIS 3. 39 rPrr Lev 4. 3 IIS 1. 

kttix^P 10 *! a y ov: of persons, ot c\ rA* people of the country y natives mtK 
Ex 12. 19, 48, 49 Lev 23. 42 [cf. eyx^A" ? 1 "*?» ^~> ^"?] 

irruLavu*: touch 0:1 the surface, touch lightly TO Jes 59. 10 ~*^ Gn 27. 
12, 21, 22 trr;? lb 31. 34, 37 Dts3. 29 7^ En Ps : 15, 7; e-i^cu: j/r<?.t* 

i-nrtijrtv&ouat: lie still more; feign 27p Ez 13. 19 ZT!p D: 33. 29 Ps 1 8. 45 
~~2r.7\ IIS 22. 45 [cf. Kara-]; deceive 2ip IIR 4. :5 -"2 Zach 13. 4 

t-i&TjXa&dtjj: feel by passing the hand over the surface; 6^Xa6duj: feel or 
oToOe about to find a thin?, like a blind man or hoodman-blind 
rr;, :a ) win Gn 27. 12, 21-2, 31. 34, 37 Ex :o. 21 Dt 28. 29 Jcs 

59. IO Ps 115. 7 Job 5. 14, 12. 25; cf. eVtt&ci/u 
trTt6o6*uj: rattle at qr with, applaud TTp IIS 6. 16 
cTTniu^ci/: cool npn Jer 6. 7 
ctovkow: stuff pin Nah 2. 13 pip Prv 29. 21 

€ttolk€oj: to be settled near or with hostile views against -*T*r; IR 21. 10 
t-oLKi&tos, a, ov\ presiding over the house S T*ZVZ Ps : 13. 9 
irrorrrtvui: keep watch 22* Jud 5. 28 
cVo^o/xac fur. of £<f>opdaj (observe) 2*2 n Nu 23. 21 Jes iS. 4; /ao£ upo/i, 

AdAoW C^n Gn 15. 5 Ex 3. 6, 33. 8 Nu 21. 9 Hab 2, 15 
crrcuaScos'i ok: (cjov) upon the eggs, hatched] impd^uj: r*t or brood upon 

*£gj ny= Dt 22. 6 Jes 59. 5 Job 39. 14 -u^ 
iVctfSdr, dv: (ciraSui) Subst, a charm for or against T1SN Jud 17. 5, 18. 

14 Hos 3. 4; = iiru^rj; cf- tVo^Sirnjy 
cVui/uV, 17: (ai^or) Poet, shoulder C3V Gn 9, 23, 49. 15 Job 31- 22 



2i 4 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

fyatptopiat: choose as successor TD2 Dt 2 1. 16 

i<$>auapravtjj: miss one's aim X^CCH Jud 20. I 6 [cf. go-, ef-] 

eod-rrtu, irrdrrraj: as law term, f/flim tfr *r:e's pr?per'y T.Z* Mich 7- 3*; 

Pass., to 5* kindled r.^n Jud 9. 49 IIS 14. 30, 31 [cf *£-] 
tydSpa, crr&pr), 17: j/aAfe rrnx HCh 32. 28 m^x lb. mx lb 9. 25 
idtdpeia^ rj: in war, reserve] lying in wait; watchfulness "IX Jos 8. 7 

"X Job 37, 8, 38. 40 [ci. iveSptutu: ambush, tit&pcia.: ambush] 
toc&pos, ov: generally, one who waits to take ancther 1 : place, a successor 

"is? Jud r8. 7 
io€AK<jj: drao or trail after one: ol £t7€\k6u€Vql the ::~:;:''r: of an armv 

='"~rT2_rt Dt 25. i3 
iot-uj: follow, pursue, once in Horn, in hostile ser.se "X IIS 22. 5 

Jon 2. 6 Ps 40. 13 [cf. c^oifaiVoj] 
€0£at?, 77; (c^iSj/xi) a law icrm r appeal to a judicial tneunzi from a lower 

tribunal fsn Eccl 5. 7 ^Jl~-J ; {c<j>Upct) aiming a: a thing, appetite. 

desire mx Dt 12. 15, 1 3. 6 IS 23. 20 rrxr- Gn 3. 6 Xu 11. 4 Ps 

2 1. 3 ; cf. aycTTTj 
eo-rfes", €Oapos r o: '"^,-", 1 v""^ arrived at adzieceeice i.e. :hc age of ic 
years; -^L; ^_ ? ; ^ p. T27 

iorZctrjvT.i tj : 2£=? q/ £/; cirzoz. adolescence ^-^ 

iorycciiai: lead to a place 7n: Ex 15. 13 n*:r J-jd :£. i^Jes u. 1 E; 
37. 14, 44, 30 [ct. ct'C77-LXLu nn;n Xu 23. 7 IIR :3. :: Prv i3. 16 
^VIv Dan 2. 25 [cf. to-] 

cotVu:: long for, desire ITX Dt 12. 20 Jes 26. c ?r/ 2:. :o rpxr.ri X _, j 
1 1 . 4 Jer 17. 16 Ps 45, 1 2 -X^ Ps 119. 131; c:. cy~--i ~c^ 

fotr/t'ouai : simply, r*cr£ or hit with a stick VIE Ex 5. 3 IS 22. 18; 
reach, extend 3Tin Gn 23, I 2 Job 20. 6 HCh 3. ::. :2; r^r/:, c.Vc:.-: 
™ Jes 25. 12 IICK 23. 0; to visit with *~ Gn :2. :r v:; Ps 73. 5 
r.2 Ex 5- 3 sr«" J« 53- 5: :■. p. 204 

€C;Vt^^;: set over TiVS ICh 17. 10; *r.' i/p I^n Gn 33. :o IIS 18. iS 
Jer 31. 21 (20}; establish 2*-Sm Ps 74. 17; ,vj-"~. crescribe "TC* 
Esth 1.8; j/^, fjaj* :<? .^/.' TVECn Jes 21. 2 Ps 46. :o Xch 4. 5; 
stand by or near 22*" Ex 14. 13, 34. 5 Xu 23. 3 Zach 6. 5 Job 
1.6; in hostile sense, stand against S^r.n D: 7. 2jl Ps 2. 2 I ICh 
11. 13; halt, stop r.zr Gn 2. 2, 3, 3. 22 Jes 2^. S Job 32, 1 

cooA<iov, to: (t^eA/fcj) small boat towed after a shto -^ j** 

iporrM^cj: get ready; ft out y equip, make ready; arm en* self get ready to 
attack ^Dyn Nu 14. 44; cf. orrXlt^w 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 215 

ifopdw: observe ^'j ; oversee 7VZ~\ Jer 23. 2, 4 Ez 34, 8, 23 Mich 5, 3, 
5 ; of the gods, watch over riSTl Gn 48. 15 ; cf. dXyeaj, OvpavXiw, rpa>yw 

t6opto<t, a, ov: (opo$) on (he border or frontier, dyopd £., where the people 
of the adjacent states met for market and other purposes b^bi 
IR 9. 11 Jes 8. 23; ipopia, tc, boundaries Vl21 Gn 10. 19 IS 5. 6 
nbi^l Dt 32. 8 Jes 28- 25 

eoopos, 6: (cf iTTiovpos) overseer, guardian, ruler HSh Jes 56. 1 1 Jcr 23. 
r, 2 Ez 34. 2 Mich 5. 4 Zach 10. 3; at Sparta, <6cpoi, ol, the ephors; 
title of magistrates at Heraclea, in the EIcuthero-Laconian cities, 
also of officials of corporations ^(TJIS) Gn 39. 1 r^s lb 41. 45 
nyiD lb 12. 15; T2H Jud 4. I 7; cf. KdBeipoi, cl: :::e Caheiri, divinities 
worshipped especially in Lemnos, Samothrace and Boeotia; sg. 
KaSttpot] freq. in Boeotian inscrr. (written -3i*-} ; FtafZctpi&es 
vvfjioat, and Kafieipuj, rjj the sisters and mother of the Ctibeiri m"l 

€Ovlh<w: chant or utter over HST Jud 5. 3 IIS 22. 50 Jes 12. 5 Ps 21, 
14, 33. 2, 47. 7, 8, 66. 2, 71. 22 ]:r Dt 6. 7 r^ Jud 5- 1 1 ; jzn* a 
dirge or mournful strain r*Z~ lb 1 1- 40; jr/i* of^] Jud 5. 3 Jes 12.5 

iovfiviov, to : burden y refrain Ti?V3 Dt 28. 37 

Kada\ Adv. for *cat?" a, according as, just as (?\~IZ*:]Z Gn 47. 30 (l*r.3)5 
IR 2. 3 *SD Lev 25. 52 Xu 6. 21, 7. 5 ; also ^arc-^j. <dra-fp, like as 
if exactly as n^$3 Gn 7. a, 8, 21 ; /ijfc (pnr;.)2 lb 40. 5; = xad^ 

KcdcyiLLij: devote, dedicate crp Ex 29. 1 , 37 X~u 6. 1: IR 8. 64 ^"»pr: 
Xu 3. 13 Dt r 5, 19 Jud 17. 3 IIS 8, 11 ICh 26. 26; make offerings 
~p Ex 29. 27; generally, bum, esp. burn a dead body p*r Ps 20. 4 

Kadayvi^uj'. purify ^1p Lev 16, 1 9 ~~Tp Ez 48. I ; ; hallow ~">p Ex 29. 
i, 37 IR 8. 64 ^ipn HCh 30. 8 

KadaifiaKTos : bloodstnmed "K2 Xah 2. 4 

>cc^?atLtaaaaj t -aTocu : 7n<3.« bloody, sprinkle or j:£:/i x:;/: blood, Pass., 
2TH2 Xah 2. 4 

Kadalp€Gis\ demolition, destruction (\V) HZ^n Lev 26. 31 Jes 49. 19 
Jer 25. i3 Ez 33, 24 Mai 1. 4 2"sr» Zach 14. 1: Mai 3. 24 "Sin 
Xu 21.3; subjugation 2^n Jes 43. 28 

KaSaipiuj, <ar~ t KardypTj^t, \a6e\tiv: of sorcerers, bring down from the 
sky ^Tir-n, -nK Dan 2. 34, 45; nn (pin) lb 2. 27, 4. 4 [cf. St*^, 
enrapdaotu] ; kill, slay; put down; annihilate, exterminate (W) 
n^nn IIR 19. 17 D^nn Xu 21. 3 Dt 3. 6, 7. 2 Jos 6. 21, 10. 28 
Jud 21. 1 1 IS 15. 8, 9, 18, 20 IR 9- 21 Jes 34. 2 Jcr 25. 9, 51. 3 
Dan 1 1- 44 *?t?p Dan 5. 19; Pass. 3inn IIR 3. 23 Sinn Ex 22. 19 
Vcp ¥ Dan 5. 30, 7- n Va£ lb 2, 14, 3. 22 ^Cprn lb 2* 13 J^j 



ai6 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

[cf. ktclvoj] jy*; remove utterly from, Pass., "iHi Jes 53. 8 Ps 88. 6 
HCh 26. 2 I [cf. igopilcj] ; raze to the ground, demolish *in2 IlCh 34. 6 
3nnoJcs49. ^annnNu 21.2,3 Jos 11. 21 "^.v Jer 51. 58; Pas*., 

znnn Ez 29. 12 Wi* Jes 23. 13 -linyr.ri Jer 51. 58; as law-term, 
condemn 1T11 Ez 37. 1 1 Thr 3. 54 Cmnn Jes 34. 2; simply, decide 1W 
Job 22. 28 "Ita Esth 2. I JJ^/cA down as a regard or prize ennn Lev 
27. 28 Mich 4. 13; Pass., Dinn Lev 27, 2g Esr 10. 8; cf. Kaditpoco 

KaBc^ofiat, fut. Ka8thov}xai\ sit down, take one's seat -^*j; preside ZTT Ps 
29. 10; cf, ffoj 

Kaditptvw: sacrifice, ojfer Z^pT\ Lev 1. r 3, 7. 29, 23. 3, 16 Nu 28. 2, 
20, 27 

tcadttpow: dedicate, devote *VTH Nu 6. 2, 5, 12 -^" Lev 27. 28; Pass., 
nnn Hos 9. 10 c^nn Lev 27. 29 [cf Up^fic: =" Jos (6. 24) 7. 1] 

KaBl£uj s Kar-: causal, make to sit down, seat Z~r~ IR 2. 24, 21. 9, 10, 
12 Thr 3- 6 IlCh 23. 20; set, place S^Ti Gn 47. 6, 1 1 ; encamp 
I*nn IS 30. 21 ; set up Z^ Ez 25. 4; marry -*T7; Esr 10. 2, 10, 14, 
17, 18 Neh 13- 23, 27 

[*ce?i£oj, in the sense 'marry*, is a Hebraism used exclusively by the 
LXX; the genuine homologue is at^ot^w. $.-.] 

KadtKtrtvoj, /car-; strcngthd. for Ikztzvw [r-£cliea:e : beseech] beg of one 
that ran Jcs 30. 18 2^2 Gn 23. 8 Ru;h 1. :5 -L: ^J] *l Tr [] 
entreat earnestly 7\ZT\ Jcs 8. 17, 64, 3 Ps 33. 20 Job 32, 4 STl" 
J^ 5 53* I2 > 59- 16 Jer 36. 25; cf. Ik€T€v<u\ p. 2:4 

KadtKvcofiai: reach, touch TTVTi Jes 6, 7 Jer 1. 9 Ps S3. 4 p*tn £23. 13 ; 
KUTtKOfievov, to, that which comes to one, one's share of an inheri- 
tance, srirr Eccl 8. 14 

teddicua: seat 3ms IS 20. 18, 25 Ez 28. 2 Ps 132. 13 zzrz Cant 1. 12 ; 
CI. tafia 

KaStc-rdvu), -ttj/xi: set down ^; set up } erect, of stones Z % ±7i Jer 31.21 
(20); replace, restore nrn Gn 31. 39; set in order, array, of soldiers 
2*2n Gn 21. 28; ordain, appoint TSln Xeh 13, 13 rrx IR r. 35; 
/a be established or instituted, prevail ZS1 Ps 82. 1 , 1:9.89 [cf oe3of±ai] 

xadopciw, kclt-; fut. Karodtopai, 3 sg. pf. *aTL~rrrc:, aor. I Karuiodyv : 
look down tran Jes 51. 6, 63. 15 Ps 33. 13, 104. 32; see distinctly 
Z*Z7\ Hab 1.5; descry, perceive tran Nu 23. 21 ; behold trnri lb 12. 
8, 21. 9 Jcs 51, 1, 2, 63. 5 Hab 2. 15 Ps 13. 4, 84. 10, 91. 8, 
1 19- 15; observe 3*zn Jcs 18. 4 Hab 2. 15 Ps 1 19. 15 Job 6. 19; to 
look and see whether D"H Thr t. 12 

Kaduts: Adv. = Kadd; of Time, as, when ^"KD Gn iS. 33, 20, 13 

Karri Ep, for Kara before rr, <p 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 217 

Kara/JaAAtu, Ep. 3 sg. KaSBaXc, imp. KafifiaXovTujv: throw down; drop 
V"DH Dt 25. 2 IIR 6. 5 nVp IIR 4. 39; strike down with a weapon, 
slay Vsn lb 19, 7 Ez 6. 4 Prv 7. 26; cast down or away, cast off, 
reject Vsn Jud 2. 19 Ps 106. 26; let fall, drop Vsn Jud 2, 19 IS 3. 
19; Mrott/ */tfu;n seed, jou; Vsn Ps 106. 27; let fall ', rfrap; j*/ rfou;/i 
bun Cant 8. 5; to be tke author of y commit to writing 2H3 Ex 24. 12, 
34. 1 (a spurious or secondary homology; cf ypddun^ xara-) 

KaraSa—lZu* : <///> V^C Gn 37. 3 1 ; Pass., fa be submerged Vze? Jos 3, 15 
>-Cn Jcr 38. 22; drown ^23 Job 9, 31 VIC Ex 15. 4; cf tfaraSuar 

KaraSdrmu: dip; soak, v. KaraSaTrri^cu; dye, colour -*-" IIR 9. 30; Pass., 
deep-coloured ^TOD Ez 23, 15 

KaraBi^fxLaKiu: eat up } devour "1373 Ex 22. 4 TV-H lb. [cf. Sea-] 

AraTa3oA7j: throwing down, esp. begetting V?" Job 39. 3; paying down, 
esp. by instalments; money as a deposit by way of caution *72n 
Ez 18. 12 71*7 in lb 18. 7; periodical attack of illness, jfr Vzn Hos 
13. 13 Ps 18. 5 

Kara2o€xcj: drench, soak, steep; Pass., rC2"1p Lev 7. 12; cf. 5tc- 

Kara3pvKiu: bite in pieces, eat up 2"3 Ps 80. 14; cf. KCTcrpiLyu* 

KaraytXaaj: laugh, jeer at; laugh scornfully, mock; der.de "S?n HCh 36. 
16 n %! ?ri Ps 22. Job 21.3 Neh 2. 19, 3. 33 HCh 30. :o 

Karayt'/vtLijKui : /<iy a J a charge against a person, pronour.ee a verdict a gains: 
ZZP> Ps 105. 22; Pass., ro 3* condemned CZT^TZ lb 58. 6; c[. dva- 

xarayAujTT^LLj: use the tongue against another ]"7 Ps roi. 5 |*7"?n Prv 
30. 10 

«arawuu:, late pres. Kcrajau, Karcdaaoj : break :n pieces, shatter 5711 

Dt 7. 5, 12. 3 Jes 45. 2 IlCh 34. 4 crj Job 30. 13 ?n: Lev 14.45 

Dt 7. 5 Jud 6. 30*fra Dt !2. 3 IlCh 31. 1 ; Pass,, to be broken, to be 

shattered HJ Jes 9. 9 J HI Jud 6. 28 fnn Lev 1 : . 35 ; r. p. 166 
xaraypdduj: prescribe, ordain -TO Jes 10. 1; cf. <arc£a'AAu; 
Kardycu: reduce to a state i*Sn Jer 51. 34 Job 17. 6; ct. rrpva- 
xara&dKvuj; bite ^[31 Jer 8. 17; c[. Sa*rva£cu; p. t 57 
KardSeais, -cuos; binding fast; binding by magic knots; hence, spells, 

enchantments, in pi. E^.Tp Jes 3. 20 Jer 2. 32 
*araS/aj: bind fast "icp Gn 44, 30 Dt 6. 8 Jos 2. 18 IS 18. 1 n~p> Jes 

49- 18 Job 38. 31 
KaraSidjK'uj: follow hard upon, pursue closely p"-" Gn 31. 23 Jud 18. 

22, 20, 45 IS 31. 2 IIS 1. 6 
KaraSovAcvojxai, -Al£o/, ~qw: reduce to slavery, enslave Win Ps 137. 3 
KaraSvui or -SuVu>: go down, sink, set, esp. of the sun ±pV Nu 11. 2 

Jer 51. 64 Am 8. 8, g. 5; causal, make to sink, rarely in prose, 



218 XL CREEK PREPOSITIONS 

vzo Ex 15. 4 yscn Jer 38. 22 ^rp^r* Ez 32. 14 Job 40. 25; cf. 

£k&€w, KaraBaTTTL^co 
KardOtats: payment down, payment; in Law. promise, covenant rtDTwTi 

Lev 5. 2t 
Karadpauw: break in pieces, shatter p^D IR 19. 11 ^Jj T23 Ex 9. 25, 

34. 1 IIR 1 1. i3 Jes 21.9 Jer 43. 13 Ps 20. 5, 48. 8 
KaradpuxTKOj: leap down 1*3 Lev 1 1. 21 ; cf. «V- 
KaraOvaj: sacrifice UZ] IR 3. 2, 8. 5 HCh 30. 22. 33. 22 ^>w> 
Karathiojxai: feel shame or reverence before another, stand in awe ofhizr. 

?n]nn Dan 9. 4 Esr 10. 1 Nch 9. 3; to be a:hcmed to do a limine 

HTirin Lev 5. 5, 16. 21, 26. 40 Dan 0. 20 Nch 1. 6 
Karai9<jj\ kindle *KX Jes 50. I I 
Karaiveais: betrothal * : r-i *jj-c=-^. 

Karati/taj ; grant, promise; esp, promise in marriage, betroth i--r ^ 
K-aratcr^uvaj : = Karc^^tv [befoul) 3~7p IS 2 1. 6 Jes 65. 5 
KaraKaCvoj: = /caraicrftVai (£://, iV^y) "p*7T Xu 25. 4 IIS 2 1.6 3?f?*n 

lb 21. 13 
xaraKatuj: burn completely; to be burnt "X Ex 3. 2 Nah I. 10 Nch 2. ~ 
KcraKtvouj, strengthd. for Ktvotu: emt>t\\ n:ake srace empiv rT-TXr; J-5 

19. 6 Vbn E2 28. 9 tzz Gn 24. 31 Lev r.:. 36 jes 40. 3 Mai 3. : 

7*7n Ez 32. 26 7*7- Jes 53. 5; jVj^t: ~:™ ich 2S. 9 77 ri TJir 2. 2 

n:p Zcph 3. 15 
K*ara>c7jAt5ocu, strengthd. for kt?Ai5olj : ::a:r.„ :::i V.TXiX Jes 63. 3 ; Pass., 

VfrCJ Jes 59. 3 Thr 4. 14 ^Va Jes Q- 4; metaph., defile, sully 7X1 

Mai 1.7; Pass., Viorn Dan 1. 8 7X1 Ma; :. 12 Esr 2. 62 
KaraKivtui, strengthd. for Kiviuiz set in motion, simply move V*:n IIS 

15. 20 IIR 19. 21 Am 9. 9 Dan 10. ;o; alter TIT IIR 25. 29 Jer 2. 30 

n» EccI 8. 1 rurrn IR 14. 2; disturb ~:rj 115 15. 20 IIR 23. iS 

KaraKXcts or Kardtc.\€is t -kXtjl^: sheath far ;p: ^VT IS 17. 51 IIS 20. 

8 Jcr 47. 6; cf to fvpoV 
KaraK\r)pouofi€w : leave as an inheritance 7*n;r; IS 2. 3 ICh 28. 8 7niT.n 

Lev 25. 4C 
^ara/cA-npouj, -ou^ui: receive as one's portion, esp. of a conquered 

country, divide among themselves, portion out: assign as a portion, 

portion out to colonists 7r£T»n Nu 33. 54 
kgtgkoiixcluj: (xtTpat) causal, put to sleep "2rn IIS 8. 2 IR 3- 20, 1 7. 10 

-2rn IIR 4. 32 Ez 32. 32 [cf. KtTpat, *ctTc£a,] 

KaraKOTTToj : cut down, felt, of trees HP^ Jes 10. 34 rrp Nu 15. 32; cut in 
pieces, cut up nro IIR 18. 4 Jes 2. 4 HCh 34- 7 fSf> Ex 39. 3 IIR 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 219 

24. 13 Ps 46, to tup Ex 5. 7 IR 17. 12 ; Pass., rcn Mich 1. 7; «// 
</au;n, massacre, butcher TOT\ Job 4, 20; in a military sense, cut in 
pieces, 'cut up' m? Zach r 1. 6 ron Nu 14-45 Dt l - 44! P ass <» ^k} 
Jes 24. r2 Jcr 46. 5; generally, break in pieces^ destroy, fretted in 
pieces r.ro IlCh 15. 6 nsn Job 4- 20; cf- air/-; p. 224 

Kara*: pacofiai: listen attentively ^rO Job 36. 2 

KaraKpL-TTTtij : hide, conceal, cover (W) ID") Job 17. 13 Cant 2. 5 X^-Hri 
Jos 6. 17 IIR 6. 29; Pass., c\?.n? (r-ni) IIR 6. 9 xzn Job 24. 4 rsr; 
Prv 28. !2 [ct. X2H] KZnrt Jcs 42. 22; use concealment, conceal oneself 
or one's true nature X"" Gn 3. 8 IS 13. 6 IIR 11.3 rcn" IS 28, 

8 IR 22. 30; Cf. €771- 

KaraxvMvOijj, -kv\lu>: roil down /Y?l Jer 51. 25 [cf. a-o-] 

KaTa.\€L-uj: bequeath ^iLL \ct, y^waaj: beget) ; leave, forsake, abandonT^Z^T} 

Dt 31. 6 Jos 1.5; leave alone rrsnn IIR 4. 27 Job 7. 19 
*araAe:cu>: posterity <-i^ ; cf. yd^o*: offspring: progeny (W) 
KcraXevKQuj: whiten ]^-"7rt Jes 1, 18 Joel 1. 7 Ps 51. 
icstc-Vc*: grind HV^rip Joel 1. 6 Prv 30. 14 Job 29. 17 "yr.7*: 

Ps 5 3. 7 
<c:cuc;t€vouci '.foretell against or aicu/ one KTin Ez T 2. 10; cf. di-aqepuj 
KarGLL€y*i*\avx*ouGii strensjihd. lor ^r/^avvfouc:, *t-/.' oneself against 

V^;<7 Ps 35. 26 
*cra;iefva*aj : /na/;* drunk y intoxicate (W) "r Jcr 5:, ; "!*-"m Dt 32. 

4^ Jer 51. 57 
xar^tAe'cj: »:;•* no heed to, neglect sblTrt Jes 58. 7 Ps 55. 2 
kctguJcjj Ep. ^ca^i'w: c/ax^ '/^ tfVtfJ CS!? Jes 33. 1 5 SSi* lb 29. 10 

nzp IS 4. 15 IR 14. 4 

KGTcvciotu, 'vlpw\ snow all over, cover with snow] metaph.. sprinkle as 

with snow ^JH Ps 68. 10 
KGTGi'lZt* fores. -vItttw) : wash well C-3 Gn 40. 11 Ex iq. 10 Ma! 7. 2; 

wash out. £ur°c C2D [er 4. u Ps 51. ^. Q 
Karaj*:<2u. strengthd. for vucdw: conquer, vanquish: generally, overpower 

ni; Ps 44. 5 
^ara^t'^nys: : washer ; at Athens, A* tr/ro washed the peplos of Athena 

C = ^2 JCS 36. 2 
/carcfOT^uj : £*</«£/ ITIO Ps 65. II ilTCnn Am 9. 13 (?) <_>-^ 
Kara^io^ Adv.: facing one 2Ttp_ Ps 139, 5 D"T£ Dan 2. 6, 9, 10 f l-tf [cf, 

jcarata'oxraj : XtaA, gouge ^pZ Xu 1 6. 14 Jud 1 6, 2 1 [cf. *fopuacrai] 



220 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

Karatttj: carve pph Nu 21. 18; in Pass,, npn IR 6, 35 Ez 3. ro pmn 

Job 19. 23; cL €7Ttyp<i6<jj 
Kara£*npaiv<D: dry up 2^nn IIR 19. 24 Jcs 50. 2: Pass., 2"l_n Jud 16. 7 
Kara^iow: in bad sense, degrade b^7) Thr I. 3 
^arafupacu: shave close TV71 Gr\ 4L 14 Lev 14. 9 Nu 6. 9 T\hl Jud 16. 

17, 22 Jer 41. 5 rf7srn Lev 13. 33 Nu 6. 19 rr^pn Ez 27. 31 

mpn lb 29. 18; cf. £vpiiu> 

Kara77oATa4>€T7}s : artilleryman **?p_ IIR 3. 25 

Kara^iXr^?, -Tr/Ar^r: (?rcXW) engine of war for hurling bolts, catapult 

**?P_ IS 17. 50; cf aofvdcta] 
Kararrdaucu : sprinkle, strew over mri Ex 20. 2: Lev 4, 6, 14. 7, 16 Nu 

19. 4, 2 1 Jcs 52. 15 u -^ [cf. Sta-, Karcpcalvoj, OLaarr^ipaj] 
Kararrrp/vvjxi, -vw\ stick fast in something p" Dt 28. 21 p*Z77} Ez 3. 

26 [Cf. €7Tt-] 

KararrlfiTrXrifiL: Jill quite full K"2 Dt 6. I I IIR 21. 16 Ps 120. ~ ; fM 

full o/NVa Ex 28. 3, 35. 35 Jcs 33. 5 Jer 5:. 14, 34 
KararTviw, -«tcu: blow or breathe upon or 0;^ ivsr; Ez 2!. 36 
KararroiKiWu}\ deck with various colours or in d::er:e nodes, mottle; Pass., 

YZ? Ex 28. 20; embroider (W) 727 lb 22. 39 
Karc^o^'cu : subdue after a long struggle] hand;; rzughly* crush , damage; 

maltreat, oppress "V Gn 15. 13, 16, 6 : 3 : . 50 Ex : . M . 22, 21 Nu 

24. 24 Dt 26. 6 Jcs 60. 14; esp. in Pass.. n:r Jes 53. 4 Ps 1 in. 71 

(;*-*. in on ID. 
Kararrptcu: saw up, saw asunder, cut into pieces v ;n Jer 18. 21 Ez 35. 5 

Ps 63. II; cf. rrpluj X^Z ^tl^l-l Jos I 7. I 5. 1 3 ICh 20. 3 
Kardrnr/o^, qv\ = Kararrvywv^ 0, 17, g:ren ;j unnatural lust ~7,p T Dt 23. 

18 IIR 23, 7 nr-rp Gn 38. 21 Dt 23. 18 Kcs 4. 14 
Kararrtr/ocTjvTj : unnatural lust "? T IR I 4- 24. 22. 47 
Kararrvyujv: the middle fnger (used in an obscene gesture) VZ'^X Jes 

53-9 
KcraTrui?aj : putrefy V^KZZ Ex 5-21, 16. 24 Ecel 10. : IT" lb. ^-ki ^JLt ; 

Pass., become putrefed ZXZm ICh 19. 6 /-UI 
*arapa^a: curj* HIXS Mai 3. q Prv 3. 33, 28. 27 
Karapdofiat: call down curses upon, curse, execrate m?Si) IR 8. 31 T1X 

Gn 5, 29 1K1 Thr 2. 7 V?p Gn 8. 21, 12. 3 Ex 21. 17, 22. 27 

IIS 16. 7 IIR 2, 24 Job 3. 1 Neh 13. 2, 25 *rxn Jes 27. 11; 

Pass., n*U Mai 3, 9 V?J> Job 24. 18 *r.X2 Nu 5. 18 ixr Nu 22. 6 

[c£ <V-] 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 221 

Karapdaou*, -ttqj, KarappdoQio > -"u>: dash down, break in pieces fS"} Ps 
74. 14 Job 20. 19 IlCh 16. io 7?i Juci 10. ^nn Jud 9. 53 

Karappaivu*: besprinkle, Sprinkle "7 Ps 139, 3 p^T [cf, /ccrccnrcipaj] 
KarappaKr^p^ -777; (from Karoppdcc^) , or KaraptiK-rns (from *ar- 

apdaauj) : as Subst., waterfall, cataract uO*^ 
KarwpTjyiv^i and -ucu : ir^:/; dW'n; /«r in pieces m* Xu 24. 3; Pass,, 

io £<: broke:: down; to be broken in pieces; comminuted, crumbling soil 

^V" 1 " J« 24. 19 
Karzppvacouat: Pass., become urinkled ,j-s*i j^^ 
xarapx 7 ?- beginning n^nfl Gn 1 3. 3 1 15 2 i . 0, 10 "H" Hos 1. 2 [cf. 

Kardpx^- beg::: bT\T} Gn 6. I "*n lb 4. 26 

KarnaStvyvui or -u'oj: />!// Ort, GW/tfA HID US 2 1. 1 7 Jes I. 31; 

metanh,, ni? IIS 14. 7; of passions, "D Cant 8. 7 
^racfiu: - r As« tfW*n HV3 Neh 5. 13: /Area* </ou;h m: Ps 36. 12; shake 

the head in token of contempt ™;~ Jcr 18. 16; Cl„ *ara*:;-€tj 
Kcrt2C7Kev<:s^:yl'r::zVA, equip fully; prepare, make ready for ]\Z1 Ex 10. r r 

p=" Nu 2:. 27 yzri IR 5. 32 Ps 78. 8 pvi Prv 21.31 Esr 7. 10; 
fj.Tj.'/^:. build pi Jud 16. 20 ■:" Kab2. 12 ]"," IR6. ro IlCh 33. 16, 
35. 20;-*" Ez 40. 43 Zach 5. 1 1 ; generally, prepare, arrange, establish 
yzri Gn 43- 16. 25 Ex so. 5 jos 4. 4 Jcr 51. 12 Zeph 1. 7 Ps 7. 14 
Esth 6.4 ICH22. 3 (2) \ establish )~:11S 7. i6p= lb 7. 13 Hab2. 12 
pn IS 13. 13 IIS 5, 12 IR 2. 24 Ps 103. 19 IlCh : 2. 1 p™ Jcs ib. 
5; brttare for the purpose prt Esr 7. 10 ICh 20. 2; prepare oneself 
or r:j.« rr^v for domg p: Ez 38. 7 p^r.ri Ps 59. 5 p? Rsr 7. 10 

Kara(7<a : ccr^a: xorJt of art, esp. buildings structure p9 Ex 15. 17 IR 3. 
e 3, 49 Jes 4. 5 Ps 104. 5 nrc? Esr 3. 3 n:^2 Zach 5. 1 1 ; in pL, 
engines of war; contrivance nr.22 IR 7. 27, 28 

^crcff^i-cu: = -i-do*, take up one's quarters', encamp pr Gn 14. 13, 35. 
22 Nu 2j>. 2 Mich 4. 10 Ps 120. 5; generally, rest pT Ex 24. i5, 
40. 35 Jos 22. 19 IIS 7. 10; settle, of birds p^ Jcs 13. 21 Ez 17. 23 

xaracr*ro77€tu : j£y auf , reconnoitre .. — ^ 

Kardoxorros: one who reconnoitres, scout, spy <^-j~U- 

jcaracnrcipcj: J0tt\ £ /<!/.'( 3HT Jes 40. 24; 6*£*f nin Gn I. 11 Lev 12. 
2; spread as in sowing mt Lev 26. 33 Jer 31.10 (9), 49. 32 £2 12. 
15, 20. 23 Prv 15, 7, 20. 8, 26; Pass., to be spread abroad, dispersed 
mi Jcs 30. 24 j besprinkle HIT Ps 139. 3 mt Jes 1. 6 Job 18. 15 



222 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

Karatrnivhu*: pour as a drink-offering ^03 ICh u. 18 TfZTi Gn 35. 14 
Xu 28. 7 IIS 23. 16 [cf ICh 11. 18] Jcr 7. j 8, 44. 17 Ps 16. 4; 
Pass., -]0n Ex 25. 29, 37. 16 

KaraarrevSaj : urgtf, hasten on "772 I ICh 35. 21 ^ni Esth 8. 14 VTi^H 
I ICh 26- 20; make haste, hasten bn3 Ecci 5. 1, 7. 9 h % 7\2rt Esth 6. 14 

KaTaaT€<f>cj: deck with garlands^ crown, wreathe *VfCri Ps 142. 8; encircle 

773 Jud 20, 43 Ps 22. 13 

*aracrroAt'£cu : clothe, dress fPass.) brwi Ez 16. ^ 7rnn lb. 

Karaa^^cij : n/4 in pieces, pound XDT Ps 51. to Prv 22. 22 Job 10. 2 
Thr 3- 34 *°! J°b 22. 9 N"n Job 5. 4 ?77 Ex 30. 30 I IS 22. 43 
IIR 23. 6, 15 Mich 4, 13 HCh 15. 16, 34. 4, 7 p~n Jcs 2<3. 23; 

cf. Sat^cy 

Kararax^: accelerate ~~r» Jud 20. 37 Jcs 5. 19, 60. 22; escaoe by 

superior speed ZT7i7\ Ps 55. 9 
KarartLvuj: rack, torture; overwork nan Am 5. 12 Mai 3. 5; tend; strut 

earnestly non Ex 23. 2 ; stretch 707 Jcr 6. 12; stretch, extend downwards 

nrr; Gn 24. 14 Ps 88. 3, 1 16. 2; t\ p. i33 
Karar^puj: cut in pieces, cu: up nrj Lev 1, 6. 12 Jud 19. 29, 20. 6 IS 

11.7 crn Ez 24. 10 
kct<i7€ux&: make, constru:: Z'^V Job 10. 2 
KararTjKW, -raxa*: melt 7717 Ez 22. 20 "717 Ez 22. 20 "7.n lb. 7.7 7. 

I 22. ° ° 
KararldTj/jLt: place t put, lay down 7717 Lev :5. 23 Nu 17. 19, 19. 9 D: 

26. 4 Ez 5. 13, 37. 1 ; deposit Y77>7Z ,77:) Est 6, r 777 (771) lb 

6. 5 ^7H lb 5. T5; deposit in Uic tomb, bury 7717 IR 13. 30; sow seed 

7*Z? IS 2. 20; lay down, make a road ]71 Ps i3. 33 7*77 US 22. 3* 

[cf. Ps 18. 33] ; dish up, sene :?5 Gn 43. 31 IS 9. 24 sriH Gn 24. 33; 

ky ^atr/i :7z a place; of :he dead, bury 7717 IR 13. 3; ::^ Gn 50, 26; 

make a testamentary disposition ms Gn 49, 29, 33, 50, 16; r. p. i_;3 
KzrzriXduj: make dirt over 7TS Job 16. 15, *arii ttj,- *«6aA^- Kczrcrer;- 

Anac^ai, Artemidorus Daldianus 2. 26 Tcf <^\;':S^]; Pass., 77*J77 

1S31.4 

«rarcr^Uaj : pull to pieces S7D Jos 9. 5 

Kararpt3aj : of clothes, wear out — hence metaph., ol ra prjfiara Kcrcre 
rptoorff, i.e. constant frequenters of the tribune, Isocrates, Epistolae 
8. 7; cf. ^jstc^M'?] Hab 3. 19— Tpmr: Job 28. 8; of persons, 
arar out y exhaust ^TTtTi Jud 20. 43 

Kararpl^Wy strengthd. for rpl^w: grind ^; gnash p77 Ps 35. 16 Job 

I 6. 9 O j** \ Cf. fipVKUJ, Tpi^Ut 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 223 

Kararpuxaj: wear out, exhaust rrnart Job 37. 1 1 XV Jos 7. 3 Eccl 10. 

15 s;in Jcs 43. 23, 24 (rpu X ttiffiWn^r/mb Dt 1. 12 Jes 1. 14 Eccl 

12. 12 exhaustion, distress) 
KararpcLyui: eat up, csp. fruits and vegetables CCnp Pi 2o. 14 
Kararir/x^uj : Aj{ o/i^*j mark y reach the object of; abs., /a 6* /i/cJty or 

successful Vrrn Dt 29. 8 Jos 1. 7, 8 IS 18- 5, 14, 15 IR 2. 3 IIR 

:8. 7 Jes 52. 13 Jcr 10. 2 1 , 20. 1 1 Ps 101 . 2 Prv 17. 8 (?) 
Kdrarvrrraj: pound pD"inri Jud 19. 22 ^*w (xara- v^":" 
AL-arair/aCcii : shine upon, illuminate rr>ri IIS 22. 29; intr. 3 shine brightly 

™:~ Jes 13. 10 
KarauAccu: play on the flute ^7H IR 1, 40 
xaravM^ofLat: to be under shelter of a hall, house, tent ^nX Jes 13. 20 [cf 

wv uiv KaravMaOrjre, Euripides Rhesus 518, Now :o vcur tents ■ \V) 

"•7K-J7: T?V^? J R I2 - ^]; cf. adXl&fiai 
Kcrci6ap t uaj<€vuj: dose with drugs] anoint with drugs or charms "H UCh 

16. 14 [cf. ""in p/enchamed potion] ; poison T^Sm Prv 23. 32 
xaraotpuj-. bring down "VZ" Ps 18. 48, 47. 4 [cf, IIS 22. i8] 
KcracxLyLJijlee and take refuge, fee for protection VVZ Jer ,1. 6 T 6. I 
k c rc 06 wu : sound loudly ^Tri Jes 3. 1 9 

<crsa'€;>(j: <:Vj/™>' yr: Dt 12. 3 UCh 33. 3 yr^ Jud 6. 28 ~" Lev 

I I. 35: *-** 'csrcyrvu: 

\-c:ccc'ilj : ruin, destroy "7IK Xu 33. 52 Dt 12. 2, 3 IIR ::. 1, 21. 3 

Jes 20- 14 Jer 12. 17, 15, 7 Ez 22. 27 Ps 9. 6 Prv 1. 32 Thr 2. 9 

Esth 3. O -^ ; ; = Karaodivvduj 
*cTc6A*yc^; £:://; z/p, consume, burn down (\V) S72 Nu ^.20 Ps 2 1 . 10 

n?3 Jes 10. 18 Efc 22. 31 Zach 5, 4 n^7 Jud :. 8 IIR 3. 12 

Ps 74. 7 ; :\ t k- } tK—vpotu 
sara\€uj f -tutu : ^cur, shower down ppT Job 36. 27 plT Lev 2, 1,8. 15 

IIR 3. i!, 4. 4j 41 Jes 44. 3 Ez 24. 3 Job 20, 6, 30. 38 p^n 

IIR 4. 5 p m f~ Lev 21. ior^z Ex 9. 33 ^il~ -^SL S~*: nictaph., 
p- Jes 44. 3 p^n Pi 45. 3 ?[r: Jer 42. 18 Job 3. 24 Dan q[ i i 
": Jcr 42. 18 Nah i. 6; mm* to flow 2^?r. Job 38. 37; to hare 
metal -tW.'^ ppT Mai 3. 3 ppT Ps 12, 7 ICh 28. 18 p^ E.x 25. 
;2 ? 26. 37 IR 7. 46 pv.r Job 28. 2 UCh 4. 3 p^n Jos 7. 23 
p^n IR 7, 23 Job 37. 18 ^ra Ez 22. 21, 24. 11 Tpnr; IIR 22. 9 
Ez 22, 20 Job 10. 10 ■qvun Ez 22. 20 ^nn lb 22. 22 [cf. nfjew, 

vara^cuSo^at: /*// ZiYf against, speak false of accuse falsely ZTD Job 34, 6 
znrn Job 24. 25 wn? J os 24. 27 Jes 59, 13 Jer 5. 12 Prv 30. 9; 



22 4 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

sayfalsely y pretend, feign, invent 3T3 Nu 23, 19 IIR 4, 16 Ez 13. 19 
Ps 78. 36,89.36 Prv 14. 5 Job 6. cacnDGn 18- 15 IR 13. 18H05 
4. 2 Zach 13.4 Ps 18.45 Job 0. * 8 -™ D: 33. 29 rnrrn II? 22. 
45; Pass., to be wrong, in error PHD Lev 5. 21. 22 ; cf. ytvSoucL: g:ve 
a false account of; v. i7TiK€v0aj 
^arat/nj^cu: rub down, pound in a mortar vro Prv 27. 22 m? IIR io. 4 
Jes 2. 4 IlCh 34. 7 rr.3 lb 15. 6 rcn Nu 14- 45 r.zri Jer 46. 5 

Mich I. 7 (J-> [cf. crui^j, V<^-j nrara-; tyOior. -ta/xa, -t^cu] 

>caraipux<jj ' coot t chill *?Jj Jer 6. 7 

<aT«yyv€uaj; £:** security *p?\ Prv 6. 1, II. I 5 ; Cl. rrrjyvuut 

*careVaKra, -riov: Adv. ar*r against, opposite m l^ Ex IQ. 2 Jos 3. I 6, 5. 13. 
8. 33 Job 10. 17 mu Ps 1 16, 14 "!!» Gn 2- 18 n3"Tf? Ez 39. 1 1 *'—S 

Karepyd^ofiai, €pyd£ouci y fcpydSSofian work, labour, esp. of husbandry 
2?r Jos 24. 13 Jcs 62. 8 "735? Gn 2, 15, 4- 2 Jer 27. 1 1 ; but alio of 
all manual labour — with brass w"in Gn 4. 22 ; do something to ^~ 
Prv 14. 22 ; chiefly in bad sense, do one ::7^H" IS 23. 9; perform 
rites *T357 Ex 13. 5 Nu 18. 6 n?p Dan 3. 12; prevail upon Viyr: 
IlCh 34. 33; till the land snn Am 9. 13 rrrs Pi 141. 7 [cf. t-c.^] 

IT7S Prv 7. 2~ ^-» ; c:. c^orptacj, CTrrOt'cu 
KCTepv^ouj; strip entirely ojf Tl^iVTl Lev 20, :3. 19: c:. €^€p-ru6uj 
KCTtpxofjLai: go conn "TV Ex 15. 5 ; g down :-o :he grave T~!* Gn 37- 21 

Ez 32. 30; from high land to the coast "'Jon i. 3; cf a rivrr. 

come down TV Dt 9. 2 t 
iccr^w, icaTiaycy: koid fas! p^" Ex 0. 2 D: 22. 25 IS l 7. 35 IIS :=,. f 

Jes 41. 13 Jer 50. 33 Mich 7. 18 Nch 4- 1 1 ; hold back, withhold vsr. 

Ex 10. 24 (cf. €^aip€oj) ; restrain oncscii from "VTH Nu 6. 3; cling :: 

P^nn Jcs 4- 1, 5 6 - -> 4J^ r 8 - 5 Prv 3- l3 : 7- 13 Job 2. 3, 27. 6: 

possess , occupy, esp, of rulers p^Tnn IIR 15. 19 Dan 1 1. 21 ; hold fast. 

have one :n /.«:> £o:r^r j7 % Tnn Jer 6. 2j>, -in. 2a Mich -t. 0; occupy in 

right of conquest p'Tnn Dan 1 1, 7; follow dose upon p^T" Nch. 3. 4: 

cf, pTH Jer 20. 7 t'x'^: '--« advantage of 
KarTjXoye tu : maA'i of small account "]H2 IR 21. :o, 13; cf. cuAoy^ 
^ciTtxrfrei/aj, *g£?-; strcngthd. for iV^rti/tj (Sis Gn 23. 3 Ruth 1. :*i 

entreat earnestly 3?*isr: Jer 3G. 25 
Kariaxvptvo/icu: strengthen oneself pinnn Gn 48. 2 Nu 13. 20 IS 4. 9 

IIS 10. 12 IR 20. 22 Dan 10. 19 IlCh 1. 1 
jcarurxu'cu: strengthen, encourage pin Dt r. 38, 3. 28 Jos I 1. 20 IIR 12. 

7 Jcs 41. 7 Ez 13. 22 Dan 10. i8 f 19 Esr 6. 22 IlCh 29, 34, 35. 2 

p^nn IIR 15, 19 Ez 27- 9, 30. 25 Dan 1 1. 1 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 225 

kcltoikI£iu: settle, establish n^n IIR 17. 6, 24 Jcr 32. 37 Ez 26. 20 
]ZU Nu 14. 30 Jcr 7- 3, 7 yo^n Gn 3, 24 Ez 32, 4; colonise, people 
a place, Pass., DS^rj Jcs 5. 8, 44. 26; bring home and re-establish there, 
restore to one^s country 3~U*u\ Ez 36. I I 

KaToiKiafxos'. (in pi.) = KaToUiatSy habitation 2^12 Ex 10, 23 IR 10. 5 
Ez 6. 14, 34. 13, 48. 15 Ps 107. 4 ICh 6, 39 

/caroixor : inhabitant, esp. of military colonists 2^a\ Gn 23. 4 Ex 12. 45 

Lev 22. 10, 25. 40, 45, 47 IR 17. I ; Cf. oiWrr;*, oucTjrrjff 
KaroiLuv^uj: bewail, lament C^nn Ps 55. 3 
Karopdocu: metaph., keep straight, set straight "7X Jcs 3. 12, 9. 15 

~iwK lb. ^7"! Prv 3. 6, 4- 25, 15. 21 "iznn Jcs 45- 2 "^ Ps 5. 9; 

Pass., succeed, prosper; intr. as in Pass., go on prospering, succeed, opp. 

TrraUiv (^*2 > *p stumble, trip, fall) yunn Prv* 12. 2; of success in 

war LT3HH IS 14. 47; v. pp. 633-4 
KarajSiin: push down; Pass., nni Ps 36. 13 
#cc7LLUio*: low in the shoulder or forequarter ^"2 Ex 28. 12 Dt 33. 12 

Jcs 46. 7 Ez 24. 4, 34. 2i Job 31. 22 [cf. (Vuu;'r: pec:., shoulder 

rpr Gn q, 23, 21. 14 Jcs 10, 27 Job 31. 22] 

pedepuTjfcuuj: translate v^ ; freq. in Pass. -*"t Esr 4. 7 [spurious 
homology'; cf. jseraypdouj] 

u.€ r }l-r t iii, imp. 3 pL fi€UL€v Od. 21. 377, Ep. t±€6Uc<cv: let hose, let go 
what is bound, stretched cr held back rr; IS 4. 2; release a 
prisoner, set one free to do as he will, dismiss, a wife, dismiss (\V) 
Tri: HCh 23. 8; Pass., let loose (as if from a leash} rr: Jes 33. 23; 
give up, abandorrttl Jud 6. 13 Jer 12. 7 Prv 17, 14; of liquids, 
let fiow, la drop *pi Jud 5. 4 Joel 4, 18 Job 29. 22 Can: 5. 5, 13 
zz: Hos 12. 15 ^rn Am 9. 13 Mich 2. 11 "ics Prv 17. 14; of 
words, utter ^BH Ez 2. 12 Am 7. 16; fAroa- aside, give up ?r: IS 
10. 2; abandon, neglect rr: Jud 6. 13 IS 17. 28 Prv 1. 8; permit 
rr: Gn 31. 28 ]rU Nu 2 1, 23; V. d^reirrov 

uttyi-vpt or piyvvfu, also ^(e;tyvvcj: mix, strictly of liquids ^n2 Jes t. 
22 [ci. /xcjcrds-] "^C2 Ps 102. io '•po Ps 28. 3; generally, join, 
bring together, in various ways: "pO Cant 1,4; in hostile sense, join 
battle hand to hand :pa Jud 20. 37; come to; mix in fight ipn lb 
4. 7; in Horn, and Hes. most freq. of the sexes, have intercourse 
with, both of the man and the woman ;n? Cant 7, 3 [cf. ^&s] 

^ra^ciVcu: pass over 220 IR 2. 15 Ez 42, 19; pass from one state to 
another, make a transition; pass to another place or state --S Nu 36. 7 

UtrapLSdfa: causal of pcroiaiVoj, carry over, transfer -20 IR 2. 15 

6454 C 77 I 



22 6 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

2CH IIR 1 6. i8 Jer 21. 4; lead in a dijferent direction, change the 
course or form ZZl Xu 34. 4 220 Ps 1 14. 3, 5 ZZZ IIS 14. 20 ZZr> IR 
1 3. 37 Jcr 21. 4 E2 7. 22 Esr 6, 22 IlCh 35. 22; ?:? after, fcil*v a 
pursuit eagerly 22:c Jcr 31. 22 (21) 
fi€rayiyvcLaKat: change one's mind, repent "VH Dan 0. 4 Esr 10. : 
Nch 9. 3; c. ace. rci, change one's mind about, repent of ""H Lev 
5.5, 16. 21, 26. 40 Dan 9. 20 Neh i- 6 [y:y;xic«cj is an asiocia::: 
verb of eiSu//3?"P. Like i*T*, but unlike <: *3cj t it has preserved the 
meaning of 'carnal knowledge*. It has also preserved the mcar.::.r 
of 'repentance', which sfScj also had ; and c: which there is a c/.: 
in ro awciSo'r (- r ai :'. avvot&a) meaning cc : s::s>:iledge?ner:t. ~r.c :r. 

"Tin, for w^n — like ntipM/^upn m Lev 14- 41 j 

utraypddxu: cooy, transcribe] rewrite, alter or correct ivhat one has urittei : 

- • - 
translate Zl^r>z Eir 2,. 7 -**vh 

uerctpcj, 77^5- : /:/: i:5 c^* remove, shift "V™ Joe; 4. 7 

u€Taixmo$> -to-: between tuo armies; but usu. Subs:, -oi-, :p-v^ ^:^::^ 

rxo armies 2"2 IS 17. 23 

-frcAriv^cu: change, alter ^r IIR 25. 2:. Ps 34. : : Pass. Z-" Thr 4, : 

n;r Eeci 3. 1 n:r— IR is. 2 

u€Tz<Qui£cj: transport; Med., l'j::.^ .'5 :** ;;*':•: ::^ TZrrr L-r. 2. .: , T 

ufTc-Ucccrcj, -— u>: change, alter "" Gn 4:. 14 r "" Ihji.^.^f.:. 

exchange, interchange """n Lev 07. 10 Jes 9. w; substitute r *~" . . . 



^erz;'oecy: cnansse ones n:::d or iturtose. 

O 4 * 



that it is not; repent zriri Gn 6. 6 Ex : 3. : 7 IS : 5. 29 ]:r :=. '1 

"inn Xu 23. 19; cf. €-;- 
~€Tziv t h €T £v: prop. - the midst ns? Gn 47. 2 Ez 33. 2 r.^pjud : 1 : 

IR 12. 31 7]T, Gn :c. 29. 23. 10 Ex 3. 2, 12, 3: Xu 3, ::. 4. _ 

Dt 4, 15; ::: ;~* ^:i^ of Tf£ J.r.2 Gn 15. :o Xu 35. 5 J:s c. :: 

•Vi/qir!2 Gn :. 6 Ex 2. 5 Xu 2. 1 7 Ez 1 : . 23 ; ;\ ii-rd; 
u€rz6€poi: carry acres:, transfer, divert, shift ~""r Jos 22- 17 TT" Jjr 

:6. 13 Jon 1. 4 K*" IIS 17. 13 ^Z±7> Gn 4;. 2: Jos 7. - ?< :f 

14 Esth 8. 2 IlCh 35. 24; :■. p. 148 
utTtpxofiai, tt«5-: ra/r* or^u among ~pnrn IS : 2. 2. 25. 15, 30. j : ; s - ;; 

another place, migrate, change one's abode "]7".r; Ps 105, 13 ; y~_-< ; „:: . 

come after ""pil" IS 25. 27; in hostile sense, pursue, prosecute *f^-- 

Job 16. 3; punish, seek to avenge, visit a crime upon J^Zl IR 2. : 

Job 6. 25 
^<r*\w: partake of share in, to be in the secret, partake of something 

in common with another pWOH Ps 55. 15 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 22? 

fierotKos: occupant of the same house with another ]3^ Ex 3. 22 
perujTrLas: having a broad or high forehead H31 Lev 13, 41 
jj.tr ajTTtov: = ficTujrrov: prop, the space between the eyes, brow, forehead 
nnri Lev 13. 42 ^~i v^ n ?2 Ex 2O. 38 Ez 3. 7 

rrapa^alvu* : overstep, transgress^ sin against a god 1-* Xu 22. 18 Jud 
2. 20 IS 15. 24 Jes 24. 5 Prv 27. 12 Dan 9. 1 1 HCh 24. 20; Med. ; 

offend against, commit an offence against ^iZ^rri Prv i_i. 1 6 T 20. 2, 
26. 17; pass over, omit 1=37 Dt 26. 13 Am 7. 3 Mich 7. 18 Prv ig. 
11 T-Sn IIS 12. 13, 24. ro 
TrapayyeXevs : informer, accuser '*^"J Lev 19. 16 Jer 9. 3 Prv 11.13 
rr apdyychfia: message transmitted by beacons, mobilization •n Job 12. 5 
rrapaoidiufii (late -StStu) : Ad/:*/ or*r /a another, transmit; deliver ui>, sur- 
render; with collat. noiion of treachery, betray; give ui> 10 justice 
r."rn Dt 20. 20; cf. di/a- 

-apaSdciuos- : handed down, transmitted , hereditary 7 handed down by tradition 
n/a Jcs 14. 23 Ob 17 ^- Ex 6, 8 Dt 33. ^ Ez ::. 15, 25. 10 
[cf. LXX] 

rrapdcoaii : handing down, bequeathing, transmission, handing zicr, transfer; 
transmission of legends, doctrines, etc, tradition; that uh:ch is handed 
down or bequeathed, tradition, doctrine } teaching 777 "T.::, v. Trc3aoda;uo> 

-apcKcrcz^fcq. TrapKadrjKn: deposit of money or r-rocerrv entrusted to 
one's cere T^pS Lev 5. 21, 23; of persons cn:rus:ed :o guardians, 
LL'cr^mp?!] Jer 52. 11; of persons under the pro:ec:ion of :he state, 
sacred trust ]T7pD"~Gn 41. 36 [cf. Kararldfj^i^p^ Lev 5. 23] 

rrdpaXos, ov : (oAff) Ay or n^rr ;£* j* a ; 77 rrdjc-W >^j t:x coast-land of 

Atiica r.?7P Ex 15. !4joei 4. 4 Ps 87, 4 [(— p, y r ; cf. /T^Accy^] ; 
hence ot i7. fA* people of the coast-land D^r.rb? Gn 10. :^, 21. 32 
TO7D IS 17. 8, 2 1. 10 IIS 21- 17 [cf. /7eAcc7yd>] 
TrcpcLXyai?: disabling of the nerves, paralysis n^7D Jes 21. j. Job 2r. 6 

-apaLLvd€Ofj.at: encourage, exhort JHZ IIS 12. 14 ^^- ^^ ; console, comfort 
cm IIS 13. 39 cmn Gn 24. 67 Jer 31. 15 (14} ?s 77. 3 cru Jes 
49. 1 3 Jer 3 1 . 13 (12) Ruth 2.13 Thr 1 . 2 2?: Jcs 54. 1 1 , 66. 1 3 
EH^n Gn 37. 35; cf dri^ai/yKJ/fKl not to heed; slight, p. 137 
rrapapiv&jjlj.a: consolation En: Hos I 3, 1 4 HErU Ps I r Q. 50 ZVu Jes 57. 18 
Trapapu&Tp-rjs : consoler Dnja IIS 10. 3 Nah 3. 7 Thr 1. 2 
Trapapv&qTtKos: consolatory, a letter of consolation "2-.ru Zach 1 , 13 
rrapafivdia: encouragement, exhortation; consolation Einjri Jer 16. 7 Ps 94. 
ig nsrp Ps 119. 50 [cf. 7Tapafiv&7]fia] 



22 8 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

TTapavopdu*: transgress the law y act unlawfully ; commit a crime or outrage 

"F 1 Jcr 3. 1,9, 23, 11 Ps 106. 38 *pnn Nu 35. 33 Jcr 3. 2; cf 

avofiOj/^n^wir^ ; dvo/xTj/ia/^.n ; ayo/ita/^Sin 
rrapaTrardaj : deceive, cajole *?nn Gn 31. 7 Ex 8. 25 Jud 16. 10 Jcr 0- 4 

Job 13. 9 Vmn Jes 44- 20 [cf *f-; nbnns lb 30. 10: a^dr^ia, 

beguilement, deceit, stratagem] 
rrapaT-qptu) : with evil design, lie in wait for, watch one's opportunity is: 

Lev 19. 18 Jer 3. 5 Ps 103. 9; cf rnpiu* 
7rap<x<*>'- furnish, supply, provide *?riJ Gn 47. 17 II Ch 28. 15 
rraptarrjfit: make to stand, place beside 2"!Sri Gn 21. 28, 29 
rrapoLK€ti}\ live in a place ]ZV Gn 14. 13 Jcr 25. 24 Joel 4. 17 Mich 

4. IO Ps 74. 2 IICH 6, I ; cf <fV-, -pocr- 

rrdpoiKos: neighbour ]?3 Ex 3. 22, 12. 4 IIR 4.3 Ez 16. 26 Prv 27. 10; 

sojourner in another's house p» Ex 3. 22; = ji*tgik-o> 
rrapopafia: oversight, error (pi.) Dl^y Ps 90. 8 
rrapopdw; look past, i.e. overtook D^Vy Lev 20, 4 IS 12. 3 Jes 1. 15; 

Pass., nbys IR 10. 3; disregard, neglect -7V"? Dt 22. 1 Jes 58, 7 

Ps 55- 2; cf. KaraucXtcj (spurious; at best, secondary) 
rrapopyi^w. provoke to anger run IS 28. 15; el. opyl^cj 
rrapaj-rU: lock of hair or curl by the ear nXS Lev :c. 27 Jer 9. 25 
rrepiSaXXcu: throw round or over oneself pu: o;i\ Pass., have a thing :l: 

round one 7213 ICh 15. 27 (tt/3) 
7T€pl3\rj^a: garment, robe IJIQ Prv 31. 22 '* — -. A T: 
^cpiSoAiJ: covering, garment, dress xVrnD Dan 3. 2: ™? Ib. : lb 3. 27 
^cpiStpatov: necklace #-^1 (tt/J, p/J), *jl-^~ > -' ; cf Stpaioi*: |"VJ 
rrepte^cj: surround so as to guard r fp? HCh 23, 7; beleaguer r "~ 

IIR 6, 14 
TTcpiZtofJia, -aja^tc: girdle worn round the loins ri->?j2 Jes 3. 24; apron j^ 
rr€pi^wfii: gird upon a person 1JN IIS 22. 40 Jes 45. 5 Ps 30. 12 [cf. 

KaraWaj] ; f i>rf on«*</ with iiXyv lb 93. I ; cf ;^™, 'jTK "niX p ^n 
-ztpiKorrru*: trim ojj fSJ? IIR 16. 17, 18. 10, 24, 13; cf g^q^Jo* 
TcpioyiJ: generally, campass, extent; aggregate rmE Es;h 4. 7, 10. 2 
rrcpippavrTjptov: utensil for besprinkling, csp. u.h:sk for sprinkling water 

at sacrifices, or vessel for lustral water ni:r Jer 15. 7 p~}p Ex 27. 3 

Nu 7. 13 Zach 9. 15; = pa\rrqpt.ov\ V, Karappaivu* 
tr€pt^€po>: carry round y carry about with one ms Jes 22. 6; cf 6op<<+> 
TTpodyycXos: announcing beforehand; Subst., harbinger *]N7a Gn 16. 7, 

19, i, 22. II, 28. 12, 31. II, 32. 4, 48. 16 Ex 3. 2, 14. 19, 23. 20 

Nu 20, 14, l6, 22. 22 JOS J. 22 Jud 2. I, 5. 23, 6. I I IS 29. 9 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 229 

IIR 5. rojcs 18. 2, 42. 19 Hag 1. 13 Mai 2. 7 Ps 78. 49, 91. n, 

103- 20, 104. 4 Prv 16. 14 Job 33. 23 Jj~j ^^ £L [cf. Ttpoa- 

ayy^AAtu] 
rrpoayoptviv : (in AtL fut. is rrpO€p<L, aor. 7rpo*r77or, pf. rrpottpTjKa) declare 

or proclaim publicly) order publicly •; give public notice TTUn Ex 18. 20 

Ez 3. 17-21; cf. dyopaty/Q^inX 
rrpoayar/ds- ; leading on; Subsi.. pander, pimp, procurer fW) -'ji; cf. -tf/ 

T]y€Of±ai 3 -Xitijr}y€f±u)v 
-poaiptuj: prefer "1D3 Dt 2 1. 16; cf, *£- 
-poSaifuj: step jonvard^ advance ; of hair, grow] of persons, 01 —poSeS^- 

*qt€$ rfi r}\iKia advanced in age K2 Gn 24. 1 Jos 13. 1, 23. 1 (LXX: 

■rrpoS^firiKQjS r]p.€p<jjv, rr . rujv rjjieptlii', 77. rats' r]jx€?cis) IS I 7. 12 
ttooSoAtj: advanced body of cava!r. r ^2^3 ICh 26. i3 T12 IIR 21 r 1 
rrpoyoro*: (ytyvo/iat) forefather, ancestor; freq. in pL ]p2 Dt 32, 7 
rrpoOt'Scjut: £iV* u fl ; surrender, give up rm Dt 20. 20 [cf- rrapa-] 
rrpocyyuaouai: furnish security or guarantee 2127 Gn ^_i. ?2 Prv 6- I, 11. 

15 Xeh 5. 3 22-1 lb 5. 2 
—podvpojua, aro$: = Trpodupov, front door, door-nay, eso. of the entrance 

to the gi/Atj (o£<rn royr**, court-yard; later c*?wr.' or auzdrartgle round 

which the house was built; generally, courts hci* ; of ;he entrance 

to the pcynpov (halt; house, palace) ]TT")3 Jud 3. 22 spurious); 

rrpoordf , d5o? : vestibule, porch^ portico 
-pd^ -potxrdr: .*{/?, present 7^2 Gn 33. 1 1 IS 30. 26 IIR 5. 15; after 

Horn., marriage-portion, dowry rC"}3 Jos 15. 19 
rrpoK<L\vfi^ia: veil, curtain r.S^Q Ex 26. 31, 33 [cf. -ape-, 7Tupy<Lris-] 
TrpofcaAi/rrraj: />:/* ax a jrr«/: ; corrr £?crr; Med., «:/ *]?*" Gn 38. 14; 

cf. KaAuoij/mDD 
T7poKOjj.Lov: frontal tuft, of human beings SHS Xu 6. 5 
-poAa^Tj: A:Vi snb Jud 3. 22 

rrpoAaAt a» : converse first ; state, announce before ^5Gn2!. 7 ; cf. arro-, urrtp- 
rrpoA* error \ for sake 7 abandon nenn Dt 31. 6 Cant 3. ^; r. *ara- 
rrpouos: f \yrp6) foremost man; later, generally, «r>/ :^2")2n Jer 39. 3 

(cno-)n lb. (nptf-)a-! IIR 18. 17; cf ftw3f* 

rrpdppTjacr: prediction, prognosis nn^K Ps I 19. 38; previous instruction or 

warning mcx lb 119. 67; at rr. public notices, as proclamation, 

instruction, order, public command (W) *?xn2 ICh 16. 7 ]VZh 

Esr 3. 7 

TTpoaayyeAia : bringing of tidings, message HIWS US 18. 25, 27 

TTpoaayy^'AAa; : announce^ bring tidings "ltf3 IS 4, 17 IIS K 20 IR 1. 42; 



23 o XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

= TTpoadyuj) announce, report; denounce^Y) IIS 19. 28 [cf. lb 16. 1-4; 

» a P"] 
rrpocdycj: introduce, present (W) l"^n Gn 43. 9; introduce at court V±7% 

lb 47. 1 [cf. iXo-\ ; bring or draiL io onesc.j , a::ac:; :j oneselj, bring 

over to one's side; draw to oneself, embrace --'. IIS I. 20; bring 

or draw to oneself, attach to oneself, bring cur :j cue's side, recruit 

(W) JTZSH Jcr 52. 25; cf. kct- 

Trpaaaywytus, -yos : tale bearer, hence 'agent provocateur' of tyrants 
T^n Lev 19. 1 6 Jcr 9. 3 Ez 22. 9 Prv ::. :.-. ['.:. -c3cyye.W>*] 

— oo<7aycjyd>- : attractive, persuasive CVZ IIS :. 2J frv 2 2- J - -4- 4 ^ ar,; 

1 . I 6 ; cf. 7Tpoc:aya» 

-poa^ip<op.at: choose ar.d associate with, take f;r :-.e s ::mp:-::cn or city 

7'J1 Gn 37. 2; cf. ci?w<::£ap 
rrpcca-jXicu: perform or. the fute s~!~ IP- t- 40 r Zl. €T- 
-rpo<i3aX\u>: strike against, make an attack or s;::^": upon, attack, charge 

VTiT.T} Gn 43. 1 8 *"?:.-" lb.; /Arou- onesef upy. another's protection 

bzzr-n Dt 9. 18, 25 Esr 10. 1 [cf. g-.tizcMcj] 
—pcc£aat$: (r7pocr3c:Vu/ means of approacn, asses:, esp. up;::;. X'Z^Ji:^ 

r. 24 IIS 3. 25 IICH 23. 15 
■rpocSoX-j: attack, ft cf disease ~br,Z Lev 26. :z- 
rrp cc7iefL>: acceptance y:s^ Ex 28. 38 Lev 22. 2~ Jrs f.3. 3. 5i. 2 Ps 

-5c<7C«\'o^ai, -x-oLis: : nser.e favourably, accept rt2- Jer 14. 10 beel 9. 7 

IlCh 10. 7; jfi'r::': P2"l Lev 26. 41; vrdirtat? rr*J-. Pi 50. :S: 

.'a/':^ a Iiabilitv I'i"^.-: onesef, guarantee ~Z~ Jcs 3c. :3; j^u:.'. expect 

-*J"i Job 14. 6 [cf. lb 7. 2] 7>z~ Jcs 30. :3 r.z~ Job 3. 21 ; :ta:t 

for nrn Jcs 8. 17 Hab 2. 3 Ps 33. 20; ua-.t "r. IIR 7. 9. 9. 3 

^ccSoKcty. -t'cu: expect, whether in hope cr fear 7:7, Jcs 5. 2, 4. 59. 
9, ii, 64. 2 Jer 13. :6 Job 3. 9, 30. 26 Thr 2. :6 *j> : ; *.rp-'-'.', 
bokfor a thing ~'p? Gn 49. 18 Jcr 3. 15 Job 7. 2 [c:. lb 14. 6]; 
expect, wait for a person "*p Jes 40. 31. 49. 23 [::. Jcr 17. 13 Ps 
7:. 5; Ps 37. 9 Thr 3. 25 mp. Jes 8. 17. 25. o. co. 9 Mich 5. 6 Ps 
25. 5, 21 Job 17. rj; cf. €Ajn£eu (spurious 

rrpccooMrrpa: expectation "*?"? Jcr 14. 3, 17. 13 Esr :o. 2 ICh 29. 15 

rrpocdoKta : expectation, whether in hope or icar 7rpr> Jcr 29. 1 1 Hos 

2. 17 Ps 71. 5 Prv 19. :3 Job 6. 3, 8. 13, 11. i3 ? 14. 19 Thr 3. 29 
Trpoaeyyi'Cuj : bring near IT*' Gn 27. 25, 48. io Ex 21. 6; intr., approach 

r*~7 IS 14. 18; cf. aw- . 
rrpooevvirrco : command "i" Gn 49. 28 Ex 16. 23, 19. S Nu 23. 2 * % Z7, 
Ps 19. 3 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 231 

7Tpoo€plito > TToreplohuj'. strive with or against 7nj\T\7\ Jer 12. 5, 22. 15 
Ps 37. 1 Prv 24. 19; provoke to anger mnnn Ps 37. 7, 8; cf. ovv- 

TTpnoe'pxo/iai, -ot*-\ come or go to ^]?nnn Jud 21, 24; in hostile sense, 
attack ]nn IIS 5. 24; cf. />J£w 

rrpoarjKoj, -o0tj-, -oOd- ; frcq, in Part, as Adj., rrpoa^Kcjv, befitting, 
proper, meet, becoming (W) ; ra tt, what is Jit, seemly ~hk Esr 4. 14 

Trpoodtv, -0a, and in Poets -6t: of Place or Space, before, in front QT£ 

Jcs 0. ! 1 Ps 139- 5 - ljki ; of Time, before, formerly, erst, of old Qlf?. 
IIR 19. 25 JCS23. 7, 51.9 Jcr 46. 26 Mich 5. 1 Hab 1. 12 Ps 74. 2, 

* • _ * * . 
12 Thr 2. 17 ~"7p Jcs 23. 7 Ez 16. 55 ^-^ L— ^ 

Trpofficafi«Couai: sit down before a town, besiege wKr £2 10. 57, 28. 24, 

26; watch carefully CC*~ Zach 4. 10 
^floaicaiw: set on fire p-tri Jes 44. 15 Ez 39. 9; mesaph.. to be in love 

with p-n Gn 34. 8 Dt 7. 7, 10. 15 [spurious(?} ; c:. dynrrd^w] 
-pooKeipat: generally to remain in place; to be attached or devoted to 

prn Gn 34. 3; devote oneself to (he service of a god prn Ps 91. 14 

[sDUriouS: '?) ; cf. dyaTrc^uj, - pea Kdaj] 

TTpoaKQ^rr^: srjnble or strike cgzmst \^ Ps 9 1 . 12 Prv 3. 23 ri:^ Jer 
13. 16; Cl". -rat'a;; r ;p: ; '€-{-, p. 200 

-rpoaxvMcj : ro:7 fo, re?// ttf ; metaph., in Pass., waiiow ir. 7Tir.~ IIS 20. 
i 2 ; cf. Kara-, auy- 

TTpoGwtw: make obeisance to the goes or their images, fall down and 
worship rpz Ps 95. 6 HCh 6. 13 ^Z IR 3. 54, 19. 1 3 Jes 45. 23 Ps 
05. 6 Esr 9. 5 IlCh 7- 3; «p. of the Oriental fashion of prostrating 
oneself before kings and superiors "ip^N Gn 41. 43 *1- IIR 1. 13 
Esth 3. 2, 5 -^ ^Tj; :•■ ?■ no 

TrpoffAo-Wca: ta/> to or a:"to. ^72 Gn 21. 7 Job 8. 2, 33. 3 Ps 106. 2 

' [cf. rrpo-] 

7rpoo\au3dvu : oorroa.' m 1 ? Dt 23. 12 Jes 24. 2 Ps 37.^1 Prv 22. 7 

Xeh 5. 4; lend a hand, help, assist TTT? Eccl 8. 15 "T?" Ps 37. 26, 

112. 5; co-operate with 77i*?l Ps 83. Q 
77p6ooSos, 77600&0?, 7rdcro5o5-: solemn procession to a temple with singing 

and music mw Jcr 30. 19 Jon 2. 10 Ps 42. 5, 69. 31, 100. i, 4, 

147. 7 Nch 12. 27, 31, 38, 40; cf. owotSa 
Trpooopyitoftaf. Pass., to be angry at Til^H IIR 19. 27; cf. rrap- 
rrpo'ao^is-: appearance, aspect, mien m£flFi Jes 44. 13 [cf. opaat?; 

rrpoaopdcu, fut. -oipo^iai', <pdvTQ.ais\ 
TTpocnraXaioj: trestle or struggle with V?3 Mich 7. 6 



232 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

jr/Kxrra?, -dSo?: vestibule, porch, portico p?*lD Jud 3. 22 [cf. Dim., 

■n poor ah(.ov\ TTpodvpiofxa] 
■rpooTaaow, -ttoj : £/tf« or />oj/ a.' a place; Pass., r.m IIR 6. 9 
TTpoorlO-qfit, TTort-: im/xw*, jii/Krf ]ru IR 12. 4 Zis Ex i. 1 i Esth 10. 1 ; 

add^V Lev 22. 14 Dt 19. 9 Jer 45. 3 IICh 9. 6 r |CT: Ex 1. ioJer36. 

32 ^Din IR i°- 7 IIR 2 °- 6 Ps 7»- x 4 Xeh : 3* l8 IICh 28 - l 3 

71DO Nu 32. 14 Dt2g. i8Jes29. 1, 30. 1 Jer 7. 21 nscn Dt 32. 23; 

continue or repeat an action *)& Gn 8. 12, 38. 26 fCin Gn 8. io ; 

2 1 Ex 9. 34 IIR 24. 7; continue r P" Nu n. 25 IS 27. 4 T D1 ~ J os 7- 

12 Hos 9. 15 
-pooTp<x<*>- ™ n t0 or towards, run up f^n IS 17. \~\join or W* ;i\\'. ; : 

f^-in Ps 68. 32 
rr ooutpdy tov\ {epaytlv) = othov. (oiJioj) cooked or otherwise prepared food, 

a made dish, eaten with bread and wine: ci. «"v? Dan 1.5,8 
TToocr^'oa*, Trot!-, -n-on-: £nn£ to or upon V^in Jes 23. 7 Jer 31. 9 (8). 

bsin Jes 55. 12 Hos 12. 2 Ps 45. 16; present, ojer 'mn Zeph 3. 10 

Ps 68. 30, 76. 12 "^in Jcs 18. 7 KT? IR 9. 1 1 Esr 1. 4 
T7pocr<£8ovcaj: oppose through envy, regard with envy XI? Gn 26. I4jes 1 1. 

1 3 Ez 3 1 . 9 
-pocoop-npa: = rrpoo6cpd III. 2 {food, victuals KT~ IICh I 7. I! r.KTl 

Gn 43. 34 IIS 1 1. 8 Am 5. 11; 

rrpo'c^tupoy : neighbour ".1 Ex 3. 22 j'^ 

-rrpecrarrrov: face, countenance, Horn., always in pi., even of a single 
person CDK Gn 3. 19, 19. 1 C25 Gn 32. 3:; one's look, countenance 
Z*'£i Gn 4. 6, 31. 2; person (pi.) CIS Lev 19. 15; bodily presence 

ca Job 2. 5 

ovy-/€V7js-: 0/ fAir jam< Ain, descent, or family, chin to; Subst., kinsmen, 
retainer; crvyytvTJs represented a title bestowed a: the Persian Court 
by the king as a mark of honour, 'cousin' ^ Jer 51. 23, 28, 57 
Ez 23. 6, 12, 23 Esr 9. 2 Xeh 2. 16, 5. 17 ~ 3 Jes 22. 15; = 
vvyytvtvs, ovyyot-os; C!. ^arya.vr}S , LXX 
ovyylyvopai , axr/yii-: have sexual intercourse with I'ZZ Mich 6. 14 
ouyyiyvivoKui : to be a party to a thing, join in a plot with C^nnn Ex 1 . 10 
cv/KaXioj : call to council, convoke, convene, assemble 'W) ^""pn Ex 35. 1 
Lev 8. 3 Nu 10. 7, 16. 19 Dt 31. 12, 28 IR 8. 1 ICh 28. 1 IICh 
5. 2 [cf. t\-\ 
QvyKaXinrrw: cover or veil completely ^y Cant 5. 14 ^Srn Gn 38. 14; 
cf. <iri- } rrpo- 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 233 

oir/Kafirrruj : bend down 110 Jcs 44. 15, 17, 19, 46. 6 -^*-; cruyKcKap- 
y.ivuj r<Z oKtXei of a person mounting a horse CTDS IIR 9, 25 
[secondary; cf, kg/i—to*, crwcjpis] 

air/K€pdwvf±t, -vucu, poet, avytcepdtu: mix, blend with; mix together; more 

freq. in Pass., to be mixed or blended with, coalesce Z*VBT\7\ Ps ro6. 35 

Esr 9. 2; of friendships, to be formed by close union; form a close 

friendship with any one; of persons, to be closely attached, to be close 

friends with, become deeply involved in 2*lS?nn Prv 14. 10, 24, 21 ; cf- 

&V0OJ 

o-vyioWr, *,Wfros\ 7) (i.e. ctl-/ktA7j^, kAtjto^) , Thessalian for gvykXtjtos : 
called together, summoned] cl a. invited guests; c. €<*Aijcia at Athens, 
an assembly specially summoned H713 Dt 7. 6 Mai 3. 17 

crtf/*A*tcir, -Aijair, £vyk\t]uis: (avyxXeLuj) a locking up, safe storage nV:D 
Eccl 2, 3 ICh 29. 3 

avyicXcttUy -kXtjlcj, ^it/kXtJuj: shut or coop up, hem in. enclose *V13n Lev 
13. 4; shut close, close, close the doors 113 Jos 6. r Jes 24. io, 22 Jer 
13. 19 Eccl 12. 4 Vrsr: Prv 16. 23 [cf lb 17-28]; close up the ranks, 
the part thai was not closed up, of a gap in the line, "113 Gn 2. 2t 
IR 1 1. 27 ; connect closely together; Pass., linked, compacted Til 3 IR 10. 2 1 
[cf. ka€ilj (A); 7"rri is a debatable homologue] 

ctyKXivcs : sharing one's couch, = avyKXl^~qs : orr x^a /m :^/j one */*w 
Ps 45. io Dan 5. 2 Nch 2. 6; companion at tabic: sL, comrades at 
table, perh. a group cf ^o^fot ^=2? Jes 49. 20 

ai/y*A:Vti>: /jy together b;r Dt 28. 30; Pass., /;> with; of the woman 
ViTlJes 13. ioZach 14. 2 *7VZ Jer 3, 2 ; inflect similarly bzt Gn 48. 14 

air/Koiudouai: Pass., sleep with, lie with 23?1 QJes 13. 16 Zach 14. 2 
-5? QJtr 3. 2 

air/Kouibr;: of harvest, gathering in; in Pass, sense, £*:/:£ gathered to- 
gether, crowding "S^p E2 22. 20 p-p Jes 57. 13 

gwkolu£gl»: or: ti^ together, collect f2p Dt 30. 3. 4 Jes 1 1. 12 Jer 31.8 
(7), 10 (o}, 49. 5 Ez 16. 37 Mich 4. 12 7?? Ez 38. 8 sresn IR 
15. 22 Jer 50- 29, 51. 27; Pass., fnp.nn Jos 9. 2 Jud 9. 47 IS 7, 7, 
22. 2; help in burying or cremating f2p. Hos 9. 6 

axrytcoTrru*: chop up nrc Jcs 2. 4 Joel 4, 10; thrash soundly n^n Ex 
5. 14 Dt 25. 3 IR 20. 37; cf. Kara- 

cnr/Kpvrrruj: cover up or completely^ conceal ^DH Prv 28- 12 tTDnfin IS 
28. 8 IR 22. 30; cf, <\ri- 

azr/KvXiofiai : swoop v*?iT\7\ Gn 43. 18; = <JvyKvXiv&<opai (roll about or 
wallow together) bbiT\7\ IIS 20. 12; cf, 7rpo<x- 9 7Tpo<xfidX\aj 



234 XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

ovfifiaivu* : of events, come to pass, fall out, happen; to oufifltfirjKOi chance 

event , contingency n3C] HCh 10.15n3pIR12.15 
cvpfiaWuj: jumble up together; generally, join, unite V^zrit) Hos 7. 8 
<jvjji{ltf2d£aj: tecchy instruct 33'D Dt 32. 10 
GVfijj>€Tp€cj: to be commensurate with TTbnn IR 17. 21 
GvpTrX-qdvoj : multiply KbDr*n Job 16- 10 

ovp7Tvp6<jj\ burn up "V3*n Dt 18. 10 Ez 16. 21, 20. 31 ; cf. *V- 
Gvuitpu*: bring together, gather, colled r [CS Gn 6. 2 1 Ex 3. 16 Nu 1 1. 
1 6, 21. 16 Dt 11. 14; confer benefit, be useful or profitable ")23 Ps 16. 

6; literally, to be carried along with, follow beyond the grave r ,CX; 

Gn 25. 8 Nu 27. 13 Dt 32. 50 Jud 2. 10 
ovpoAauj: (4Aacu, -a£co) crush in pieces *f*7Snn Job O. 6 
avfi&Adyoi; burn up, bum to cinders np^nn Ex G. 24 Ez 1.4 
Gvupopd, -prj: mishap, misfortune, calamity ;'\V' "Z Jes 1. 28 Jcr 4, 6, 

20 Prv 16. i8Thr2. 13, 3. 47; rarely in good sense, good luck, happy 

issue ^27? Gn 49. 2! ; cf Guu6*p<u 
av}±6ovta: harmonious union of many voices or sounds, concert ; band, 

orchestra TTlhr^Z Dan 3. 5, 15 n"E"C lb 3. :o 
Gviu&tvoouat: tell a lie together ZH2Z Dt 33. 20 Z~2" US 22. 45 [cf. 

€77L~ t xarc-j 
Gwaycipu*: gather together, assemble; Pass., /:::.: *r together, come together, 

assemble "STUr.n Jer 30. 23 
fffvcyvL'ut: 3r<rc/; to pieces, shiver i*p3r.n Jos Q. 13 Midi t. ,: 
^vw, £u-: 6r:/i£ together, gather together pr;; Jcs S. :6 Jud 6. 34, 35 

p*v:ri Jud 4. 10, 13 IIS 20. 4, 5 rsn Ex 9. :c Jes :o. 31 Jer 4. 6 

pss: Jud 7. 23, 24, 10. 17 15 13. 4 ?*-*?. IS :o. 17 

<7lto-Uc/7J: intercourse, csp. for purposes of ror^iliation; conciliation. 

reconciliation, making of peace r*X^> 
Gvi-dWaypa: generally, in pi., dealings, transactions nmVr Jes 16. 8 
<7vvcvraui, -7ia£tu f -7;'£w: meet face to face, of two persons; m«/ a-:.' A, 

encounter iyu Am 3. 3; rr^: together, assemble TITS Nu 10. 3, j, 

IR 8. 5 Neh 6. 2, 10; .tv*: y* taufe t^: Jos m. 5 
Gwc.YTT;Gt$: meeting "I3Ti2 Ex 27. 21 Job 30. 23 
awarrrcu: Jof/i together, link, join, associate ^3"" IlCh 20. 35, 37 

n?ricn IS 26. 19 (aw-^ra-Z^ss-nri) 
owapdoGLj: intr., </tfjA together, of enemies, fXTT.n Gn 25. 22 
av^auos*: /Aa/ a-AicA Ami together, bond of union, fastening; metaph,, 
bond of union rnco Ez 20. 37 [cf. Bcapa]; = cn/V5coi? {binding to- 
gether; Trpcs -rqv -Hjs <om'c? so as to A//n/ the mortar or stucco) "T 



XI. GREER PREPOSITIONS ^ 

Dt27. 2, 4 Jcs 33. 12 Am 2- 1 T? Dt 32. iyPs 106.37 J±l; conspiracy 
TiO Gn 49. 6 Ps 64. 3; cf crvVoSos: 

^/w: A/;.^ or //> together; bind them together, side by side; generally, 
bind together, unite XT Dt 27. 2, 4 nOK Jcs 22. 3 

auvfyy^w: draw near t)lTTi Jes 45. 20; cf TTpoa- 

awtytipu} : revive TViynri Jcs 5 1 . 17 

auvtSpeva;, -/»a£aj, -ptdouat: sit in council, hold a council "I"C Job 29. ± 

auvidotov: council "713 Jer 23. i3 Ez 13. 9 

GwcptLtu: contend together rnnrn Jer 12. 5, 22. 15; cf. —200- 

Gwipxouai, fut. -eA^Wat; aor. 2 aw^AOov, pf avvt\T } \v8a; to go to- 
gether, or in company ^p7\r>7\ Gn 6. 9 IS 25. 15; of sexual inter- 
course, a. ra> di-Bpi ^Vsr-n IS 31- 4 Jer 38. 19 ICh 10. 4, a. 
yuvair; Jud 1 9. 25 [cf awflewty] 

cry'«at7, £ y- : (aut-iTj /xt) faculty of quick comprehension, mother-wit, sagacity 

nr: Jcs u. 2, 29. 14, 24 n:«? Ex 31, 3 Dt 32. 28:?;; cf ™vnj 
ovi'tro;: [gvAtjui) intelligent, sagacious, wise p-2 Gn ii. 33 Dt l 13; 

to a. = gvv€Oi$(?) ; cf TTii-vroj 
ai^jSouct : rejoice together; rejoice at a thing pIT" Xch o. 25 [cf 

(71'^coaa:: i.'^r <?r see tcgethei ; examine together n^rrn Jes j> : . 23; r^ 
:.t ^:: j glance HNrrn Gn 2 * 21 

•J V T : * T * 

awVTXT}: = C'r.KTj (case, chest) JjJw> 

cvvCTua: agreement, covenant S-~* 

awdpavcj: break in pieces, shiver nrr Ex 9. 25, 3^. ; IR iq. ir IIR 
11. i3Jer 43 -^3> 5 2 - l 7 Thr 2. 9 IlCh 34. 4 [cf „rc-j 

avvliiut, fi-v-: com* together ]-"rn Jer 9. 16; fax* rcoi/rr fl/prm Job 

11. 11; observe T^j Prv 7. 7 Dan 8. 5 jrcr.ri IR3.21 Jes 14. 16, 

52. 15 Ps 37. 10 Job 30. 20 ? 31. i, 37. 14, 38. 18; understand f=y 

IR 3- 9 Jcs 6. io, 40. 14 Dan 1. 17 pmr.n Ps 107. 43, 119. 100 

Job 20. 14; (Subst.) intelligent p=3 Prv 17. 10; cf ctVecw 

at/weco-a:: :<? 6^ or £* mc</* :dentical nir.r; Prv 27. 15 

aiviffrr^i, -rcVcu, -tcw: combine, associate, unite 1ZM Ps 2. 2 "in lb 

31. 14; organize -»^H ; *.'<:-•:* to»tfA*r 2X\nr: Lx 19. 17 Nu 11. 16; 

in hostile sense, m«/ ir. fight, be engaged with :T"n ICh 1 1. 14 Ps 2. 2, 

94. 16; of friends, /arm a /^« or u/j:'on, band together asv.n I ICh 11. 

13; c-«i toki shape or ac^, rom* into existence, exist "!Z\7l Ex 9. 18; 

league themselves with one side or the other 2yT.n Ps 2. 2 [cf. ep-] 
avwfdloj-.joirt in youthful wantonness ISi Gn 37. 2 [cf. pcapccwo/iai, -i'Cco] 
avVvopos* : feeding in herds or together, of birds that flock together, living 



23 6 XI. GREEK PREPOSITION 

with, associated with] sharing or partaking in a thing; abs. as Subst., 
<7wo/io?, o, t)> partner , consort, mate; of a paramour *V27V^ Cant 7. 1 
rrsr.r IR 1. 3, 15, 2. 17 rrrz:v lb 2. 21, 22 [cf. cv^] 
crtVoSos-: assembly, meeting, especially for deliberation V.C Ps 89. o ? 
ill. 1; pi., of political clubs iS*^\ also of private meetings or 
gatherings for discussion TO Jer 6. 11, 15. 17; or conspiracies 110 Gn 
49. 6 Ps 83. 4 Prv ir. 13; = ovvovaia y sexual intercourse HTr Eccl 
2. 8; of things, coming together, constriction, *udv€Ct ovvoca OaXdaaas . 
ot the Straits of the Bosporus, Euripides, Iphi^ema T auric a, 393; 
coming together resulting ^rorr. juxtaposition; meeting, junction "X 
Nu 21, 15 Dt 3. 17; Ci" CVVCtGLlOS 

cjtVotoa, pf. with pres. sense: know something about a person, esp. as 

a potential witness for or against him; ro gwucos acknowledgement 

nTSTi Lev 7. 12-13 Jos 7. 19 [cf. -poco£o>] 
cwotK£LL>: dwell or /;:■* together; live with ITJT.H IR 17. 20; ::;•* a:":A :n 

wedlock, of the man, "TH Esr 10. 18 Neh 13. 23 [cf. KaOlZcu] 
cvvcuKQt, guvzqlkqs: dwelling in the same house with ]ZZ Ex 3. 22; cf 

nersons living in the came c:lj; or ccunlrj;. jtllzii-inhabitar.ts ]ZZ lb 

12. 4 Prv 27. 10 Ruth 4-17: ci. }i€T- 
Gwouvvui, -ucd : pledge one's oath to a thing, premise :v oath VZr: Gr. 

24. 7, 50. 24 Lev 5. 2 2 Jer 4. 2 [cf ci::*:-:' 

<7f;-c^vvLj : bring to a point %T ?s 64, 4, 14c, 4 _— ; cf. t'Oi^;t'cj 

c-:,Voj«: £c:"/!/*rf r-r Prv 25, :3 jcU .*~al 

arty^uai: 6uy up O^T Pr.* 5:. :6 ]r] Dan 2. 3 

avvujpU, I&05 : (aviijooo^ pair cj horses {with or '.v;;::out a chariot or 
carriage} ; of mules ~-5 IS 14. 14 IIR 5. : 7 ; generally, a pair or 
couple of anything "?-S juc ■ 9. 10 IS 1 1. 7 IR 19. igjcs 2 1. 7; 
of things, manacles for the hands and for the feet T2S Gn 24. 22 

"irjx Xu 31. 50 IIS :. 10 m-s Jcs 3. soj^L-^j- 
cvppd—u: sew or j::*:^ together, sew up \V "*" Ez 13. r3 
ai'pp^yrt'ut : break to piece: i*V"" Jcs ~4- ! 9 

cva^ord £oj : make dark, GVGKordGuj tg ajrec crrci 1 LW Lz 3** 7.' 
"V7pn Ez 32. 8 [cf. <rri-j ; ;ncr.j grow quite dark, 6 ovpavos ouvtuKo- 
tgg€ vtotAat? (LXX} t^k?" IR 1 3. 45; gvgkqt<i^6ougi: Pass., 
become quite dark Tip" lb.; cf. €mopcori<Jj 

avoraais: (avvtora/iai) confict ^-^J A;:<?f of men assembled ^y* ; political 
union, more general than tratptla or owoSo*, vv** 'S- 3 ^; contingent 



XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 237 

of four light-armed Aa'^oj (32 men) v>-; conspiracy 2X37 Hos 4. 17; 

* - 

political constitution jy—i 
avorTjyjx, -rapa: body of soldiers, corps 3SQ IS 13. 23, 14. 1 IIS 23. 14 
H23 Jcs 29. 3 mss IS 14. 12; college of priests or magistrates 
223 Jes 22. 19 nn»n lb, ; accumulation of sediments cnc? Ps 75. 9 

{r7T€p<ivu>: above *?¥D Gn r. 7, 7. 17 Ez 41. 17, 20 (gvoj-) 
u7T€pdv<jjd€v: from above, above VyD3 Gn 22. 9 IR 8. 23 Jcs 45, 8 Job 

3* 4 {ttCpj'J, avaj/12, v/2) 
LTT€p€^ai«cu : praise above measure VIZV Ps I 17. 1 Ecc! 4. 2 ; cf tTratvtcj 
'Ytepiujv: Hyperion 1 in Horn, //** Sun-god; he always joins 'YTreplcuv 

*Hl\*o$ or 'HtXios 'Yrrcpiujv jvbv bx Gn 14. 18^22 Ps 78. 35; 

'Yrreptcjv stands alone for m H\tos ]T*?!7 Xu 24. 16; some derive it 

from {rrrtp ZiLv, he that walks on high; others simply bring 'Yrrzplujv 

from V77tp t the God above ]rb? Dt 32. 8 Ps 7. 18, 9:. 1 Thr 3. 38 
{r7€p\cS\<uj: speak too much ^72 Job 8. 2 [cf. *Vi-, -pccA 
xrxtputytihjS, -dOr}?: = uTTtpucya* (immensely great), monstrous (\V) 

£** '-V. yi{j d i^— metathesis) £jj {rrj.,, pj, X X 
{rrrtpopduj, fut. -oi/jo/mii: overlook, take no notice of rem:: *2*J Mich 7. iS 

TZi'n IIS 12. 13, 24. 10 jii; despise, disdain r-Z Jes 37. 22 Prv 

30. 17 Cant 8. 7 
L-rrepoutc: contempt, disdain H2 Gn 38. 23 Ps 123. 3. ± 7~*rj2 Xch 3. 30 
irrT€p77€pd<jj: pass beyond "V2>r; Jer 46. 1 7 
trrfpuydoj: exalt exceedingly TVZZTi Ez 21. 31 
tnrcpoirqs; overgrown, enormous; monstrous, extraordinary JCTT Gn 14. 5 

Dt 2. 1 1 ICh 20. 6, 8 nsn IIS 21. 20, 22; cf. *l- 
irrrtfxZcv: the upper part of the house, where the women resided ]YH2X 

Cant 3. 9 (in LXX, oop<Tov: litter, sedan-chair); u$tcr chamber or 

story rr?? IIR 1. 2 Ps 104. 3, 13 ]vbv lb 91. 9 

vrrnptola: Up^rrj;) service mV Xu 4. 12; = vrrnperela; cf, Otpcrrtla 

v^ripiciQv: cushion on a rower* s bench ^2*3 IS 19. 13; ridtnv-bad or 
- * - 
saddle-cloth ^^? 

CnrnptrtLj: to be a servant, do service; minister to, serve "^ Gn 39. 4, 

40. 4 Xu 1. 50, 8. 26, 18, 2 Dt 10. 8, 18. 5 IS 2. 1 1 IR 1. 4, i 5> 19. 

21 Jes 56. 6, 60. 7 Ez 20. 32, 44, 11, 12 ICh 15. 2 UCh 8. 14, 

31- 2; = -tvu>; cL depa-revw (secondary) 
ir7T7}p<T7]$ t -<Var : underling, servant, attendant, subordinate; servitor in the 

cult of Mithras ^9 a Am 6. 10 rryDQ Nu 11, 28 IIS 13. 17, 18 



23 8 XI. GREEK PREPOSITIONS 

IIR 4. 43, 6. 15 Jes 61. 6 Ps 104. 4 Prv 29. 12 Esr8. 17 HCh 23. 6 
[cf. OepaTTeirrris] 

vnvov: a kind of lichen J-^l 

wos: sleep, slumber nasj Prv 23. 2 1 ^ - y ~rj Prv 6. 4, 1 o n:? Ps 132. 
4 -c_j ^Jj -C-; of waking from sleep, eyeipal rn-a c£ v~vov (Od. 

15. 44) ua?o -lisp 15*1 r^K3 ^Tyyi Zach 4. 1 cra^a ni-;-K7i Job 
14. 12 ; of the sleeper, typero 5* eg J-vou (II. 2. 41) ""n^nn ""inv^r- 
Jes 51. 17 invra lb 64. 6 

vjrvotn: fall asleep, sleep p" Gn 2. 21 Jcr 51. 30 Pi 4. 9. ! 3- 4 

C-JP C-J* C"/VJ) — J« 5- 27 Ps 76. 6 .0 
vmruAia: sleepiness, drowsiness 7\12V$ Ps 132. 4 Job 33. 15 
vTT&yvios: nigh at hand T'b'J N'u 2. 17 Neh 3. 2; r««if, v^oyvioraroi 

sin Cant 7. ij. -AjJ*. ^a--^ 
irro3ciKvu^t: ^ a pattern or example; generally, fcar£, indicate ~>Z\ jtr 

2. 19 Ps 94. 12 Prv 31. 1 
t^oSc'cu : bind or., faster, under, esp. underbind the feet. i.e. shoe, because 

the ancient sandals or shoes were bound on with straps; rnostlv 

in Med., bind under one's fee'., put or. shoes ?"-"" Ez 16. 10 IlCh 

28.15^ 
vrroQ-nXoa* : hint at, suggest 77'Vr.n Ps 241. 4 
i-o6i)\u/oii: insinuation ..pi.) rs?*'/? Dt 22. 14, 17 Ps 141. 4 
utrdorua: (uiroS/ty) wk searcj/ u/itfrr the foot nith straps, sandal: v-6c-^z 

koL\ov is a j/jy<r or half-boot, winch covered the whole foot; 

{•-cSvpa is sts. used alone in this sense 7y: Gn 14. 23 Dt 25. 9 

Ps 60. 10 Cant 7. 2 Ruth 4. 7 J^" ^V?" De 33- -5i = *■"?«* 
L-T7oOuiyi: servant *1-^ 
vxotvyiov: beast for the yoke, beast of draught or s^rjVn (oxen, mules. 

horses) |§n Jes 49. 22 j : -^r; cf. ra yd^cra 
C-rofrKTj: pledge, deposit, mortgage, security given C.=i; Dt 24. 10-13 
irrdc^a: vwolfy'iaj (*:/$.;. xr"? Neh 5. 7.. 10 mNT- Dt 24. to Prv 22. 

26 
xmoKixTut: Adv. fre/scr, u.-JtrVi' *" , " : ? Gn 7. 19; subordinate Tinp IR 20. 24 

Ez 23. 6 i\ : eh 5. 15, !2. 26 mriD lb 2. 7 aria lb 5. 14 nn? IIR 

1 8. 24 Hag 1. 1 Neh 3. 7 
{nroKdrudev: = irroxdrvj {sup.) ; lower Jir.nn Jos 1 8. 1 3 IR 6. 6 nT~r 

Jud 1. 15 
uttokvw: used only in Med. ctokvo/kki, of the woman, conceive, become 
pregnant H^Zin Cant 8. 5 nan Gn 30. 38, 39 «2.3, terminal V/S) 



XL GREEK PREPOSITIONS 239 

vrrovo€Qj: suspect N3p Nu 5. 14 (j***\ cf hiaj>0oviw 

irrrovoTfrq^ : suspicious person QC.* ^j^ 

{rrrovota; (uttquo^uj) suspicion, conjecture^ guess^ (pL), in bad sense, riKZp 
Xu 5. 14 riklp. lb 5. 25, 29; the real meaning which lies at the bottom 
of a thing, deeper sense, esp. covert meaning (such as is conveyed by 
myths and allegories) D"5K Prv 25. 1 1 

vTrovopos: as Subst., underground passage ^ mine ]^?2 Dan 1 : . 43 

xnrorTpOi Or urro rrpoljust before '2p II R 15. 10; Thessalian t-— pd. of 

Time, before J-i 
vrToaKtM^aj: trip up one's heels, upset; "773 Lev 26. 37 jcs 3. 15; Pass., 
7rn: Dt 25. 18 *?-?21 Dan 11. 19; cf. Tralu: coallu, :'. pp. 155, 

6 43"4 

L-rrocK-fVucraa : fall given by tnbbin? ut> : -ud? : trittir.? uC ^~3 Prv 16 1 3 
*7~r^ Jes 8. 14 ^2 Lev IQ. 14; cf. Trrafffua 

vrroridrjjjLt: advise, counsel, admonish ™n Job 1 1. 6; Cut down as a deposit 
or stake, pawn, pledge, mortgage H" Jes 24. 2 22* Dt 15. 5; of the 
mortgagee, lend money on pledge "2 XT1 Jes 24. 2 Xch 5. 7 " "I 
lb 5. io, 1 r nri iir 4, 1 Jcs 50. 1 »*->? Dt 15. 6, 8 -2 x~n ? 5 

3o. 2} "2 nrn Dt2^, 10; hazard, risk T-V icel 2, - ; ;\ D- i6^ 
C-rovXa: -ovX-n) of sores, extending inwards, under the surr'ace of the riesh 

enclosed; metaph., with festering sores unde r nea:h. unsound beneath 

rVsy Dt 28. 27 IS 5. 6 ; 6. 4; cf o-W 
Cr7o6cQvtuj:feel secret envy at KSp Prv 23. 17 
{-Tro&aLLiiQS : like vSapuos, having sand under or on it, sandy j^'wl Xu 2 1. 

20 Jes 43. 20 ]12^ Ps 107. 4 pT : Dt 32. 10 p~ Jes 43. 19 [cf 

UGLLWnl 

' * 'J 

vt7t:o»: /d:</ on o/iiV 3ar£; J. p.(pn, in animals. .'/:/ under parts, i.e. r.^ 
:*/(;■ [cf. r ,3 Gn 32. 26, 33 Dt 2. 5]; to hold ou: the hollow of the 
hand, so as to receive something *p Gn 40. : 1 IR 17. ;2 [cf. Gn 
32. 26, 33 Xu 7. 14 Dt 2. 5 IIR 1 1. 12]; lift :he up'-.nned hands 
in prayers *p Ex 9. 29 IR 3. 22, 38 Esr 9. 5; generally, of any- 
thing turned downside up; from the upturned helmet, with the hollow 
uppermost; a half wheel with the concave side uppermost 21 I R 7. 33; of 
land, fat, horizontal, sloping evenly, of Egypt, Hdt. 2. 7 21D Gn 
10. 6 £z 27. 10 *C15 Gn 41. 45 pD)TT.2 lb 37. 36 [cf. Alyvrrro-: 



,-. .••- , ., 



240 



XII. THE SUFFIX 



>cu 



JL Generally, the suffix -£oj has the same eject as a prefixed pre- 
position^ so that verbs in -fru have for hornologues compounds in *71;D, 

^ys, SyD, ^sn, ^ T^Dn, aj well as ^SDnn w ^ ^p. 

Like the prefixed preposition, the suffix -ca> is sometimes in- 
corporated in the homologue, e.g. aya^arcii^nX/yDn/prn 
JL^/ ^/dJLi. Note incidentally the parallel interchange 
between the gutturals 7\ and Pi; and that between p and jj, 
which vindicates the Ashkenazi pronunciation of p. 



ayc^a^c;, Ep* and Lyr. form ot 
ayarrdaj SHX Gn 29. 30, 

37. 3 Jud 16. 4 IR II. 1 Ps 

34- 13, 45- 8 t0 be fond of 
prefer \ generally, love, seldom 
of sexual love, for tzduj (1TJ 
E2 16. 37HXnOb i2; *>•; 

;r;x Gncy.g desire. Lev 19. 
: 8, 34 Jo be fond of 

mx Xch 13. 26 Pais., .'oc* 
regarded with ajfe:iion; CI. 
cyaTTTjrOb 

—x: IIS 1. 23 

rr.x Dt 12. 20 Jes 26, 9 Ps 132. 

13, 14; v. p. 136 
-TKrn Xu 1 1 . 4 

jtn Gn 34. 19 IS 19. 1 IIS 
20. 1 1 Eccl 8. 3 ICh 28. 9 
to he fond of, desire, to be well 
pleased', cL koih^l^uj 

prn Gn 34. 8 to be fond of 

C!. €KOUJ^<JJ 

Vzp? Prv 19. 20 ICh 12. 18 
(19) welcome, receive grate- 
fully] Cf KOfU £u> 

j j <Sj* Jr 1 " uV J~ ^~ 



ayyp 1 £tr i* I? "^ D t 4 . 2 dim in ish 

gradually, subtract, ded:::t\ 
(atavism) cf vj>cipt<jj 

"m* Zach 9.13 rouse to fight, 
incite 1 rouse to anger 

■vm Jes 13. 17 

T^Hij Lev 26. 6 ^f^ rouse 

^rovcKt 



to cn y er 



chcileni 






irntcu , 

ha I low y make sacred, esp. by 
burning a rjrr:/Lv; sanctify 
\V l I cf. xmOaLut 

"7- Pass., Ex 29. 43 Jes 5. io 

t^pr.- Ez 38. 23 

^ipn Jes 29. 23 HCh 30. S 

rip. Gn 2. 3 Lev 25. 10 IR 
8. 64 devote, dedicate ~~p 
Ex 13.2™ EZ48. ii HCh 
3 1. 6 ^*rp? Nu 3. 1 3 Dt 1 5. 
19 Jos 20. 7 Jud 1 7. 3 IIS 
8. ii Xch 12.47 ICh 26. 26 

dyAaiC" T'*?» Hab 3. 18 .'a« 
. delight in 



X "?» IS 2. I 

V*I Joel 2. 23 

C7V-H Prv 7. 18 

cVn Job 39. 13 only in Med. 
and Pass., adorn oneself with 
a thing, take delight in 

ar/Xallt? 8<LX\€i Tlb^ IS 10. 6 

Jcr 12. i, 22. 30 Ez 17. 9, 10 
"'Tin Gn 24, 21 Jud 18. 5 
Ps r. 3 HCh 7. ir sprout, 
grow, thrive, csp. of fruit trees ; 
of persons, thrive, flourish, 
be prosperous] cf. <£Aoyi£aj 
ar/i(aj npj Job 10. 14 wash off, 
cleanse away, csp. by water; 
cleanse, purify; cf. h'£oj 
Pass., npijcr 2. 35 
™pr.n IIS 11. 4 IlCh 5. it, 

30.3, 17 Med., purify oneself 
«?- ~p Lev 16, 19 cleanse, 
purify 
dyepd^cj HIT Dt 2. 6 0LTV in 

the market] generally, buy 

"- Gn 4<-57 c?~* 
^uO Gn 34. 1 a frequent the 
avooc. occupy the marketplace 

aycu^t^o^ct p^xn Gn 32. 25 

fii' nt \ gcncra^lly, contend for 
victory] struggle] wrestle (W) 
p"!J Gn 21. g, 26. 8; cf. ^g^c^lj 
pnr Prv 2g. 9 
pnr IIS 2, 14; cf C7T- 



XII. THE SUFFIX -fa, 241 

Hos 10. ro ybrm a party 
103 Hos 10. 10 gather together, 

collect j muster 
my ICh 12. 38 (39) 
1W IR 1. 7 ICh 5- 20 
ley is 23. 26 

12J37 IlCh 13. 20, 20. 37 

Tin IS 13- 7, 16. 4 

'1"T Cant 5. :o collect round 

alyi^Qfiaiy alvi^at = qiWoj, Poet, 
and Ion, Verb, very rare in 
good Alt. PrOSC, irraivdcj 
being used instead: n:x 
Gn 24. 5 to be content with, 
acquiesce :/i; agree, assent 
r.lN Gn 34. 15 

TKin Ex 2. 21 

V?rs Ps 1:3. : Prv 31. 28 

IlCh 23. 12 praise, approve, 

applaud, commend] esp. in 

religious sense, siorify 

^^H Prv 12. 8; ci. oAoAJ^oi 

^nm Jer 9, 22, 23 Pass., 



r^ 



U: jl&U J^ 






jLj 






2sy IR1.6 rrsyn Ps 78^40 

provoke ^-^-1 lili-l 

-^J if — ^^ j J^ I exert oneself 
ddpolZur, d- (= dy*At£€i) "1CK 



'rv 



rj 1 n 



0: CI. aviUu 



TGN Jcs 3. 10 

T2H Jes 1. 29 Ps 68. 17 



man Ex 15. 2 




^r,n Jes 57. 4 




-yj Jes 27. 2 Ps 88. 


1 


"27 Ps 117. I 





nsnun Ps 106. 47 ~— j 

n:y Nu 21. 17; esp. compli- 
ment publicly 

Vxin Dt 1 . 5 j^r^ to or under- 
take to do 

1ST Ex 21. 8, 9 j j£*J -U> 
to promise or rcu; 

T5TU Am 3. 3 



242 



XII. THE SUFFIX -£« 



1- . 



cr" 



pr IIS 16. 23 

advise 7 recommend 
JVM Jcs 40. 14 
aKourilcj JJ'ncn IIR 7. 6 make 

to hear; cf oxry*o/ii£oj 
avcyjca£aj D3K Esth I. 8 force, 
compel, constrain, csp. by 
argument 
afayvcjpc^oj "V3H Gn 27. 23 

? : * Jer 5 1 - 5 2 groan forth, 
lament; groan oft and loudly t 
wail aloud; bemoan, bewail 
aloud ; groan aloud [cf- ot/voj] 
pZK: Ez 9. 4 ; cf. ~:x: Thr 1 . 4, 
21 jni Jcr 22. 23 

crc;(a£o^ai, Sta- HC3 Jcs 50. 5 

Ps 35. 4 draw back, give way, 
retire [cf. ^d^ouc:] 

rt: IIS i. 22 
-n Jcs 1.4 

cvcYGCui VCH Dt 10. I a r?s/:<f 
:o recoil, force back [cf- x^u>] 

:c v J" 59* ! 4 ( v - ^-rr~Y' °^ a 
z^rn Job 24. 2 

a^u, -0«aj c:n Can; 2, 13 
colour, dye y stain 
"U Dt 34. 7 blossom, bloom, 
of the youthful beard; cf. 

d>:c;u; n:x Jesig. 8 r;y Ps 
90- 15 Ep. Verb grieve, 
distress } like anacu 
"> Ps 116. 10 intr., :<? 6* 
grieved or distressed 

aroAoAJ&ii ^^ Jcs 15. 3 Jer 
47. 2 Ez 21. 17 Zach 11. 2 
07 aloud, shout aloud ^ bewail 
loudly; cf. dAoAv£ui 



a.7TovcoTi£uj O^n Dt 32. 30 Jud 
6. I I /^/i om'j 6tftA* and fee ; 
trans, in causal sense 

a7707rXa^oj, drrorrXai acu *7Z*J 

Hab 2. 4 lead away from, 
stray away from ; lead astray, 
make to digress, wander away 
from^ wander from the truth 

arroa^oj ?±+ ]cs 38. 12 Job 
6. 9 save or preserve from, 
preserve; c:. Starr pduatLt 

nr^ Ex 2. 10 

rrr^n IIS 22. 17 

"3 IIS 4. 9 Jes 29. 22 "" 

Job 33. 24; CI. ptibouai 

nss Ps 144. 7 



T=in Jes 63. 7 J 



r; 



«*$ 



in mind, remember: ci. Cta- 
upa£aj, apapiCtLt, appcivcj, epp:; 

*f in Ex I 1 . 7 r/ur.'. ^r:- 

CI. pi-^cj, ypT.'^Lu 
aprra^cj ■■- A^ j., 2 U^ -. 

Ez 29. iq sei~e, plunder 
v" IIS 23. 9 Jcs 18. 5 
-li' Hos :o. 2 
11? Jcs 21. 2 
"7 Prv 24. 15 
173 Ter o. 1 3 

"^" J^ 33- l 
r ; cn Ps 10, 9 

17 "rn Jud 21. 21 snai 
away, carry oj 7 seize : :~r:h, 
snatch up 

5? 21 Lev 18.23 ^J^ rj: 

jrsin Lev 19. 19 



Ps 27. 10 welcome kindly 
pzi Gn 2. 24, 34. 3 IR m. 2 



XII. THE SUFFIX -$o> 243 

Ps 63. 9 Ruth I. 14 cling STSn Ps 94. 4, 119. 171; cf. 



fondly, follow eagerly, cleave 
to ; ct. hidjKu) 
pZl Gn 27. 27 Ps 85. 1 1 Ruth 
1.9, 14 cr^ take leave of; 
from the mode of salutation 
in use, kiss, embrace; cf. 
rofc^ouGi, axtvd^tu, kvv€cj 

pr; Gn 29. 13, 31. 28 
cuyc£cu na Jes 9. 1 Job 18. 5 
aitbear bright, shine 

«V- rr:n IIS 22. 29 illumine, 

shine ; cf. Si- 
Trim Dan 12. 3 

avX^ouat ^"X Gn 13. 12 take 

one's abode, lodge, live :n a 

place ; cf, «V- 

eY- Vnx Jes 13. 20 take up 

one" s quarters during the nigh: 

]V7 Ps 55. 8 Ruth r. id, 3- 13 

cca;/vtju r~T ; < Ex I 9. I IR 8. 64 
turity, consecrate; c:. iy:'^ 
r"T? Ez 48. I I 

~-rpn Xu 3- 13 Jud 17- 3 
cia-ifw w?X Gn 47. 15 Jes 

1 5 . 4 Ps 77. 9 disappear 
rz^ Jer 6. 4 Cant 6. 1 
CCD Ps 12. 2 

"T^r; Jcr48.8Prv 14. 1 1 sWir^- 
T^rr; Dt 2. 22 Mich 5. 13 

17!-:*;^ c;t"Jv u'/rA, do away w::.i, 

remove, destroy 
BadlCuj v~s Jes 27. 4 walk, 

inarch; generally, go, proceed 

L-TD .A1T14.4; cf.ms;Job28.8 

5g^ si: IR 12.33 Poet. Verb, 

speak y say; cf. ^arijw, 6ev$<u 
HC2 Prv 12. 18 
xr? Lev 5. 4 
"irzi Ps 40. 10 



Tn^/aSai ; p. 138 
£aAaft£aj ^^- Am 7. 14 .rAtf£r 
acorns from the oak; hence, 
as prov. answer to beggars 

Barrri^aj, xrcra- VzO Lev 4. 6 Job 
9.31 , *-ii- £:p ; cf. Sl'cj, Kara- 
^223 Jos 3. 15 

sic IS 17. 49 Ps 69. 3, 15 

drown, to be submerged] 8vcj 
y^a Ex 15. 4; cf. KaTa-ovri^oj 

yncn Jer 38. 22 : -caraSJa* 
fiaaavt^uj }ri2 Jer 17. 10 Zach 

test, cross-question ;\V) 



]nz2 Gn 42. 15, 16 
nca Gn 22- ! EccI 7. 23 
y*/it£oj w^l* Xch 13. 15 

freight 'v. p. 360; 
rss X'ch 4. : 1 
cv^n IR 12- :: 



load, 



gam 



yvajpi^cu ^ITT Dt 32. I 7 

knowledge cf become acquainted 

with, discover; recognise (\V) 

"11*7 Pr/ 23. 7 f j*-a.\ cf- a^a- 

Sa^cj, free, in Pass. ;n~r Dt 25. 
4 Jud~8. 7J«28, 28, 41. 15 
Hab 3. 12 ICh 2i. 20 cleave 
asunder, slay, pierce through, 
rend, destroy utterly^ divide 

wH2 Jes 25. 10 cleave asunder, 
divide 

r-nn Jes 28. 27 

Saxvd^u} = Saxvcu "]T2 Am 5, I 9 
Mich 3. 5 i-i w ^ bite, of 
dogs; sting; cL Saw'Jaj, 
dSaxTC^aj, tqki^uj 
Tpi Hab 2, 7 in Pass., of 
vexation 



244 



XIL THE SUFFIX ^ 



:p) Nu 21- 6 Jcr 8. 17 

r p^ Gn 3. 15 

caud^aj nm Hos 4. 5 0«r- 
power; of maidens, 77m£<r 
subject to a husband; subdue, 
conquer 
noil Hos 4. 6, 10. 15 Pass., 
/j 6* subject to another 

K2B Gn 34. 5 ^ >r«, 
Capci'£ui, Saia'£ai 12 XT! jes 24. 2 

13TO1 Jeri5- 10 cl-f Ji-^ 
have lent to oru, borrow 
'2 77B1 Dt 24, IO-II KM Jes 

24, 2 Jcr 15. 10 c'^l (>- lj 
/?^r our /no7z*y a*' zzr^ry, fcn</ 

'2 ;ncn Dt 15. 2 

7KI? Ex 3. 22, 12. 35 borrow 
TX^n Ex 12. 36 /r::d 
o*<c£u> in^ E2 16. 33 bribe, 

corrupt 
decTTo^cu C2? Jud 16.31 Ruth 
l.l to be lord or master, lord 
it over; cf 5ixa£a> 
££cxcu/k£uj ~li HCh 20. 11 
separate; cf. opl^m 
Pais., Sta^cupta^eTcja nms 
Lev 21. 14 divorced 
Suca£u/ IT! Job 22. 28 ^^J 
decree, ordain; cf Si^a£aj 
■"5i;2 Esth 2. I decree as punish- 
ment 
Thr 3. 54 Ez 37. II condemn 

give judgment 
ppn Jes 10. I jii^ff, decide, 

determine; cf. pTTyw/it 
ppn ?rw 8. 15 
CEU IS 24* 13 judge, sit in 



judgment, decide; cf. S*<xr7o£aj s 

esc': Jes 43. 26; cf. «V * 
Six^a, nt; ir 3. 25 rrsn 

Gn 32. 8 p — 1 rf:W* in ^<? ; 

cf ax 1 '^ 
Soxgl^oj "H IIR 7. 9 wait for; 

cf. T7pocev\ofiai, «f-, p. 477 
iyyl^ai ZZ1 Gn 45. 4 IIR 4. 27 

ci>$TOCck, to be on the point oj 

C 1 :?" Gn 3 3- 7 

U^;n Lev 2. 8 on'n^ rear, 

bring up to 
ZlTi IIS 3. 34 

€cax«pt?cu 1:2 IS 26. 8 ty: 

173/0 or.e*s hands 

v:2n PS31.9 

n2p Jes 19. 4 
iKdauvifa vr; Job 4. 10 root 
cut. exlirocte 'Pass.': ; cf. c*.'^ 

«*«. JC* ,3. *, ^ J- -^ 

rr.: Am 9. 15 
rrn Ez iq. 12 

zrcj.7 dean, purify ^=^ 
C25 Gn 49. 11 Ex 19. lojer 
4. 14 Ps 51. 4 
Pass!, C22 Lev 13. 5 3 



Tjrn Gn 22. 



ve 



for oneself 
pm Jes 38. 17 preserve jr:-:n 
danger, keep safe; cl. cya-c^ 
«4pa£ui 12? Jes 43. 20 Ps 44. 
2, 50. 16 tell over, recoun:. 
describe 
€AeAi'£cu Vm Jer 4. 19 Pass., 
quake, tremble, quiver 

V?n PS55-5, 77. 17 
bnVnnn Esth 4. 4 



XIL THE SUFFIX -{« 



245 



VVinnn Jcr23. 19 whirl round 
iXirifa Vin Jud 3 . 25 IS 31. 3 
expect, fear 
bVin Job 35. 14 hope for 

brr Job 30. 26 
V?innn Ps 37. 7 

T^ n ^ J°b ! 4- 7 expect^ hope 
for 

br,M Cn 8. 12 

Vmn IS 10. Ps 130. 5 

nto Ps 119. 81 

~3jE Mich 7. 7 Thr 4- 17; cf. 

Hip. Jcs 8.I7; Cf. -rrpocOOKdcn 

~cr Ruth 1. 13 

& c> [ ^ >-' 
o-floveiafaj VIS Dt 23. 34 IIR 

9. i r Jer 29. 26 Hos 9. 7 

to be inspired or possessed by a 
god, to be in ecstasy 

rirm IS 21. 15-16 

^trd^uj Ipil Dt 13. 15JUG 18. 
2 IS 20. 12 Jer 17. 10 Prv 
25. 2 Job 29- 16 Thr 3. 
40 examine well or closely, 
scrutinize; cf ird^tu "*'pr* 

EccI 12. 9 T*sn Xch 6. 12 
Tpn Prv 18. 17 examine or 
question a person closely 
Prv 23. 30 compare 
Tpn: IR 7. 47 estimate 

i£opi±cjj (A) (opoy) w^Tin Nu 



33> 5 



2 j 



j*nrf beyond 



frontier, banish 
p^&T\n Ex 32. 24 *rf r:i 0/ 
efopc'Coi (B) (dpo's: T nn IS 17. 18) 

/>r*tt out the whey from cheese 
(TrayXai^w bbrtnn Jer 9. 23 

£nd* oneself on a thing, glory 7 



exult; <iyAtu£aj: glorify T?J1 
€7TiKaLvt£aj ennnn Ps 103. 5 

renew, restore (Pass.) 
CTTiKpvrrrci} T^ITIm IR 14. 5 

Prv 20. 11 freq. in Med., 

disguise; dissemble (W) 
cVio-^ceua^cj p^Z IlCh 34. 10 

/nj/if afresh^ repair, restore 
1CD Ps ±Q. is 



imaKid^uiy -acj *]Cn Ps 9 1 * 4 
throw shade upon, aiershadoiu 
for protection 
V-irt IIS 20- 6 darken, obscure ; 

cf au>£to 
bsn Ez 31. 3 
im<rxi£uj y rrpo- pTiZ Ez 1 6. 40 
clear e at top 

€— i^X^vaLtLj c?prn IIR 2. 23 



Ez 22, 



Hab 



jeer, 



t V 

\€UC.LL 



29 

Gn 
cf 



10 
make a meek of; cf ;<;A< 

irropyt^ofiCL "Tn Jc5 37, 
to 6tf wroth at: cf. opyl^uj 

€pyaL i Ojj.(ii 7 €pdtij i p*£cj ^*^n 
4. 22 ^'orA a material; 

Xpo f t ^ oj IxP 1 ) <:rrT !P l a ^^ 
Jcs 28. 24 Prv 14. 22 
perform; till the land 
r^nnrt IS 23. 9 Prv 3. 29 
something to; chiefly in bad 
sense, do one ill, do one a 
shrewd turn priTiH Gn 

26- 20; Cl. OU^ } t77aCK€U) 

npi/npV Prv 31. 16 rnn 
f/// the land; cf, dporptdaj 

pvs Jcs 5, 2 J;^ 

npy Gn 1. 31 make, do, per- 
form (spurious) ; cf. T€vx<u 

nVa Ps 141. 7 £-U n7/ the 
land ; cf* ttoAcqj 



s 4 6 XII. THE SUFFIX -^ 

nVp Prv 7. 23 Job 16. 13 davfid^aj zzv IRg.BJcriS. 16 

nbp Dan 3* 12 perform rites wonder, marvel 

€p€dl^uj y -Out Tnnn Lev 26. 6 nr: Jcr 4. 9 

rouse to anger, rouse to fight, -3*r E^r o. 3 

provoke, irritate C*^m Ez 3. 15 

ept£aj "inn IS 14. 15 strive 7 Err; Job 21. 5 

wrangle, quarrel z contend, rival i:t\"" Dan 3. 27 

nnn: Cant 1. 6 n^r. Gn 2.3. 33 

mnnn Jcr 12. 5 .itrr Hab :. 5 
m Jud 11. 25 Prv 3. 30 



-**i Ps 35. 1 dz-jtZu, "^7 J'- r *-- l 3 -b 

—"HP! IS 2. IO summer work, mow. net) 

"nn Jud 5. 13 c?*ctt:'*lj r ~2 IlCh 33. 6 ;j 

ni5 Gn 32. 20 declare b" oracle, orzthecw 

~~>^ Ez 27. 25 divine, fcretelt 

£ra£cj TpH examine, lest . -iai reafej A . -cicacj r*J\"7 Jer 40. 

Lr i>J ) mostly in ccrr.pd. ef-, 22 rr;;:-; qu:ckl\\ rusk, dar: 

q.v. ~*T Job 4:. 14 

"n Jc-31. 37 '36" r--/ ^Jl ~t J ir 50. r :; cf ca t \> 






'P n J°^ ! 3-9 ~v~j_'/: 



;:: G. 2 



^ r\ 



, i > - - 



; :-zj::, frv, lT'.w: 7" Jcr f t j. : : Hab 1. 8 

P^-Sm Dt 28. 53 Jud ia. 17 nvs Jes 63. : 

J« 29. 2, 7 j/^ 7" Jcs :o. 6 

cl-vc^oi n;y Dt22.24 cu: to bed, dvctdZut "-* Ex 20. 2a sacrifice : 

go to bed, of sexual inter- cf rvcu, crcc^u 

course H2T IR 3. 3 

I— J CS 57- 3i c - c:^;-:';ouct T^ 17* IR I. 46, aSJer 36. If, 

]2p Ez 31. 6 rja;; mestiy in poe:s and ia:e 

]:? Jer 22. 23 Prcsc, ±e Att. Prcsc :cr~ 

^crv^a^o; H7r; Ecc: 3. 7 £**/> being <::u'u, intrs., j:.\ - r ;; 

<?«:*/, be at re::, :r:p::e s:le::ce 7 dewn: -*~n IR 2. 24, 2:. 

leave unspoken G-:o Ps 143. 3 causa!, make 

r.Z7i7\ Jos 42. 14 to _:-\ seat, place; cf oUIZuj 

men Dt 27. 9 K-ay;(0.^'^o^(ii, KGyxcAdu* ?n3 

r ? r J es 62. I Jcs 12. 6 Jcr 50. 11 rejoice, 

r T rn J cr 49- 2 3 exult; of hounds, deer, 

p r '^ Jon k ii, 12 Ps 107. 30 P^rds; cf. ot?t'yyo;ia:, p. 247 

Prv 26. 20 *adayi^ 9 -lc^ CHp Ex 28. 41 

'-** £** Cr^— ' C^ - ^-^- Xu 6. 1 t devote, dedicate 



XII. THE 

cr"jpn N 7 u 3. 13 Jos 20. 7 
IIS 8. n 

Kadapi^aj Tntp iS'u 3 I - 23 1HD 
Xu 3.6-7 EZ36. 33 Mai 3. 3 
j-f~o cleanse t purify 

ins Ez 22. 24 "men Xu 
8. 7 Jos 22- 17 Jes 66. 17 

xrn, Ksnnrr Lev 14. 49 Xu 

3i—3 

KaQtLouat -^ Ps2Q. 10 preside 
IIS 7. iS ICh 17. 16 si: as 
suDoliants ; cf. ZZui 

jcafli£a>, tar- 22D IS 1 5. I I ji^ 

recline at meals 

2^r^ Gn 47. 6 IR 2. 24, 21. 

10 IIR 1 7. 26 causal, make 

to sit f scat, place ; j*:;/* [c:. 

-~n Xch 13. 27 'LXX, but 

Cl. Cl'VOUCtj) 

Kc.ivL^aj } iy- *!* IS I I. 14 :n 

Poets, esp. use fzr :he frs: 
time, handsel] cf. i-:- 



-~ Dt 20. 5 



Th 



KaTTVL^oj ~2Zn i l:r 3. id 
smoke y blacken with smoke 
"VEnn Prv 19. 26 
lErn Jcs 24. 23 Ps 34, 6 
me:aph., to be black iciik smoke 
T2" Jcs 33. 9 Prv 13. 5 
KapTTi^cu (B) "irn Lev 19. 20 

enfranchise a slave by ::u:i::ng 
him iviih the rod 
Kara3arrri£uj 723 Gn 37. 3 1 

Lev 4, 6 Xu 19. 18 dip 

bzzz Jos 3. 15 

*\zv IR 22. 38 Cane 8. 7 

drown; Pass., to be submerged 

KaraTTa-rl^ia 373D Ps 69. 3 

throw into the sea } plunge or 



SUFFIX -{*, 247 

drown therein] cf. Suuj 
y^O Ex 15. 4 

y=On Jer 38. 22; cf. Pa77T^u> 
KaraaK€vd^aj yZ7\ IS 13. 13 

Zeph i. 7 Ps 103. 19 Esth 
6. 4 ICh 29. 19 HCh 27. 6 
generally prepare, arrange, 

establish ; cf. ^k€ug(cu 
pin Jes 16. 5 Ez 40. 43 Prv 



21. 31 



Karax^cu Z^Tp IS 2 1 . 6 Jes 65. 5 

Hag 2.12 befoul [cf. dylZcu) 
KaxdZ^uj, KcyxdZtLj pHS Gn 18. 

12 laugh cloud, jeer, mock 
pn^ Gn IQ. 14; cf. dyun'i£ouai 
prv Thr t. 7 
pnv IIS 6. 21 
p^nrn HCh 30, 10 

J-lpJ ?ti>J ^i>w 

plash or bubble, c: sound 01 
liquids; froth '':rth foam; c:. 



KC 



zv^ \ < : o 



K7jSd£cu ~~p Ex 2 0, 2! c^' 

punned 
r-?p IR 8. 64 HCh 29. 5 

cleanse, &ur;fv; cf. doayi't£a> 

^rpn I ICh 29. iq 

ripnn IIS 11. 4 Jcs 66. 17 

I ICh 29. 5 purify oneself 
*Ad£tt> f"n Ex ii. 7 Jos 10. 2i 
of dogs, bark, bey (pV^lu, 

rns Zcph 1. 14 ^^> r-U^ 
of men, shout, shout aloud, 
scream] cf. KpaZcv 

nnsn Jes 42. 13 
plP Jes 5. 26 Zach 10, 8 
jcAufoi Vl2 Am 5. 24 (/>Vu#) 
urorA azroy, wash, rinse out 



248 



Y*bnn Jes 58. 1 1 

17171 Jos 5* 9 (a$atpcti>) 

fm Gn 43* 31 Ex 30. 1 8, 2i 
Lev 1. 9, 14. 8 IIR 5- 10 
Jcs4.4Ps58.11Cant5-3.12 

^rn E2 16. 4 Prv 30. 12 

ymnn Job 9. 30 
KV€6d£<jj *p31 Jes 30. 20 cloud 

over, obscure 
*vt£a> JT3pn Dt 32. 16, 2 1 USU. 
metaph., oflovc, chafe, tease, 
provoke, provoke io jealousy 

K3p_ Dt 32. 21 
KoXd^oj vbn Ex 17. 13 Jes 14. 
12 get person punished 

bbp Job 40. 4 ttjfer injury 

bbp Jcs 65- 20 Pass,, to be 
punished] cf- Karapdouat 
kouIIoj nQT Lev 25. 3 gather 
in, reap] reapfrj.it 

rrsia Prv 31-27 take care of, 
provide for; of things, attend 
to, give heed to; c<Zim opl^r}, 
keco house, of mistress of 
the house; cf. coot£ouct 

nrjs Gn 16. 11, 21. 17 attend, 
give heed to; cf. cvy-, k\vu> 

tz6, rfliJtf; cf. aycrrcccit 
V-?p Gn 16. 4 15 2. 30 Hab 

1 . 8 Jii to bi light 
Vp>3 IIR 3. i3 
n'7p] Dt 25. 3 
bpn Jcs 23. 9 Jon 1. 5 HCh 

10. 4 <Jii±- lighten, make 
light {v. p. 353) 

Kpd^ai ma Zcphi.14 j~y-> ^U» 

generally, scream, shriek, cry, 



XII. THE SUFFIX -£« 

baici, shout; cf. Kpai/yaCa* 
mx;i Jes 42. 13 
p"i*? Jcs 5. 26 Zach 10. 8 
N'.7 G r. i Qo Ps 8 1 . 8 ro cj7.' to 
fnn Ex n. 7 Jos io, 21 
of dogs, bay 
Kpaori^OLLatj Kfxir- 71^*1 Job I* 
1.1 Cant 2. 16 consume green 
jocaer {: j ; cl. rpujyu> 
Kpair/aLcj 'a derivative of Kpd^cj] 
Ez ii. 13 rrv aloud. 



* + 1 



p^I?m Job 35. 9; CL CTutaycj 






Jer 22. 20; cf 



auvavaj 



^ — ^ 



-U 



ms Zeph i. \x 
msn Jcs 42. 13 

s?w P531.23 
p~ Jes 5. 26 

K^p Gnig. 5?s8i.3 local::? 

V" Ex 1 r. 7 of dogs, bay 

ktHIuj '=* Jes 54. r 1 Ps 89. 12 

Job 33. 4Esr3_ 12 ofaciiy, 

found, build 

Ts: Jos 6. 26 Jes 14. 32 Zach 

4- 9 

~r:r IR 6. 37 found 

Cant 5. 15 set up 



TC\T Esr 3. I I 
~Z*2 Jes 44- 28 



build 
Pass. 



/3 i: 



founded 



"7C* Hab 1 . : 2 establish, set up 
T^ Ps 8. 3 Esth 1. 8 ICh 0. 

22 establish, bring about 
r^p Nch 3. 1 found, set zp\ 

Ct. cyt^uj 
KvSdi^UJ r fT; IIR 19. 22 r^ 

revile , £0LU£ 
A^ttoftai r* 7 Ps i • 1 ^r^ . w -^ 
plunder, despoil, rob 



XII. THE S 

/it/fa* (B^/iuCaoj nxn Jcs 51- 17 

Ps 75. 9 suck 
7^n Jcs 66. 1 1 

feaw£aj, ^avKuofiai T~* Gn 37- 
2 tf*J /i£* tf hot-headed youth, 
wilfully or wantonly, swagger 

v€6€\LT t cj ^2J Gn 4. 6 wrap in 
clouds 
Vcn Jcs 26. 19 



bsx 



Am S- 20 



np? N'u 5. 19, 28,31 gener- 
ally, purge , cleanse : cL ayvCfa 

~pl Job 10. I4; Cf. CT7Q- 

77C* IIS 19.25 wash the hands 
or feci \ commonly used of 
washing part of the person, 
while AoJofiai is used of 

bathing , rrAuYtu (*? '- ?S C2. I t 
'-;■ of washing clctr.es, c:c; 



but 



^ b aj is sls. uiec 



01 



things ; Alt. Prose waters use 
the word onlv in cc mods., v. 



€var:o- 



€<-vt^Lj : 



n. 



vaults C^n Job 21. 27 use 
customarily, practise, use 
zm Gn 38. 15,50. 20 con- 
sider as, consider (\V) 

Zr" Ps II9. 59 (cf. T7€urr»Ztu) 

irn: Jcs2. 22 Job 10. 3,41* 21 
Pass., to be deemed, reputed, 
considered 

rrnrn Nu 23. 9 

voad^uj, -oifa SIX IIS 12- 1 5 
to be ill 
SU Job 6. 7 
ya Gn 12. 17 causal, produce 

sickness 
M Ps 73. 5 



UFFIX -{« 249 

*pJ IIS 12. 15 Jcs rg. 22 
voG<f>t^w "fSl Jcr 51. 21-3 set 

apart, separate 
rajTt£ oj CJ Jud 9. 2 I /1//7I 0/itf*J 
ia^i, /ur;i one's back and fee 
(CI. arro-, ol^u;, x 1 ' 00 -^) 

nsi Job 39- 13 co^r the 
back 

supl^uj = ^uo£u ~7l Lev 13-33, 
14. 8 Dt 21. 12 _r/ra:*£ 
H7J Jud ID. 17; cf. Kara^vpdcu 

mp Mich 1. 16 

rnp: Jer 16. 6 

irnpn Ez 27. 31 

mpn Ez 20. 1 3 

nVir.ri Lev 13. 33 Nu 6. 19 

shaze oneself or /;£:■* oneself 
shared , "*- ^ J-^ tO^ 7J0- 
o3a*Ta£aj, -rl^^j ~*,?Z Am 5. 10 
bite] Cl. iCKi-c-Tta 

^r; Jer 3. :; 
oIkI^uj; -Ilj -*nn Ez 36. 33 
people wi:h new settlers; cC 

II R 17. 6, 2-t j<r:r/<?, £fo/if as 
a colonist or inhabitant; trans- 
plant 
yZZT} Gn 3. 24 

oicj^ai r/'T' IS 18. 9 teA* 
omens from the fight and cries 
of birds: generally, divine 
from omens; regard as an omen, 
shun as an ill omen (cf. i-rrau- 
Y<LW}\ V" Lev 19. 26 
|15J Jes 2. 6 ; cf etW£aj 

o«Aa£<u 5H3 Gn 49. 9 Jud 5. 27 

IS 4. i9J cb 4-4>39-3 (fj 
sink down, crouch down with 
bent hams; bend their hind* 
or fore-legs; cf. xp 04 ^ 



25 o XII. THE SUFFIX -£« 

oXo\vZu> t -<ktu> bbn Ps 44. 9 24. ii, 38. 12 Ez 12. 3 Am 

cry with a loud voice, in Horn. 7. 1 1 Job 20. 28 depart 

esp. of women crying aloud to ~"V G 11 21. 10 Dt 2. 12 pan, 

the gods in prayer or thanks- <l:v:ce: t. ".::::•: 

giving; cf. "I^^n ICh 16.4; 1*?^ Gn to. 25 >v;rr, «fo/<& 

cf. aydAAw, atVi'Co^ai "H5 Ez I. i: />ar.\ rf/i-i'fV, 

opotdfa riQT Ez 3 1 . 8 Car.: 2. separate 

compare, liken -~ Gn 2. io, to. 5> 25. 23 



"*-:sn D: 3:.3 Ruth 1. 17 
I"" Tob^.:.o separate 



r.zi: Ps 49. 13 

z~7 Cant 1. 9; cf. €-- ' •"-• " J 

=--- Ez 31. 8; cf. fci^, ™ J^---7 P^t y chide 

'rszi Ps 49. 13 



C **"".£" Lev : : . 



x -», Dt - !• ■«"-''• """'^ Gn 2". j.o Ps 136. 2j. -Jji 

"* J Stt-Z7Zi£\ Cl. d€Lcj f r\. 



0/" ov r.ame, name, specify 



= ?: Lev 24. 16; cf. ccc^d-To ?"? Zachn.io psrt, drc.de 

271 Nu I. 17 



ris: Ez !-. 2: 



d^'Cw ~- y Dt 2r. !2 ;.?.-* r- : s Psc3. isThr 1. 17 
' .;-; „ a n s T7 = Lev 24. ; 2 crdan. deter- 



r-.s Xj -.;. 34 



or <^r ready: of ncrscr.i. -sn. 
cf soldiers, equ:p. - — :: 2.'~: 

ones?!/ with boicr.rsi: jrvi sp,:r:cui, c:. cc;:-cj^ 

OKiidif, get ready :i j:;j;\ "" -.- j 

QD-AI& rr:n IS 28. : = .-™ '""I Xu :-5. 2: Est c 



/*. .*- 



angry ^ provoKi to zr.£*r. :rr::^ 

sn Jcs 51. 15 Job 26. 



» -^ _ . -* . 



!^. s?* ..r.nf \ c.* -J.O- 



b-zr. Gr. :. 'i Lev :. i 



2U. 



"^ IIS 19. 1 ^r^- -"i~ ^ 2 5 Nu ;6 9 Dt 4- 4 l 

Zl^i Ps 2. ! T*2:n Exic.12 ai- exci-dt: 

r;^2 P* =^ 1^ ;.. ^.r;^,. rr:r IIR :-. :: HCh 36. 20 



j::?j> Or separ.:U '*:* 
border or boundary 



» » ■ » <* Tt 





-:> 


" . ■-# : - 


. t 


^ 


~ 


-' 





* 






r 1 


*** — * 


Jer 




^ 




;o: 


'. £'. . 


t 


\av: 


LU 


r 


^a 


Gn 










v 


^ "- 




txs* 





t" IR 3. 25 per:, -*'::■:-•>: cf. bar.iih: cf. o^x^y^oj 

" t:: J« 53- B IICh -^- 2I ~~~ Xu2:.32 Dt :i. 23jud 

banish from ; ci if- ::. 23 Ji- exclude, banish 

T"U3 PS31.23 "":?■ Hos 4. 14 <i<i>- ffra.i: 

"I IS 4. 21 IIS 15. 10 Jes j special ^:fr f cf. pe'Ccu (A; 



XII. THE SU 

(from fp*y-juj) y ptSSuj 
"ns Esth 3. 8 separate, dis- 
tinguish 
"D Dan 5. 2O a4>- separate, 
bring to an end; separate off 
(W); piD Gn 27. 40 
Chs: Ez 34. 12 d6- separate, 
distinguish 
ourd^aj, ovrdcu V^J2 Joel 2. 8 

Am 9. i Ep. Verb used sts. 

in tragedy; Horn, uses ::; 

wound, hurt, hit with any kind 

of weapon, sts. generally, 

wound: CI. aTTcoto^tLj 
-pv Thr 2. n 

~r>" Thr 2.12 ' 

-^v IR :. 6 
zsv: Eccl ro. 9 ■ 

ZSJ Jcs 63. 10 

z^rrn Gn 6. 6 
i^S Cant 5. 7 

JOucj ~- Ex 32. 1 do. go or 

come late; d. ^rraia^vfouc; 
~- Jud 3- 25; cf. 66* 

TT-priGKtvdZuj TJiy Pr/ G. 2 

or coat e for oneself, make Ore* 

"V2" Gn 42. 6 D: 2. 23 

provide 2nd prepare what one 

has not] provide, procure, son- 

tnve; supply (W) 
— €.\i<tZuj P^*- Lev 1. 15 *"--' ^_J 

with an axe t esp. behead 
TTT^yd^uj i^n Job 40. 23 spring, 

gush forth 

sz: Prv 1 3. 4; cf. Bd^ 
T"D Gn 49. 4 
ttU^uj 7-K Ps 80. 16 press tight 
™ Jcs i. 6, 59. 5 Job 39. 15 
press tight, squeeze, press, weigh 



j 11 



FFIX -fa 251 

fnn Dt 33. 1 r Jud 5. 26 

pnn Jud 5. 26 
^n IS 26. 7 

^]Vb Ez 23. 3 squeeze, compress 
IDS E^ 23. 3 

;rs; Ps 139. 15 

fS^D Job ID. !2 

p^i? Ez 22. 29 

PVV JeS 23. !2 

nc* Mai 3. 2: squeeze, press, 

weigh down 
pT37 Job 40. 23 of a river, 

to £* exhausted from ihe heat 
of the sun 
Tr.\a£oj (E), -dacLLj ~7 Gn 1 8. 6 
knead bread 

rroii't£ouat ~V Ex 2 I . 22 «acf 
a penaltv 

"Z Jer n. 24 Am 3. 14 

-o<:£cy, -*~- r; Gn 3:. 19, 38. 

a-oc?/, ;. ; :<Mr sheep 
= Trocar shear' TT: Jcr 7. 29 
Job I. 10; CI. t€<t€oj ' rroca/; 

shear, clip, shear ha:r (\V) 

77pO<TXi£uJ p" EZ 10. 4O j£>/l/ 

in front ; c:. £—;- 

TTT^Lytiw "vrxn Job 39. 26 

flutter with the wings, like 
voung birds trving to fiy ; 

flap the wings, like a cock 
crowing 
Trvxa^uj *>rq Jud 20. 43 Ps 22. 
1 3 surround 

■vnrn Ps 142. S Prv 14. 18 
cover closely, freq. with collat. 
notion of protection; crown, 
deck with garlands 



3 5 2 XII. THE SUFFIX -{« 

72p Jes 40. 1 1 nsnj Ps 68. 14 

f2p Prv 13. n close, shut up, mSH IlCh 3. 5 

shut dose H3S IR 6. i^ 20 

JSP Dt 15. 7 Ps 77. 10 HDS Prv 26. 23 

p*X* r P £ fa, pa X ifa T137 Ex 13. p |Sn Dt33- 12 shelter, protest 

13 ci// through the spine, csp. t^^ 1 ^ ^^ 

in sacrificing a^v^o, r=n Gn 22, 3>cl 19. :o 

p*fa (A) T1D Hos 4. 14 in Ez 16, 10 dress up; Pass., 

special sense, perform sacri- accoutred: ci. ^a-; <7«:ra£yj 

ficcs, <#r a hecatomb to T zl -- 3 8 - 7 IlCh 35- ir ' 

the gods; cf. dooo^uj generally, .t:,:-« rr^v, srrsr- 

P€?«(B) »ip Jcr4- 30= Scttu, pn Ez 33. 7 Ps 147. 8 IlCh 

dye; cf. xpo?£a, 2. 3, 35. 14 />«£■/ A : profit 

V7DnD Jer 16, 7; cf-^HE, -po- p~ Gr.41.4O y^ provide, 

Ttivtu procure : furnish, supply ; collezl ; 

fm Ex 2. 5 IIR 5. IO Ez 23- cf. icr:dZoj.ai 

40 = ,3d— cj, £:>. ivc; cf. J-dr ^S~ jU (f.^-,' 

J2p4x<*> GKidZ^j ""rcn Jcs 30. 2 /J D* :r. 

=?n Ex 35. 35 :/- ;-j- 

=77 Ps 139. 15 ~ = Ex 40. 3 Job 40- 22 

pJ~Lj r pci^cu ^in Jos :0. 2 1 zzzer, zh^e 

growl, snarl, like an angry -pr Ex 33. 22 

dog; cf. dpd £cj, KAaiu} 12r job io. :i 

c^\t:^ S7pn Xu io, 3 sound 77^ Xeh 13. io ^ s;*-^- 

.'Ar trumpet shud-z-w. dzrken, shr.de 

a^Ba^ouai, atpouaL K2S Ex 38. 3 aKorric^ ""-~ Jos 2. 2 Job 3c. 

IS 2. 22 worships honour, 2 o scy ''rom j /::*/: place or 

mostly of thegeds; of sup- wcizh-iz-uer; generally, spy, 

piiants wtztzh, even on a plain, i£v 

22: Ps 82. 1, 1:9. 3q Pass., w, ^j;:.: 

to be reverenced; cf. *at : iarcVcj "~ Prv 2. 4 

ctyaCcu *T2Cri Dt 27. 9 3i£ one ZZ~ IS 23. 23 

be silent, silence him; cf. nES Prv 15. 3; cf- errroSi^tJu 

vavxafa "-? Jcs 2:. 6 Xah 2. 2; cf. 

a<cAtCcu, vTTO- Vr22 Dan 11. 14, t.W:';^; T^r; Cant 2. 9 

19 ^;j6 up one's heels: Pass. r |T7 Job 20. 9; ci. Cooooj 

772 J« 8. 15 r ;p^ Jud 5. 23 

a«7rd£oj, cm- 72H Ex 29. 9 TF-" Ps ! 4-^ 

Ez 16. 10 Job 40. 13 cover; a*ord£a> ^TT! £z 30. 1 3 grow 

cf, oxcud^cu, Jfvywut cflrA 



XII. THE SUFFIX -£*. 



253 



1?n Ps 69. 24 Thr 4. 8 
"]"rnn Ps 105. 28; cf. cfKorl^ui 
n-rp Mich 3. 6 
-iiprn IR 18. 45 P^is., to be 

darkened', cf. avaKard^ut 
aKOri^aj *]*7nn Am 8. 9 make 

dark; cf. ffxora £ai 

-r*7?n Ez 32. 7 

axv^ouai ~^T IlCh 20. 10 -^>=— 
ra be cngrv with, 10 be uro'.': 

26. i,35-35 IS l8 - 2 5 «=^' 
cleverly or skilfully; cf. >ou^u> 

7T3VJ Prv 31. 27 ; cf. Kc^'r^ 

cool^cj "H Ex 26. 1 ^j.-:^ 

u;ise. instruct; Pass,, -^ hecznze 

or 6* c/<ri-*r or skill id :r. J .V::.\*j ; 

CI. I'a^i^ctj 

rrrn Ps 32. 8 Dan ■. 4, 9. 

crrrcri^Lj *'2 - JeS 66. I : _^— 

Tes 10. is i>ii>€. shir*, c: :he 
shrill note of small birds 
r.zz ]cs 54. 1 Ps 90. 4 
ct77;Zlj B* nro Lev 13. 23 

crrroCt'^ --I* Ruth 2. 14 r;j;; 
or bzke in ashes; 7*32 

T 

"t> JCS 2 1. 5; Cf. c^crr^;^ 

"T Ps 22. 16 oj^ 

(j--^ rr."T Lev 15. 33 jVj5. 
.V: yj/i or i/W jV^ by j>:s, 

Z^T Ex 3. S Lev 15- 25 JCS43. 

21 
n~r; Lev 12. 2 
HT3 Lev 6. 20 
run Lev 4. 6 Nu 8. 7 



^01 Jud 5. 4 Joel 4. 18 Cant 

5- 5 

r fOn Am 9. 13 

arevd^cj, ctcvc.;^'oj ; <jr€vaxt£tu t 
aro'civaj, c-Totc^eaj, aroi'a- 

^t'C^ n;x: Ez 9. 4 Thr 1 . 4, 

21 5;^/* deeply, generally, 

sigh, groan [c:. cU-a-] 
]n: Jcr 22. 23 
?:x Jcr 5:. 52 
p:x: Ez c. s 
(ttqalCuj. kctz- Tr.n Ez 16. a 

dress 
■771" Ez : 5. 2. 

r 

xVc Thr j.. 2 



(7L"/K"OL:t^uj r — / 



-7-*-» 



Jcci 2. 16 



irf-j :ig*:her y collect 



jzpi Gn 4c. 2 Ez 30. 17 

12 



6 Mich 1-7,4. 5> 



fzp — Jcs c. 2 

iticzt; IH 15. 22 Jer 4. to 

■^■ — ■ > > ; CI. ,1<01 W TI^LL> 

ji-i'rr/i^ ziirrr Jcs 45. 20 

dr-ziL' fzcr.r 
<ruvcpyd±cu2i "Vm Gn 20. 20 
aor*: n ;":.?, cz-iperc:*; cf. e-- 

cuoi^cj 7^7 IlCh 5. 13 £/**/ 



trs rr" 



ine 



-2t-,S 






^;/?^; whis::e t \V 



p^7 Tiir 2. :5 rnait^ any 

whzstUng or fiuswi* sound, hiss 

avuKora^ut "^"Tpm II< 18. 45 



^rca 1 c7^.W CJ7K 



CTfyva^Lj 7*3 37! \u 22. 30 

Jrtqutr.t, do or came frequently 

aoarrcj 7IZT Dt 12. 15, 21 



254 



IR I. 9, 19 £->-> slay, 
slaughter, sacrifice, properly by 
culling the thrcsi; cf. Svatd^t-j 
n^O Thr 1. 2t ,j*^> 
CTO Jer 39. 6 Ez 23. 39 

divide, divide into; cf. 5ixa£cu 
~r? Jcs 33. 23 :$/:':, :«j\ "' 

pri Jud 16. 9 Jcs 5. 27, 33. 20 

Jer 10. 20 
»ra Job 4. 10 isr.', separate, 

shelter; cf a«iw 
7"2 Jer 1. 10 shatter 
jr: Jer 4. 26; r, p. :66 

J?l IlCh 31. I 

7-- Jud 6. 28; r. p. 33 

7"V Lev XI - 35 

ccp Ez 17. g r~: :u:: c:. 

iTTLKorrraj 

r--? Dt2 5 . 12 

f'jp. Ex 39. 3 Juci :. 

pr: Ez 17. 9, 23. 34 

-cr Dl 14. 6 ^— » ju ^ 

jp/ii, cleave, divide 
VC™ Lev 1 . 1 7 

pr: Lev 22. 24 cy:cto>' 
pr: Jud 16. 9 Jer 2. 20 Xali 
1 . 13; cf. i^cuOtuj 



XII. THE SUFFIX -£** 

Cm Job 14- 17 £«£ secret 

:rc Dan 3, 26 

rr*- Xu 10. 9 /o 6* m;-^ * 

*?:*: Mich 4. 10 

rrj^n Ex 2- 17 Jud 2. 18 

save, re: cue from 
zrs Dan 3. 15 

rs- 115 :3. 31 ; cf. StK-c^o/ 



- ^ ^ - r -• V 



pr; Jud 20. 32 

pv^ Jos 8. 6 Jer :2. 3 

przr\ Jud 20. 3: >. p. 37 r 

<7ci£uj Hi Ps 71. 6 *-**$ j\:/ir, 

preserve 
"1=T Gn 40. 14, 23 Ex 20. 8 

Jer 2. 2 Thr 2. : ; :*r>> m 

mind, remember 
13H Xu 10. 9 
*V2tn Jes 63. 7; cf. rrpoatpeuj 



""sri Ex :2. 27 IS 17. 37 Hcs 

^ * * ~ zze f^reserz'e T£i~\+e 
jrzm\ c:. tViovia^cu 
^2: Ez 6. :2 «*/> ja/V, ;^- 

T.s Ps :3c. 5 

~n IS 20. 73 






tf .111 



r "l ; cl. cTTtr^vLTt^ 



~V Jcel 4. : 1 



- t * t'i*. ^— f 



— * J. * _ 






cr .'.r^-^.'if .--.•:.'::.*:»: 



:=r Ps- = .u. 









23. 20 



lie* *s '*£ 

q^rr; Dt 23. 21 
rojii^uGi pr: IChi2.2 i/^o.' 

Lr7av<^Vi';u> r-rr IIR 4, 16 

j. ; jlt£ :. ? i .'.■:* amis, embrace 
727> G:i 29, 13 Cane 2. 6 
9qtl^ S-T2 IR 12. 33 gener- 
ally, wv; cf. £afui 



XII. THE SUFFIX -£o- 255 

cSAoyi^oi, OAtytu vb^ Xu 4. 20 to, take refuge in 

burn, blaz* : fame ;cLd-6>S\vu: ~^ Gn 39. 12 Jcs 35. 10 

pbt Ob t3 set en Jin, £irr\-, c. ace. rc\ fee and escape 

blaze " !3?2 Gn 37. 2 j/,:;/i or shrink 

p'7" Ez 24. 10 i/j^^ J rom \ c - -^2;-:^ 

*rp* Jcs 10. 16 X^£°^ at (^a-* ~ T * Jes 1. 4 Ez 

"" J er r 5- J 4 l ^' 5 Pec:, and mainly 

Z7\*? Hcs 7. 6 1— — ~~> , ! ! Ep-; ?< ; ^ :tuv. £:>c:r or shrink 

u" P^ :oa. a back, re:o:i 



r-? Ma! 3. 19 ^v E = :~ 7 

--7 D: 32. 24 (6:\oyicr6i ::c: J^ r 3^- — 

"p"?" Ex 9. 24 Pass., 3:j~^ 



;:r: IIS 1. 



ai; to 5/ inflamed: blaze , — Cl: __lX.~ : 

ri7U Am 5. 6 bur::. blzze\ X^C^.- £ 1 ^- i*" D: 10. la 

mctaoh,. kindle ir.tlame' cf. cause to r;:;re, j.-rce ;j r?i:r* 

av,\c:;f: r c?aA,W opC-pooj f^om] rr:ake :z recoil, force back 

"7 D: 32. 22 Jci 50. :i : " J^ 59* : 4 

nVr T ' : * 3 "> »** -"-'■ —' rrn Job 2a. 2; c:~. <-::?ivyc 



~~, 7 ^~ iw : ^. -3 area: m e or 

de ** rr * ^ _ " 



/ ^ -r J 1 




Y^r;LCi/. 


-T-ijj . T"~" 


rr-;:- 


i". n^ca* a s".i 


_ 


■ " ; ' - _ > 


^T" 


jT » -* 


v n^CvU 


"^ ""* 1 ,» - - 


grif. 


•*••■■' 



^a:^y<y y.S; IS 3.: ;-;:-. 

^^. £ E^v ^ ' r ° ■*■ -lj* "~ -a 

TD Dan 5.16 
"*.*^ Dan ^.12 — i 
^rr G:: 40. 3; ;■. p. 554 
■- : ^. !a:c Ian, for 6^:7^ -'- 

G:\ 14. :o Xu 35. 25 IS a, 

:o. 3: . : IIS 13. 29 ]-zs 3c. 

:6 Zacn 14. 5 I ICi: 14. : : 

m- : 3 i 52. 9 f Ln — : ;r ^ .n- 

i*S riab :. 4 > x ; " oa 'C"' J x : '°^^ r:r; Can: 2. 13 

rr ~- Can: 2. 17 P r0 P- CI " you:hs, ?e: the first 

]"2 Xu :o. 35 IS 1 1. : : tofl; of fruit, ^:V; :.^ i/ao^ 

w" Gn :g. 20 X"u 35. 6 Jug 4. on it; cL d^C^uj 

17 IR 2. 28-9 have recourse ZM Dt 34. 7; cf. ycjr{^ 



::; rer 



'(■€lU€pi^CJ. ---.-t^ ^L*C jon I- 

II --^- I i rv 0. 1 1 to 0<r 
X^vd^ut Z~~7 Ez :6. 3: ::cf 



■eer a.\ :rea: _v.wi-„: 

.- w7^r.* .iR 2- 2 



. t . 



25 6 XII. THE SUFFIX -^ 

XOfrrdZoj ftj Prv II. 25, 13. 4 
feast 
pi Dt3i.20 fatten, prop, of 

cattle 
pi Ps 20. 4 

Pi J«34-7 
pin Jes 34, 6 

Pi Ps 23. 5 fill full of 

pi Prv 11.25. 13.4 Pass., 

eat their fill 
XPTli^ ixpv) ^ sn Dt 2. 7 want, 

lack y have need of 
fll IR 20. 40 desire, long for y 

crave; desire , ask for: iliIL 

choose ; cf. aoa£aj 
HSl Jes 42. 1 .J ~~^j -\j" 
X/njfaj, xpdui (B) CCp Ez 22. 28 

warn or <//r*^ 6y oracle; consult 

a god or oracle ; deliver an oracle, 

foretell 
Nip Xu 24. 1 Jon :. 2 : 3- 2 

vpTjcrrrpiQ^cj * ■■» J -- ±4- A ^ 
consult an oracle; c:. icr.-iZi-ai* 



°J> separate 
F13 Ex II. I, 23- 28 
rii Ex 12. 39; cf, Sia- 

tposM^cj ^*j* .j-a* c//£ iri/A scissors 
tprjol^cj nsn Ps 55. 24 «:*«.', 
reckon; ct. 3i^d$a> 

ysn Job 21.21 
-rn 115 :q. 20 Jes 13. 17 
rn; IIR 22. 7 Ps 83. 5 
™ Lev 25. 27, 50, 52, 2-. 

:8, 23 IIR 12. 16 
"i" Nu 23. 9 
ip2 Ex 20. 5 Xu 4. 23 IR 
20. 15 ICh 2 1. 6 

l^C Gn T ' ' -- * » 

tjndupiZu* ]rr Ps 109. 4 ^J^^l 



. ~+-^j ^rj~J whisper, whisper 
una: or.e dares not si>eak out. 



::,aers 



cljUi^llj, l,:\--j --- arr- U. 32. 
15 15 2. 29 thrust au.a%. 
i:::h zac*:; drive awav; scur-;. 



Xpovi^ui 






r—.-n Job 11. 3, 4: 

;:* a-iiA, of a wc™ar.; :j :.■:;. 

defile] cf. d<Ac£ty, rjoa^vvtu; 
in Jcr IQ. a M :-•::• jV - ^ 
i .-^ ila 34* - y — 5*: — •-■-, 

r . 

* ^ * v 1 **' J J . w • < • 

— ? J^ r 4* 3°; cf - ^^ A 

■f=in Jes 54. 11 

Xpo^C^ ^ n N Gn 32. 5, 34. 10 
take time, tarr/ 7 linger, delay 
Tin Ps 50. 3; cf. epyd^ouai 

r^ini IIS 19. 1 1 j±£ 
Xojplfa* «*- 7n3 ^ x 34- l ; cut 



J I I t 



e/- J« 4. 4 Jcr 5:. 24 

nT; D* 30. 4 

" n ™ p -' 25- 5. t'8. 13, 140. 5 

Ps 36. 






^3 






::i 6. 12 IIC!i 26. 20 
6 j raj" 
"11 D: 6. 19 thrust out foaxisn 
I'll D: 13. 14 *Afu^ (2;t-flv. 

--: Ps 1. 4 

^11 ^^S A I . 2 

111 Ja 13. 14 banish 



257 
XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

LL A series of kindred homologies show the comprehensive character 
of Hehrezv-Greek involvement. 

Asa tom v 

]\H out Dc 29. 3 Prv 26. 17 Job 13. 1 ecr\ handle, esp. of pitchers 
~~X yoicos GTtXXdi'GpG D: 32. 10: = piXav r :r\: 01 the eye;; = v 



KcoT) ( puoil of the eve; '-r*- <J' — > ."-*-'■ * -> 



_ « 



*|X a^am-oTj, d/jL^ Dt 33. 10 Jcs 2. 22 Prv :i. 22 Cant 7. 5, 9 

breathing organ, of the nose and mouth — ~' 
,, c^ti Gn 19. I tye,jac£, countenance n ^ Dan 3-19 

*■* ** vr ' T? _ , _ o . ., .* ^ *? r* 

wi^X rrou^ £-Z 4/. 3* **-*■ ■*^ — 

72SX ^cara-Lyaji' Jes 58. 9 the middle finger [^std in an obscene 

gesture [also in Egypt]} 
b"±K fia<7xd\v n in pL; Jes 4-9 corner] TTrSN Jer 3S. 12 arm-pit; ci. 

Lat. cr:7'c ( — u; 
*ni -/va; Ex 29. 20 u€ya£c<rvAor $J£ ,'J.'; c ^t%ii £c*ruAo>, .'/':/ 

^Z <\rrd> {-TrnQsiyvVLO* Gn 3O- 2 Nu 5- 22 Prv Ij. 25 Eccl II. 5 

:i €. the inner parts cf the body; J. ^W in animals, /-^ under 

parts, i.e. :A* ifi/v; = ajata (sc. yaa-rnpj ^:*v 
i"72 ocjl-v^ Jcr 51. 44 *j-«h .7*-:; : '- : - """^ 
~-!2 ^Trpdj, ;■.:. ^T Gn 30. 3 Jud 16. 19 II R 4. 20 
r.VZ aloo:ov, <iu'air IS 20. 30 freq. in pi., puder.ci-. both of men and 

women; the characteristic of sex, = alSoizt-, esp. of the female 

organ; cf. alouts; :'.-'- ~-- 
Zl J-tio% Ps 129. 3 laid or. one's back; or. one's b-ck 
'i „ Jes 38. 17, 50. 6, 51. 23 

iT*l yvlov Gn 47. 18 Jud 14. 3 IS 31. 10, 12 £z :. : : :he uhoie body 
ns" ,. ICh 10. 12 
y.ni „ Gn 3. 14 

Tl pcxij Job 40. 17 = icAoSoj (iramr/t of a blood vessel) 
n'^sVi ytr.-.L'Aos, *«^oAtJ Ex 16. 16 Nu 1. 2 Jud 9. 53 IIR 9. 35 = 

uTpoyyvXos, round; head; per head, each person 
H71 ycuAoff Jos 15. 19 Ecd 12. 6 water-bucket, machine for raising 

-xater [an obvious allusion to the head of a fair-haired person] 

443* en k 



2 5 8 XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

pna Adpiryf, <f>dptr/£ Jes 58. ! Jcr 2, 25 Ez 1 6. I I Ps i 1 5. 7 larynx 
or upper part of the windpipe; but in Poets confused with 6apuy^ 
(gullet); throat; used of the windpipe: of the phanux; both^of 
pharynx and windpipe 

E"7 af/ia, tf. p. 356 

]pT ye'i/cioy, Trciytiiv IS 17. 35 IIS IO. 5 Ps 133- 2 i^ri; a lion s mane; 

beard 
„ yvadosjataytLv Lev 13. 29 Ez 5. : jaw, cheek: jaw-bone, jaw, check 

S^iT ^ctp Dt 7. 19 hand and arm, arm 'vowc; ccr.icr.ant metath._ 

^-H dyicaAtf Jer 38. 12 in pi., arms; c:- p" dyicaA^G/ici, l-tt- 

n:n <rrn0or Ex 2Q. 26 breast, of both sexes, being the front par: 0: 
the 0copa4 } divided into two paarol \ — <rr t ; 0: animals;-*-* 

rrn, rrn/mn yufov Job 6. 2, 33. 18; v.s. ~~ 

z'/n yAdyos- Gn 1 8. 3 Ex 3, 8 poet, for ydAc 7 ^zW: 'y m, y -^ 

r?n iUc^a, ~ap, oAoiotJ Lev 3. 1 6, 17 /a: used in funeral sacrifices; 

hog's lard, greaje; \l-o$: prop, animal fa:, lard, tallow 
-T?70 yAourdr Gn 35. 1 1 Jer 30. 6 Job 38. 3 buticck; dual rcL yXovrdj 
:^n:, Q of 2*72", *.;;., ;3pa, war, 6-v^. ylr-i*:.?:^.'; of birds and 

animals, rrunfi; i % r Ez 44. 18 nr: Gn 32. 33 ■cv:or: hatches 
"T yino* Gn 48. 17 IIR 9. 23 the hand: yvT- r;Ou/ the feet; v.s. ™: 
s , cu-yrj IR 7. 33 Ps 7;. 3 w; in ?U -;--: ^- - 
-p; urjpdr Gn 24. 9, 32. 33 Ex 1. 5 Ps 45. 4 :.'.:\^; d?vpcv z ;-.:. ™ 
r."*V trtpQs Ex 2C. 13, 22 Lev 9. 10 o «. :~/.r neighbour 
723 £77 a o Ez 2!. 20 Prv ". 2^ /iiir ; as the sea: of the oassions. 

anger, fear, etc. ; gen. ^-aros Hike "X ^r^~ 
-nr „ Gn 49. 6 Ps 16- 9, 30. 13. 57. 9. ::S. 2, 149. 5 Prv 25. 27 
n*73 /coiAta Ex 29. 13 Jer 11. 20 belly. ::c:nach y i?:te:t:::es. in??. 

womb, any cavity in the body, ventricle, chamber, as in the :-^.r. 

A«rf, /i^r f 3r^:/:; koZaqv: hollow, cavity: esp. of -;-::^.r in the body. 

rd *. the ventricles 
"? £rrtor Gn8-9, 32.26,33,40. 1 1 Ex 9. 29 D: 2.5, 25. 12 Psoj. 5. 

83. to, 1:9. 48, 14 J. 2 Esr 9. 5 :.^ -rjemde uppermost, hcll^u 

ot the hand; 0. r£> ;(€foG* u;are.\c:v ;::; :::e upturned bancs ::. 

prayers; cf. Ex o. 29 Ps 63. 5; v,s. -i 
„ k-^oqA^ Jud 3. 6, 15 head] v.s. r.T'iTl 
ri3 d*pd7rof9 Ex 12. 9 Lev ii.2i extremity cf the leg, i.e. foot; pU 

tn? x°p St ? J cr 5 l - 34 i uts > tri P € 

p ;n3 KdTwfios Nu 7. 9 Ez 34. 21 Job 31. 22 ;cw in t;:e cho-id-r 

or fore quarters] uJ. C27 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 259 

2? *oAttos Gn 8. 21, 34. 3 Ex 7. 3, 15. 8, 28- 3, 30 l-Jj bosom, lap] 
icomb; of other cavities, of the ventricles of the heart; any bosom* 
like hollow, of the sea 

-5? )> Gn 2 °- 5 J uc * ! 9- 3, 9; gen. koXttov 

% m7 yva^or Jud 15. 15-17 Jcs 50. 6 jaw; cheek, in pL 

n? „ Dt 34. 7 

yb Aaptr/f Prv 23. 2; v.s. p"U 

]*r? yAuiaaa, yAa- Gn IO. 5, 20 Ex 4. 10 Jos 7. 2 1. 24, 15-5 Jes 5- 
24, I r. 15, 66. 18 ZachS. 23 Prv 25. 15 Tiir 4. 4 tongue; language, 
dialed: Seattle s&cakin* a d:s::nc: language. dI " anything siiabed like 
£ tongue; ingot; cf. ttMvVq; 

^-2, Z~I^ aiOoLOf, ta Dt 25. I I private parts, in pi. ri a. ; :\j. m 

mT? urjdos (B) Ps 133. 2 Ep. Noun, only in ph. rxTjSec, u«r£ea : 

mpV? ocwuyf Ps 2 2. 16; r^. p^i 

-TV 2 ra £i—6$'fioxot Gn 15. 4. 25. 23 IIS 20. to Cant 5. 4, 14 the 

inner parts of the body, the intestines (W; 
1 ! V- uQpiov Hab2. 15 inph, csp. parts or genitals, male or female: 

dy&ptia iLOpta, tg y€:^-77r;va p..] less freq. in S?- \ V r, . n"!*" 
"*V? ,, III /. 30 ii. £i-5.x5? ~X - Tj?72; Xail 3. j p.. yuvciKtZos 

rr?? ^iTLjrrov Ex 28. 38 hryj;, forehead 

rrjrrz <zrz.\€<u Joel :. 6 ?rv 30. 14 ^rr.^j 

\~- ut'jo;, -o;-, fieWoi, urroj Ex 28. 42 Ez 47. 4 A:n 3. :o ro ^/cc;- 
centre] the middle, the u.ai:t 

~W xpoc. \potd Gn 3. 2 i Ex 22. 26, 34. 20 Jer 1 3. 23 Job : 0. 1 : , 
18. 13 skin, csp. of the human body, hence the body itself; colour, 
csp. colour of the skin y complexion (— % t consonant vowel metath/: 

~V aC-s^odo? Ex 10. 5, 2:. 24 Nu I I- 7 Dt 33-23 IIS 12. 11 eves; 
the sun.: gleam, sheen; in pi., rays, beams \ eye, eyes; light, as a 
metaoh. for deliverance, hapoiness, victorv, zlorv, etc. 

z^j J-W Dt 28. 27 IS 5. 6 ;m". n:r ; --/uV, Dim, cf -JA^ pi. a 
disease of (he anus, prob. multiple fstula; :\j. -"-r 

r ;V-V tZ-xiov Jer 9. 17 Prv 4. 25, 6. 4 eyebrow 

23V 6<7T€o* Gn 2. 23 Thr 4. 7 bone; of the skin 
,, autua Nu 19. 18 IR 13. 2 Ez 39. 1 5 Am 6, 10 Prv 16. 24 
Thr 4. 8 body of man or beast, in Horn, always dead bodv, 
corpse; the living body; -ps axporrovs-: extremity of leg 

nns pootov Lev 20. 17; r.j. "i?*p 

n^ny <oupa Gn r7- 14, 34. 14 Jos 5. 3 IS 18. 25 rjt-ojf end 

tyvs pdxtrpov = pdxt? Ex 23* 27, 32. 9 the beginning of the spine 



26o XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

pi» pa*!? Job 30. 17; vj. Tl 

rnhtf? yacm]plv<7T€pa Dt 7. 13 womb; cL aa-rnp 

nxp ^o^t Jcr 9. 25 /<*£ or curl of hair 

■"HQ TrpantSes Lev 1,3, 12 midriffs diapnrcgm; :\:. ~"13 

HD a^arrvOTj Ex 4. 10, II Ps I 1 5. 5 C^ Dan 4. :3 ^ J ; j?,j. r ,X 

IH? «\riyoumV Job 40. I 7 ^flrt fliow /A* */i*£, great muscle of the thigh ; 

gen. t'Sos 
E5D Tour Jes 37. 25 Ps 57. 7, 5O- 1 t Can: 7. 2 foot 
V^D Sid6payfia Ex 29. 1 4 Lev 4. I I midr:f diaphragm 

n^u <j>uois Jes 3. 17; c.s. rrn 
7? trrfjOos Jes 60. 4, 60, 12; :-.j. "71 Vr II. f 1 
,, rot^oj Gn6. 16 IS 23. 26 Ez 4. 4, 5, 3 iloH. of a house or enclosure; 

side of a tent or hut; metaplu, side of the ship, of other things, 

as the human body 'VS — as in yAoirrc> J^n — x:& "v 
1K;S SctpTj Gn 27. 40 Jes 3. 3 Cant 1. ic, 4. 4 neck, throat, collar 
S'^S TrAci/idf Gn 2. 2 1, 22 Ex 26. 26, 27. 7 rib; side 
na3 ^o'm 1 ? Jc* 47- 2 Cant 4. i hair of the head 
nzf^ ri-p KTJTTos Xu 25. 3 pudenda muhebna; kqXttqs = ciSofc;- 

yu^atK^tov, esp. vagina 
~? mm 'p T yoyyi/Aos, k*6o-\:? Gn 49. 26 Dt 20. 35: r.-T. r i3, r?I/l 
H!i*p kqjj>l<jkti Cant 5. 2, 11 Dim. 01 koll - ; :_\ r!"5 
"p r xdArror Ex 29. 13 Lev :. 1 3 Ps 103. : : ;\.\ -? 
rHp_ iKpoTj = ircpoos Dt 23- II outflow, isszos 

]^p xapa (A), <aj7jvov, Kpa-Aov IS 2. 10 ?i cC. :3 Job 16. 15 /r^ji 
j, Ktpas Gn 22. 13 Jos 6. 5 IS 16, : the han of an animal, horn 

for blowing; drinking horn 
7Cip? darpdyaXo^ IIS 22. 37 ball of the arJ;U joint; :\ p. xxvii: 
rxn <pas- Gn 3- 15, 8, 5 Lev 13. 12 Xu 5. :3 Dt 3. 27 poc:. form 

of <apa, head; ptak, top; gen. Kepcoo* 
hl*l apdpov Gn 41. 44 Jes 6. 2, 7. 20 generally, of limbs, etc., 

esp* in pi. ; of the legs; rd a. genitals 
*V1 /Jooy IS 21. i4jTVr, discharge, 01 morbid humours 
l^r t?/n£ Lev 13. io Esr 9. 3 hair; Horn. o::!y in pL, later in sing. 

collectively 
"1VT lf Cant 4. 1 
m£[? t8€ipa IS 14. 45 Job 4. 15 after Hem. in sing, and pi. cf 

the hair of the head 
H27 trrrqirr] Mai 2. 7 Ps 51. I 7 fAr Upper lip 
CE^ „ Lev 13. 45 IIS 19. 25 prop, heir on the upper Up, 

moustache 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 261 

"IX? ariap Prv 5, 1 1 any animal fat 
*?2? ayKoXU Jos 47. 2; U.S. bzn 

"ITS KtXrjs'payTj Ex 1 3. 12 pudenda mulltbria\ rirna, -/waiKtla ^uai? 

)f qtt\ov Dt 7. 13 membrum virile 
T3 rtrdos Gn 49. 25 Cant 4. 5 ^J* a woman s breast 
pw ckcXqs Ex 29. 22 Dt 28. 35 Cant 5. 15 JL- leg from the hip 

downwards; leg of sacrificial victim 
cr:r d*pos cLuas Gn 9. 23, 49. 15 IS 9. 2 Job 31. 22 tip of the 

shoulder ; i\s. ^\TO 
rT7r x^P tov Dt 2 ^- 57 afterbirth 
]V oSovs Gn 49. 12 Ex 2!. 24 IS 2. 13 tooth; prong; o- -trpa peak, 

pike £7""p IS r4- 4 Job 39- 28; gen. qvtos 
^V^ ~ ous", ocUV IR 20. 10; c.j-_ -272; the anrA of the foot 
■"H3 cvpiyf Ez 16-4 Cant 7. 3 Aa/* in /A* /2a« c/'a wheel; of ducts 

or channels in the body; ^7 Prv 3. 3 TK7 Mich 3. 2 g6q$\ fesh 
^-j^n ouAo* Cant 5. 11 rr£j^ T r/sj* curling hair; tr:j5, woolly hair of 

the negro 

Family Relationships 

2X ," :,c. "-X. 77ar7jp Gn 4. 20. 21, 32. 10, -i_i. 1 3 Xu 12. :i 
Jos 24. 2, 3 IIR 2, 12, 14. 3 Jes 63. 16 Jer 2. 2 7, 13. 14 Mai 2. 10 
Job 38. 2% father; grjndfaiher; esp. as cpith. of Zeus; respeciful 
mede cf addressing persons older than oneself; in addressing 
an elder brother; metaph./^vr, author; rr. r^r -dAtcjs- ICh 2. 51 ; 
in pL.yV^/i.'A^rj, parents: CL 270*, <icrtr 

HX *ccii Gn 4. 2, 42. 3, 4 brother 

'^ ,, Gn :2. 13, 20. 12 rlstcr 
„ ci<o;r;^ Cant 4. 9 ICh 7. 14-18 Ci/t/tf 

C^X G;-^p Gn 2. 23, 3. 16, 9, 20, 23. 6 Ex 2. 19, 11. 7, 35. 2i, 29, 
30. 2 Lev 15. 2 IS :. 1 1 Ez 39. 20 Hos 11. 9 Dan 3. 2 773-271, 
opp. woman; man as opp. to beast; male; man, opo. god; warrior; 
husband; joined with titles, professions, etc. a. St*c<rra; JCimiN; 
tt^ c. every man, even.' one r*X~?3; a^ a^ zny one r*X r^X 

^rx :1 IIS 23. 21 

2X u^p Gn 2. 24, 3. 20 Ex 2. 8 Dt 22. 6 Jud 5. 7 mother; of 
animals, dam; of a mother-bird; in titles 

r;?X ;/ivn Gn 2. 23, 7. 2 IS 18. 6 IIR 4. 8 woman, opp. man; a* a 
term of respect or affection, mistress, lady; the lasses; wife, spouse; 
female, male of animals; gen, ywatxoV; cf. av&pl* 

n^X bD3 auS.\uidpl&iov Ps 58. 9 abortive child 



2 6a XIII- CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

p Trcus- Gn 5. 4 child, son, daughter 

Z % Zp\~]2 QiftdyovoSj d<ity«njs , ) -iyovos Gn 37, 3 late-born^ mostly in 

pi. ; of a son, latt-born, born in one's old age 
rU3 yuvrj, /Java Gn 34. 1 Prv 31. 29 woman \ the lasses 
Ti2 Trats Gn 34* 1 ; r.j, p 

Til feto? (B) Lev 20. 20 J U. one' s father' s or mother's brother, uncle 
HTn 0€ta, ttj&s (^J^tj) Lev 18. 14 aiwii 
HC7(n) (tj) 5<roy Esth 2. 7 M.t*/i or one's child, adopted] £?*ttj 

adopted daughter 
~^2H cVatpa, -p7j Mai 2, 14 companion " ? — t, t/-) 
TSn o£os Jes 11. 1 branch; metaph., ojzhoot. scion; cf. 7rrdp£?o> 
n^n yafifipos Gn' 38. 13/5^^-^-/^ 
= 2; „ Dt 25- 5, 7 brother-in-law 

T\rzy_ yafifipd Dt 25. 7, 9 sister-in-law 

*p- vows Gn 21. 23 '/:£: which is begotten, child, ojspring, son 
*T-3 Zyyovos (ytyvoucn.) Jes 1 4. 22 grandchild 
inS ^tjAtj IS i- female rival 

"!XT Sa^p Lev 21. 2 Nu 27. 11 husband's brother, brother-in-law 

* 

^><7 TTcvdtpos Jcs 14. 22 ^r-^ genera:! y. ::n.nec:ion by marriage, c.:. 

brother-in-law. son-in-law 
*:? ct/y*Au*os Ps .15. 10 Xeh 2. 6 lAjr:^^ ;^'i .'viT.*! 

Military Eqt*!?M£N7 

TTX JtiiTj Dt 23. 14 $*/:, £:><#* 

nsrx acjrrtV Jes 22. 6 Ps 127. 5 (cf. Jer 5;. 11] Thr 3. 13 shield 

mun ^a>ar7jp Gn 3. 7 IR 2, 5 IIR3. 2: in II. always a warrior': 

belt; Ttin Prv 3:. 24 ^vapiov: Dim. of Z^-.-n 
r^!TJ /y^off IS 17. 7, 45 spear i lance 
jr% dtoTos, ot- IIR ic. j2 arrow 
"jn M IS 20. 36, 37 
"~ paSSo?. pouocii Gn ■;. 2a jjiv weacon. ai j sword ; i'^r?*, 3r5jj 

sword] generally, sword: *J2*Z 7 *J2*? .tJ^zuxos 
"^~P2 xwjjSo^ Job 4:. II in pi. Kva>3c--Tes\ two Projecting teeth or. 

the blade of a hunting spear; sword 
JVT3 „ Job 39. 23 

^73 6rr\ov Ex 22. 5 Lev 6. 21 Jud 18. io IS 3 1 . 9 IR 6. 7 ICh 

15. 16 tool y implement, mosdy in pi., implements of war, arms and 

armour 
n?2N5 /xa^aipa Gn 22. 6, io Prv 30. 14 large knife or JiVi; 

sacrificial knife 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 263 

]^p ott\ov Dt 33. 29 Jud 5. 8 Jes 22. 6 Ez 23. 24 ICh 5. 18 the 
large shield from which the men-at-arms took their name of 
ot 6-\:rai; cf. VlbD 

-1">lI2 rrepi^tufia Jes 3. 24 girdle worn round the loins 

ruu22 ro^iVfjLCL Gn 21. 16 bow-shot 

2312 -6p€Vfj.a IR 5. 6 carriage, means of going <^y- *^j^ *Jj^ 

12212 „ Jud 4. 15 IR 7. 33 Zach 6. 2, 3 

|13 ftj*^ ICh 21. 27 sheath (of a sword); cf jr^/ric^i, "-li/t/erdr, 

121 tferos ($/^> $/"*: 

72: -(Jyo^ IIR 10. 2 Ez 39. g Ps 140. 8 Job 20. 24, 39. 21 im- 
plements of war, armour, arms; ro£ov how 

]V12 diupaKttov, -Kid? Jer 46. 4, 51. 3 cuirass 

121 > dpua, 7Top€Vfia Ps 68. 5 chariot, csp. war-chariot; frcq. in ol. 
for sg. ; ?.^. 13312 

IIS c;V> IS 17. 7 Ps 9:, 4 II Ch 25. 5 goatskin; esp. the skin- 
shield of Zeus 

*7" t^SoXr) Ez 26. 9 battering-ram; ypi£u>vT) IIS 2:. 16, r. IX 

"•"?< rfvtjCaji' IS 13. 21 ; Z\S. 111*3 

.it:? ro^o^ Gn 21. :5 IIR 13. 15 Jes 21. 15 bow 

22" ro^:-ua Jud I. IQ : 9. 53 IR 10. 20; l\S. 3312 

172 c-toAtj, crrroAa (cr€-V\Lu; Cant 4. 13 Xeh 4. 1: HCh 23. so, 
32. 5 equipment, fitting, armament; garment, robe [zl.] 

rir -tArrj IIR 11. 10 Jer 51. 11 (cf. Ps 127. 5* Cant 4. 4 smell 
right shield of leather without a rim 

]>CT cztttitj Ps 68. 1 8 war-chariot 

rv^r .]mit dcupaKiov IS 17. 5 Job 41. 18 Xeh 4. :o I ICh 26. 14; 

---- |= -r 

™ „ iR «. 34 jes 59- 17 

11M ri rc/a Job 41. 21 bow and arrows, arrows 

Armed Forces 

1*2X "-rms Jud 5. 22 Jer 3. 16, 47. 3, 50. 1 I horse, mare, most freq. 
fern, in Poets; as Collective Noun, horse, cavalr; 
,, c*yv$> r a Y°$ IS 2:. 8 Ps 68. 31 leader, chief; ct. auBporos 
2*121 yuuiTjy (in pi. , yvui-fJTt?) t -tjtt]? Ez 27. ii Subst., tight-armed 

foot- soldier 
1*1 Ao^oy IIS 23. 13 ambush, i.e. place for lying in wait; ambuscade; 
the men that form the ambush; any armed band % body of troops; company 
of 24 or 100 men 
yn <tt6\os Ex 14. 28 Nu 31. 14 Dt 3. 18 Jud 20. 44 IS 17. 20 



2 6 4 XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

IIS 24. 2 IR 20. 25 IIR 6. 15 Ez 27. 11, 29. 19, 37. ro Dan 
I I. 13 IlCh 14. 7, 8 army 

V*n „ Nah 3. 3 Zach 9. 4 sea-force, Reel Jj^-I 

C^n „ IR 15. 20 Jer 40. 7 Eccl 10. 10 Dan 1 1. 10 ICh 7. 5 

IlCh 16. 4 generally, troop (pL) 
b:n 1*777709 Jcs 43* 17 Jc^; ?.j. "^-n 

Vm weArj? Jcs 43. 17 courser, riding-horse, horse 

^D ,, Jcs 18. 2 fast-sailing yacht with one bank of oars 

fV7r; ck-WtoV, A«kto\- Nu 3 1 . 5 Di 3. : 3 Jcs 4- 1 3 picked out, select : 

chosen 
-TTT ( 1WX Adxoy Jcr 5. 26 Hos 13. 7 ambush, place for lying :n 

ambush; the nun that form the ambush; :j, TV" 
n3 Kopoi IIS 20. 23 IIR u. 4 £07, iad \ in I} - of warriors; a: 

Sparta, kooci — t— *i\- ^in social and political sense, knigits. 

forming an aristocracy in eariy Greek communities; a roya; 

bodyguard) 
*"5 KovprjTts IIS 8. r3, 15. 18 young msn. csp, young warriors 
rrrf"? \6 X o$ IIS 23. I : ; :j. rrn ; 2*1?, n^r/cr^c* : quarters, lodging; 

for travellers Zach 9. 3 or soldiers IIS 23. is Z*Z l—q<; Ex 

14. 9, 15. i, 19 D: 1 7. : 6 Cam :. 9 .:;:;^; cavalry] i\s. "V-X 
IT!" TcdtjjpaKiciL£'*Qi IS 20. 2 ^:>iT.-:iTj; cf. rvoatvor 
TjD c-Atrrn,^ re: IIS 3. 18,20. 23 ottXcv heazy-armed foot- ::ld:e~ : 

men in armour; drrATra: cpp. ilfiXol 
1"*ZD titAot Jud 3. IQ, 20 soldiers unthou: heazy armour, light troop :. 

such as archers and siingers ; unarmed soldiers, scrf-headcd, wiir.au: 

helmet; Op p. o—AtVa: 

X* V ^-^ n *7sv . tf r tj Py * ^ : — r T NT ■ * r ~ ~* r*.~w*i +r-* ^ * ? r n * I £7T"i \ \ 

j sorfy of troops under one standard or nag 
% ± ctoAos Jes 33. 2: sea-force, feet 

" m S ,T*:S 7t Jcs 18. 2, 57. 9 Jer 49. 14 Ez $G, Q expedition; mission 
CXI «pay IIS 16. : Job 1. 17 wing of an army; gj^ 
nm plrrrcj Gn 49. 23 Ps 1 3. 15 throw. :zs:for:h, hurl 
rtfi „ Ex 15. 1 Jer 4. 29 L; 

N C MERALS 

thx ,r>nx tas- Gn 1. 5, 2, 21 Ep.: oru^ 

inx „ Gn 48. 22 Ez 33. 30 ±*\ 

^rrx M Gn 22. 13 Jcs 66, 17 

nnn Jf Prv 17. 10 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 265 

TH efff £2 33. 30 one 

nK eZ$ y lv Ez 18* 10 one 

= *f^ * c ^? &vo Gn 5- 1 8, 6. 1 g luo; gen. SvoZv 

rrzivp ,z^*7? rp^tV Gn 6. io, 11. 13 three 

r>V2~)R ,S2~)K recrcrapes, gen. tuv Gn II. 13, 14. Q four 

77*ZJj *^?m -tyLTTt, 7T€VT€ Gn 5, 6, 1 8* <2%j\Ve\ ?7jT 

n~" rr^-as, Trora? Gn 47. 2^ fifth part; rrh 
^T <~ fi, f*'£» e£<** Gn 7. 6, 30. 20 six; Lat. r« 
^"^ ,r.~T? ocror Ex 26. 9 Ez 8. I ICh 27. 9 jijr t '£ 
T.~T7 £<ttj Ez 4. II, 45. 13 one sixth, liquid measure 
n~-r ,irrr tfVra Gn 5. 7, 7. 2 /*:■**; Lat, sepUm 
rz*~V ,r!I~7 qktuj, ~r6 } otttuj Gn 5- 4* 22. 23 eight; k — 
7\ZZ7\ ,VZ?i iw<a Gn 5. 27 Xu I. 23 nine 
"7=? *^-? Soca Gn 5. 14, 18. 32 ten 
*~i "N ,"ry~rsnx cvotKa Gn 37. 9 Jos 15. 5: eleren 
"> "r.^r eif re Soca Nu 7. 72 eleven 

"TV - „ ,, „ Ex 26. 7 

"'"v? aVoat Gn 18*31 titenty 

rrxr u:a Gn 5. 3 ^ a/:/ ''hundred) 

r .*?X jiWf, -cot, ^TjAiot, yfWtoi^ %€i\ioi Gn 20. 16 - thousand 

1-^ uL : 5tct Ton 4. 1 r .'*.•: thousand 
■ *^ * 

x^i M Nch 7. 66,71 

r:™ „ Gn 24. 60 

n"^ ): Cant 5, 10 

T^j? ct-vojciV Jud 19, 10 IS II. 7, 14. 14 pair c: mules; a pair or 

couple of anything 
V^zr ^Tri'i, <(3Souay Dt 16. 9 Dan 9. 2 7 period offerer, days: zveek 
„ Gn 29. 27; gen. c'Soy 

Lev 23, 15 

rr^;r ***11? ZfiSofios Gn 2. 2 Ex 16. 26, 29 Lev 23. 16 
~n rjtcjca? Gn 7. I I Xu 10. 10 IS 20. 5, 18 IIR j,. 23 the thirtieth 

day of the month; a month containing 30 days; gen. eSos: 
*"Sr; lie'ao? Ex 24. 6 a half 
"^7^ *^lj? *v ptau) vvktujv Ex 12. 29 at midnight 

r\Th rrsr} „ ,, „ Ps no, 62 
ns"^ /jttVos', -of Nu 3 1 . 36 j Atf//" 



?5 



^ S G? „ „ Ex 30. 13 



-?-? $ l X*? Gn 24. 22 Ex 38, 26 the half the middle 

-^?? arr\6os Jcs 40. 2: opp. BtrrXoo^ twofold, and so, single 

V^TV rptT€v$ Jcs 40. 12 third part of a fitSi fivo$ 



266 XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

*r^V^ rplros Gn i. 13 ICh 26. 2, 4 third 

Tf^^/V TpiTT)fi6ptov Ez 5. 2 third part 

c ^7^ rptTTj TjfUpa IIS 3. 17, 5. 2 the day before yesterday 

V2")X T€Tpd7Tou$ 9 -no* Lev ii. 20 fourf oo ! id ; v.s. ^2^)H 

ITiS^ T*rpaya>i>o$ Ex 27. I with four angles 

"irzv Sfxas* Gn 24. 55 Ps 33. 2 the number i«; = S^xqttj Ex 12, 3 

^ % ZV ,pnt?V Socaroy Ex 16. 36, 29. 40 Lev 27. 32 tenth, tenth pert: 

"ir^r? S<KaT€u^xa Gn 14. 20 Lev 27. 30, 32 tenth, tithe 
"7? &€KaTtuuj Gn 2c, 22 Dt 14, 22 make :hcm pay a tithe to Acoilc : 

tithe them as in offering; /j/:^ and tithe, in Pass.; in war, take ;i; 

the tenth man for execution (cf. Lev 27. 32^ ; "~~^u Dt 26. 12 Nch 

10. 38; ^?>2 -r*irr-^ tithe farmer 

Worship 

2X iarti* Gn 45, 8 Jud r3, 190^2^; of the interpreter of dreams 
T\1ZH XiSuji>€vs Prv 27. 20 lengthd. poet, form of ^lStj? ^*<r T^.'Arr 

world, place of leper :ed spirits *■■■"- » . ' < ^-aIjJI], twice in Horr.., 
IL 5. 190, 20. 61 
P"X „ Pr/ 15. i! 

^ZH auSporos Ps -£. -5 poet. Adj. immsrtal, divine; cf. cycy 
*V2X a3poro<; Gn 40. 24 = aiifjoro? 
^7"^ Kpa-rr s p Esr i, c <epc^rL'uV^ mixing vessel, eso. bouL :n wtich 

wine was mixed with water (prosthetic X' 
p"^ 38amr t ^Oiuv Jer 22. iS, 34. 5 .-Jtfjnrj r^or) 

a7}Sovor Ex 23. : 7 Jes 1. 24 Mai 3. 1 = Sc^utuv: god, godde::, c: 
individual gods or goddesses 
„ ovvdryjs Gn 15. 2, 45. 3-9 Jos 3. 1 1, 13 Ps 12. 5, i 14. 7 poet, fcr 
Svvdcrrris: lord, master, ruler , of Zeus; av$p€* 5. the chief men ir. a 
state IR 22. 17 prosth. X) 
*px ^t<5cu^ Gn 15. 2, :3. 27, 20. 4 Ex 4. io ? 13 IR 3. 10, oJes 5. : 
Am 5. 16 Ps 16. 2, 38. :6, 36. 8, 12 Dan 9. 4 Nch 4. 3 l:ra\ —>. 
freq. in pK ; of Poseidon, of Dionysus [ — u] 
2*X d^tiyj Lev 20. 27 IS 28. 7 poet. Noun, voice, in Horn, alwavs 
of the gods; oracle delivered from the inner shrine at Pytho; aisc 
in pi. 
rrnx T7^ n^^ {Ztv$) oVif nor 1 ^cmV Ex 3. 14 Zeus whoever he be 
px Jdv Gn 41. 50 <Vaj 
]X „ Gn 4 i.45 
px 6SvvTj } ciStV, ciSty Gn 35. 18 Dt 26. 14 Hos 9. ^pain ofbody;pam 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 267 

of mind, grief distress^ once in II, 15, 25: more freq. in Od., 
always in pi. ; mostly in pL, the pangs or throes of labour ', travail- 
pains', metaph., any travail, anguish; also in sing. 

r^X A pal Ex 28. 30 Nu 27. 2i IS 28. 6 Apd personified as the 
goddess of destruction and revenge; the Erinyes (an aveneing 
deity) say that A pal is their own name 

T*X dp€nj Ex 4. 8-9 Dt 4. 34, 13. 2, 3 Jes 44. 25 braze deeds; later, 
of the gods, chiefly in pi., glorious deeds, wonders, miracles *j- 

i:tx vogcuttqs Ex 12. 22 Nu 19. 6, 18 ^Jj} ^j} hyssop 

"-X aotoo^, xp-qoficoSos Jes 1 9. 3 (aotBij, dclS^ s:nger, minstrel; 
enchanter; as Subst., soothsayer, oracle-monger; :*.;, ZZp 

t;x 5l$ Gn 22. 13 «**£ 

7X r ~hx ,:rnVx dec? Gn 1. 1 5 16. 13 Dt 32. 1 5, : 7 God, the Deity 

]T*77 *7X *He\tos 'Y-tpl&v Gn 14. 18-20, 22 Xu 24. 16 Dt 32. 3 
Ps 7. 1 8, 9. 3, 2t. 3, 57. 3 Hyperion, in Hem. the Sun-god: he 
always joins 'YrrepiW *Hi\ios or *Hd\iQ$ 'Yt7€?Iu-v 

"X dpdauat Jud I 7. 2 HoS 10. 4 pOCt. Verb; tnzo.kt, pray, pray for; 
more freq. in bad sense, imprecate, curse 

PI^Xm €7rapdou.ai IS 1 4, 24 IR. 8. 31 imorcsate r^rse: uCon, curse 
solemnly 

H7X a;a Gn 26. 28 Xu 5. 2 1 Dt 29. 13, I 8— 20 Ez :5. 50 frayer, cso. 
J prayer for evil, a curse, imprecation; loll-; Apd personified as the 
goddess of destruction 2nd revenge Zach 5. 3; r.'. 2*"l:K 

"X iXala, t\da HoS 4. 13 ?/::■* tree 

"X r,:. f!"?X Jos 24. 26 

-*H7X -npwes Gn 6. 2-4 ^r Fourth Age of men, between Sc^over 
and cv^ojT7ot; heroes, as objects of worship; csp. ci local deities, 
founders of cities, patrons of tribes, etc.; zee;: r. TX 

7*7X ^TStjjAof Jer 14. is phantom, phantom of the mind* fancy; any un- 
substantial form; image in the mind, idea; image, likeness; later image 
of a god, idol 

7*x :*j\ *\Wa Gn 12. 6 Jud 9. 6 

~?X rrr*A*a Gn 35. S Hcs 4. I 3 elm 

7*7X «rSu>Aoi/ Lev 26- 1 Zach n. 17 Job 13.4; :\j. T17X 

nsx ^uuan/ Jer 46. 25 the Libyan <Vu.; 

Z^r:^ -evdrifia, -rjnjp Ez 24, 17, 22 lamentation, mourning (pi-) J 
mourner 

mEK €ttoiStj Jes 30, 22 song sung to or or^r: hence, enchantment, 
spell; charm for or against 

"Tjsx ,, Ex 28. 15, 29, 5 Jud 17. 5 IS 23. 6, 9 Hos 3. 4 



2 68 XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

T7DX ,TIDK eiTfv&vfjui Ex 28. 8 upper garment; ea-evSun^: robe or 

garment worn over another IS 14. 3 
rr.X apdopai Nu 22. 6; U.S. H^X 

-1-1K „ Gn 5. 29, 27. 29 Jud 5. 23; vj. nVx 

"1T1X apa-ro? Gn 3. 1 4, 27. 29 prayed against, accursed 

777X €orlapa Ex 29. 18 Lev 3. 16 banquet 

ICrr^ Ad-rjirq, -va IIR 1 7. 30 Athene 

VrX $6\ov Gn 21. 33 IS 22. 6, 31. 13 tree 

r {SK dta-xis, ^ecnrio-nj? Dan i. 20 filled with the words of God, inspired: 

prophet 
"rx ."E;?X ,mD«* orrooos Thr 4. 5 Neh 2. 13, 3. 13; 1::. p~ 
m*>X aotcnpd, £v\ov Jud 6. 25, 26 kind of chestnut tree; v.s. <ZX 

„ aonjp IR 15. 13 IIR 2 1. 7, 23. 7 star; c.i. mnM 
XIT! tm^aivui Ez 20. 29 set foot on, tread, walk upon; get upon, rr.cur.: 

on; go on to a place j^[ [go up into the pulpi:] 
~z 6dns Jes 44. 25 Jer 50. 36 Job 1 1. 3; :j. -X 
**ro tZZuXov Jes 44. 19; r„r. Vi7X; rr:i JtW/TaicVJcs 26. 4 Ps 63. 5 

Zeus; Paean or Paeon, the physician of the gods 
.-■:; oixos- Gn 28. r 7, 33. 17 Ex 1. r, 22. 7 IR 2. 33, 17. 1 7 Jes 56. 7 

Prv 6. 31 Cant 8. 7 house, not only of £::::-' houses, but of -.-_>' 

dwelling-place; temple; household goods, substczse; a reigr.:r.e . ; .ju.-;: 

hz rAto^ f aBtXios, ?t\c Jer 51. 44 inn; as pr. n. Helios, the sur.-g:d 
r.zz £cup6s IR 3. 4, 1 1. 7 IIR 23. 15 Ez 20. 29 f JaU-vj} raised piz:- 

form; mostly altar with a base 
7r; I-irroXXajy, rj\io$ Jud 2. II, I 3 Apollo, Helios: v.s. */- 
r?52 „ Jud 2. n IR 18. 18 IlCh 17. 3; v.L T 
7rz rroVcr Gn 20. 3 Ex 21, 22 Hos 2. 18 Joel I. 8 husbznd, spouse; 

csd. lawful husband; rare in Prose; cfl rracrr^ 
^72 2oG$ Gn 18. 7, 26. 14 Ex 21. 37 Xch 10. 37 bullock, bull, ex, 

or rou/, in pi. «r:/tf 
T.^2 rpijra, pTjroV, -rpa Gn 9-0-17, 1 5- 1 8, 1 7. io-i: Ex 24. 7 

Dt 9, 9 treaty, agreement; verbal agreement, bargain, covenant] c\ 

the laws of Lycurgxis, which assumed the character ct a compact 

between the Lazv-giver and the People 

r.n:n appparos Jos 3. 1 1 ; v.s. *V-x 

r.vz ird<n* IIS 2. 8 Jer 11. 13 Hos 9. 10; v.s. bvz 

mil frpd? Lev 16- 22 dry; as Subst., 17 £qpa (so yrj), dry land 
W?\ ciSwXov Dt 29. 16 Ez 6, 9, 14- 4, 5, 20. 7, 23. 37, 39; u.s. "?i?K 
fli"T /lytiv IS 5, 2 divinity of the conUst 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES a6g 

nsn Sal/ia Ps 94. 17, 115- 17 house; frcq. of Pluto, Saij/ AtBov 

pl_ oCda' 0770809 Lev 4. 12, 6. 3, 4 wood-ashes, embers; generally, 

ashes; of the ashes of an altar; \?^ cttocI^uj: bunt to ashes Ps 20. 4 
bz? ^rStuAov Dc 32. 21 IR 16. 13, 26 Jcs 30. 7 Jer 8. 19, 10. 15 

Eccl 1. 2, 14, 2. 26; r_r- Ti^K 
n^rri c^dam?, d siSom? Jer 22. i8.4d0mj; cf. l^.cn Eccl 4. 1 4 C^in 

IlCh 22. 5 
hz m n otVo* IS 1. 9 Jcs 6. 1 Hos 8. 14 Ps 1 1. 4, 45. 9 Prv 30. 28 

IlCh 36. 7; u.s. rrz 

~Z1 cria^oj, -aSSo;, -drru> *~± Gn 3 1 . 54 Dt : 2. I 5, I 5. 6 IR 1 . 9 
IlCh 18. 2 slay, slaughter, properly by cutting tht throat; esp. 
slaughier victims for sacrifice; generally, slay, kill, of human 
victims, as Iphigcneia; of any slaughter by knife or sword; 
o6aytQ&fiai: slay a victim, sacrifice ^C^ IS 15. 33 
„ 3va> Ex 13. 15, 20. 24 Ez 16. 20 Hos 13. 2 Ma: :. 8 ofer 
by burning meat or drink 10 the gods; sacrifice, slay a victim 
H2T Karadvuj, Qvatd^uj IR 3. 3 IlCh 33. 22 sacrifice 
n^! £vo$ Gn 46. I IS 1. 2: IlCh 7. 12 burr.: sacrifice 
, f cicyioi- IS 16. 3,20, 5, 2oJes 34. 6 Jer 46. ::- Ez 39. :"Zcph 
1.7,3 slaughter, sacrifice: c:. iclvrj 
T^Z] 9vcrla Hos 4. 19 prep, burnt offering, sacrfice, mciily pi. 
r>z*z dvu£\rj t dvatac-r^piov Gn 3. 20 Jos 22. : c IR : z. : I IR 1 1 . : : 

Ez 6. 13 sacrificial altar; altar 
"V-Tr; xa'Jalpcj Jes 66. 3 purify by fumigation; ;•.:. "ZZ 

~Z* tOvuytcLj Jud 5. 3 IIS 22. 50 JeS 12. 5 Ps 9. 3, !2 ? 47, 7, 55. 2 

sing or chant at or after, chant or utter over 
"T-T VUV09 IIS 23. I Ps 119. 54 hymn, ode, :n praise of gods or 

heroes; strain; u.i. *V~:~ 
-Z] n Dan 3. 5 

mr: TI Ex 15. 2 Jes 5-3 Am 5. 23 
"VJS7? vuvaptov Dim. cf Jiii-o^ Ps 3. i, 30, :, 30. :, 67. 1, 84. r, 

07. i, 92. 1, 100, 1 ; :■_;. ^:j 
72! ^ktjttjp, -Tjr Esr 7. 24 or.* who sings of or praises 

TUT yut'Ctxi^cu, ov^ouortd^oi Gn 38, 24 Lev 20. 5, 21. 9 Nu 25. t 

Ez 23. 30 Hos 3. 3 have sexual intercourse; keep company with; esp. 
have sexual intercourse; bring into such intercourse; cLWouci : wander, 
stray (W); HIT Ez 16. 34 
rsin fl „ Ex 34. 16 Lev 19, 29 IlCh 21. n 



2 7 o XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

ITO] cruvovaia Nu 14. 33 Jcr 3. 9 Hos 4. II habitual association; 

sexual intercourse; £0^: of sexual intercourse 
-TUT avvovalaa;ta t -/io> Gn 38. 24 IIR 9. 22 H^s : 2 — u^vovalz * 

&.*. mil 

Ti^TH yuvai'jciat?, <tvi-ol*cui Ez 1 6* 1 5, 20, 33 womanish behaviour] 

cf. niit 
ni"? x*tp*> Dt 33- 27: pL in theurgy, name for spiritual toner: 

TiZn orrraviov ICh 9. 31 0£,Y/Z ; drrT7jrdi : roasted 

11 n gvcj Ex 5. 1 Xu 29. :2 Xah 2. 1 Ps 42. 5 celebrate 'more 
LISU. avaytiv} ; a. C'vciai-, CL IS 1 6. 2, 3, 20, 5, 20 

1? ayu>;/ Jud 2f. 1 9 Hos 9. 5 I ICh 5. 3 ga:her:r.g. asrembly *^y>* --^ 

[pilgrimage; cf. dywiZouai : contend with [W ] r'^} 
,, ciytV, aT£ Ps r 18. 2" Dim. of aff (goat) ; £0£: r mostly fern. 

7*" MiStj^ Jes 38. 1 1 *■ ■ '■ * - ; ;'..r. n*72X 

~n rptaxaj Gn 29. 14 Ex 23. 15 IS 20. 5, 24, 27, 34 IIR 4. 23 Ez 
46. r, 6 Am 8. 5 Zach :. 7 the number thirty; the thirtieth cay cj the 
month; at Athens the rpiajccS*? were dedicated to the memory 
of the dead; offerings were made to Hecate; a month containing 
30 days 

^ ? n ^optuLo J^-d 2!, 2: dan:* a round cr choral dance, csd. cf :hr 
Dionystac chorus cr dance; hence, take car: ::: the ;.':-* i_\ 
regarded as a maizrr of religion; generailv. dance 

rrrr: occcLiai Ex 24. 1 : Jes 30. :o Ez 13. 5, 16 Zach :o. 2 Ps 27. _i 
Prv 22. 20 Job iq. 26 Thr 2. is En. Verb, used oniv in ores, and 
impf , without augment, nres. corresponding :o fut. c6o~-. :\ 
cu' ; prop, see, look; see in spirit or with the mind's eye 

n:n 6rr^ip IIS 24. m IIR 17, 13 Am 7. :2 I ICh 9. 29. 35. : 5 >> 
one who looks or spies; one who has seen, csp. witness 

7?" 66avov IS 3. i Jes :. :. 20. 7 Jer 14. 14 Ez 7. 26, 12. 22. 23. 24 
?s 89. 20 Prv 29. :3 Thr 2. 9 Dan ;. 17. o. 2s = cO-i> ; :.:. r v "; 

~n- „ Gn 15. 1 Xu 24.4 Ez 13.7; ;.:. nx— 

r*!n oOtr, drr;> Jcs 2:. 2, 29. I! i-ision, apparition 

-"-y ,> I ICh 9. 29 

pvn:-„r.pn I IS" 7. 1 7 Joe! 3- 1 Zach 13. 4 Job 33. 15 

■V?n ravvdptg Lev 1 k 7 Jes 65. 4, 66. 17 long-haired, shaggy, a*; *" 
J,— ), y? a bristly swine ^-J-^ ( — r 7 —v, in Heb.; only — r y in A:. 

xrn du.aprdva) Ex 32, 31 IS 19. 4 IIS 24. I 7 IR 8. 46 Job 33. 27 
do wrong, err, sin 

^"-fiV *£~ Jud 2 °- J 6 IR 14. 16 miss the mark, miss one's aim; cawse 
to sin 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 271 

Ken i{xdpTr,fj.a Lev 19. 17 Nu 15. 28, 18. 22, 27. 3 Dt 19. 15, 2 1. 
22, 23. 22-3 Jcs 53. 12 failure, fault, sinful action, opp. KaropBcuua 
(that which is done right, virtuous action "13*3 Jes 26. 7} 

HXOn ifiaprla Gn 20. 9 Ex 32. 2 1 failure, fault, error of judgment, 
guilt, sin 

r.xon „ Gn 4. 7 Xu 12. 11 Dt 19. 15 

Xrn 6.p.aprdvujv, ef-, o, Xu 32. 14 IR I. 2 1 Am 9. 8 (auapTavtu) 

sinner (W) 
XOm xadalpco, -apl^uj Lev 14. 52 £2 45. 1 8 cleave, purify, purge, char 
nxrn -.X^ri K(L8apav; Ex 29. 14 Xu 8. 7 Ps 40. 7 Prv :4- 34 cleansing 

from guilt or defilement, purfcation 
r?r: ai }.\d» IS 10. 5 Jcs 30. 29 Jer 48. 36 p:pe,fute, clarionet 
sbn dpa«, oAaai Gn 28. 1 2 Jes 29. 8 Jer 23. 25 Joel 3. 1 Ps 1 26. 1 

see, look; see visions 
=V-q Spap* Gn 37. 5, 41- 15 Dt 13. 2 Jer 23. 28 Jcei 3. ! Dan 2. 1 

that which is seen, sight, spectacle, vision during sleep, dream 
jrsn yvfxvos Jes 17. 8 Ez 6. 6 HCh 34. 4 naked, unclad: c:. "?C5 
niS'ii! riVi-pos- Nu 10. 2, 9, :o Ps 98. 6 IlCh 20. 28 reed cr pipe 
■VJi"': TirvaKmjy IlCh 5. 13, 7. 6, 29. 28 pit*r 
-.?v otVoy: c.j. n"2 Gn 25. :5 Jes 1. 12 Esch 1. 5 ^ 
■vsr: ,, Jcs 34. 13, 35. 7 
-.?? f >-o> Ex 27. 9 IIR 2:. 5 Jcs 42. 1 : Jer 3.3. 5 Ez 40. 28. 3: 

Xch 3. 25 IlCh 24. 21 enciosun. courtyard: a -.et. :::ls for birds, 

mostly in pi. 
Zt",T} xpto-rns Gn 4 1 . 3 Ex 7. : : Dan 1 . 20 one '.vho g::e: or expounds 

oracles, prophet, soothsayer; :. ZZ7 
r-.n x *ip&y*; Ex 28. 11, 33. 23 Jes 3. 3, 44. ::, 12. 13 :ne who is 

master of his hands, i.e. handicraftsman; generally, :ne who handles, 

deals with a thing, soothsayer 
T""r; xp7)<rmptd£uj Job 11.3 consult an oracle, consult a god, by means 

jr'a victim [the Etruscan haruspex foretold future events Irom 

the inspection of the emrails of victims; Jud 14. :3, a pun] 
r^r: xpnouo? Jes 3. 3 {;cpcw ^3 ; ; oracular response, oracle; xp-nimjp, 

-r-ry: one who gives or expounds oracles, prophet, soothsayer fct. Lat. 

haruspex] ; v. GO"in 

rr^n „ IS 23. 15 

-.no «a8alpu> Lev 11. 32, 12. 7, 8, 13. 6, 14. 9, 20, 53 Xu 31. 23 

Prv 20. 9 purify oneself get purified, also of menstruation 
"ins „ Lev 13. 13, 14. 7, 48 Xu 8. 6 Mai 3. 3; c.s. NOn 



27* XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

inon KaOalpaj Lev 14. 7, 14 Xu 8. 7 Jos 22. 17 

1T\b ,, Ez 22. 24 

•Yina Kada P 6<> Ex 25. 11, 30. 35 Lev 13. 17,37, 14.4 Ez 36, 25 Ha^ 
1. 13 Zach 3. 5 Prv 22. 11 Job 14. 4, 17. 9 physically clean, 
spotless \ clear of admixture, clear , pure, esp. of water ; free from pol- 
lution, free from guilt or defilement, pure 

"IHb KadapoTTjs Ex 24. 10 Lev 12. 4 purity, cleanliness, clearness 

mntp xdOapats Lev 12, 4, 13. 7, 35; v.s. rxrn 

^ *T Xyvttvs IS 4- 13, 18 a name of Apollo, as guardian of the 
streets and highways; c:~ Jcr 11. 13; v^. ~--, 2*7:;;: 

^i %? r aotSo's- Lev 20. 27 Dt 1 3. 11 IIR 2:. 5 HCh 33. 6; v.s. *2K 

s , *-*- ^ J es 3 3 - ll Ps 77- 1 -, 89. 9,115.17 

nyp zlios-, Jiaii' Gn 4. r, 26, 6. 6, 12, 8 <«j, gen, sg. and pL 

72V ^ogAtJ Ex r9. 13 Lev 25. 12 Jos 6. 4. 5 head: starting point of 

time 
n:r ayy^iof Ex 27. 3 IIR 25. 14 vessel; of metal, /sr or vase 
**>P t \ Ix^P ? s 37- 20 xkor* the juice, not hlocd, that rlows in the 

veins of gods; later simply, blood; dc$i: honour, glory Esth r. 4 
n*v (Zpa Ex 2. 2 Dt 33. 14 IR 6. 38 Job 29. 2 any period fbced by 

natural laws and revolutions, whether of the year, month, cr 

day; in Horn, par: of the year, seamen: mostly in pi.; of the 

climate of a country, as determined by its seasons 
]np Otaxovcoi Ex 28- I Dt 10. 6 minister , do service, serve 
:rt2 CidKovos, -Kujv Gn 14. :3, 41 . 45 Ex 3. : Lev 2 : . 9 Jud :3. 19. 

20 IIS 20. 25, 26 IIR 25. 1 3 servant, attendant or ^fczai in a temple 

or religious guild 
7\Z7l*D CiaKOvta Ex 2Q. O Nu 1 6. 10 IS 2. ^6 service \ attendance cr a 

duty, ministration] body of servants or attendants 
JV3 €l«ujv> £6avov Am 5, 26 image carved of wood, generally, image, 

statue 9 esp. of a god; likeness, image, whether picture or statue; 

bust 
"V.I2 ootVif Gn 4. 2 1 IS :0.5 a musical instrument like a guitar t 

invented by the Phoenicians 
"V,E2 <jkv<*>o$ Esr 1. 10 ICh 28. 17 cup. can, esp. used by peasants 
"132 ^r^ Kadaipuj Ex 30. 10 Lev 4. 20 ? 26. 35, 5- 1 3, 12. 7~3, 14. 

= 9- r 5* £ 5> lG > 17-20, 30, 17. 11 Xu 17. ii, 12, 35. 33 Dt 21. 3, 

32. 43 Jes 6. 7, 27. 9 Ez 43. 20, 45. 20 ?rv 16. 6 in religious 

sense, purify, by fumigation with sulphur; purify one from biood; 

also of menstruation; of the thing removed by purification, 

purge away } wash ojf 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 273 

TIDD xadappos Ex 29. 36, 30. 10 Lev 23. 27-8 Nu 5. 8, 29. II 
cleansing, purification, from guilt; purificatory offerings atonement, ex- 
piation: frcq. in pL [ETTSD here is the pL of "H23] 

^2D fS~ djlij d-rroiva, rd (by haplology for a7r6--oiva (-Toiinj), cf. 
arrtrisirro ttoiptjj/ II. 16. 398,-0 ransom or Jim paid, whether to 
recover one's freedom when taken prisoner, or to saze om*s life; atone- 
merit t compensation, penalty ; rrot*oj ; blood-money, were- gild, fine paid by 
the slayer to the kinsmen of the slain [forbidden in Israel; Ex 
21* 29 Lev 17. 1 1 Nu 35, 31-3] ; generally, price paid, satisfaction, 
requital, penalty) atonement, compensation (W; Ex 2 K 30, 30. 12- 
16 Jes 43. 3 Ps 49. 8 Job 33, 24; in good sense, recompense, reward 
for a thing IS 12.3 Am 5. 12 Prv 6. 35 (Indo-European q^oina, 
cf. Avestan kaena- 'punishment', 'vengeance', Lithuanian kaina. 
Slavonic etna 'price', cognate with rtVcu, refect.) [-*V£2 in Ex 
30. 16 is the pL of " =;: ] 

T?r crronVcu, arrvr eln> Ex 30. 1 5- 1 6 IIS 21. 3 repay, pay for a thing; 
ri> Ex 21. 22 Dt 22. 19 Prv 21. 11 HCh 36. 3 c, ace. rei, ta):e 
vengeance for a thing, punish i: [The verbs derived from ttqivtj are: 
—aivdo^ai, avenge oneself on one; and rroivl^oua:, exact a penalty. 
There is no verb in Greek derived from -oi~A to parallel and 
homologize directly wi:h "■--* to express *rcpaymen:' or 'com- 
^ensation'. But cognates — namelv: rtVcj and irroriVt* — do dutv 
in tha: behalf (cf W ^TScj /yiyvcScxaj). Moreover, mark the 
Aryan interchange of t wi:h q, k, and c y rjp .] 

^ZZ <^T-rrpat;^tj, -Trpvvvtu Gn 32. 2 1 Prv 16. 14 softer.; metaph., 
soften down, appease; soothe (\V) 

"Dp KoXu^rpa Ex 25. 17, 21 ICh 28. 11 cover, lid 

Z^D dprrlados Ex 25. 1 3 IIS 22, 11 phoenix; dp—n: unknown bird 
of prey, prob. shearwater t a sea-bird 

"2 zprjrdouau Gn 15. I 3 make a treaty or agreement nzth 

r.W"!3 jTjr^a, fpdrpa Dt 24. I Jes 50. I verbal agreement, bargain, 
covenant ; compact, treaty 

nX~TT2 A r a-\3afo? Dan 2- 10 astrologer 

^r3 Dan 2. 10 

^^TZ „ IIR 24. 2 Chaldean 

nxTcr; „ Esr 5. 12 

mKTT3 „ Dan 3. 3 

ipp 5*<tttl£ui Dt 18, 10 IlCh 33. 6 prophesy, dizine, foretell 

r ^5 v.s. rpx Jer 27. 9 

r l?5P „ Ex 7. 1 1 Dan 2. 2 



274 XIII- CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

rpo dtcnriafui Jes 47. 9 Mich 5. 1 1 Nah 3. 4 mostly in pi., oracles, 
oracular sayings ; H3-? \t£avcuTo$ Ex 30. 34 frankincense > used to 
burn at sacrifices; rtl^7 <j€\rjvT] t ctXdva Cant 6, 10 the moon 

*V> XclZkos Ex 6. 25, 33. 21 Jud 17. 13 ;Acc>, f or from the people, 
civilian; as Subst., layman 

rhztt fidxaipa Gn 22. 6 Jud 19. 29 Prv 30. 14 large knife or </:>£, 
carving knife, sacrificial knife 

mKp Kardpafia Mai 3, 9 Prv 3. 33 curse 

~V5 u6<rqf±a Nu 14. 37 IIS 24. 2 1 Zach 14. : 2 disease; of any grievous 
affliction 
,, rrraLGfia IIS 17. 0, ; 8- 7 stumble, trip, false step: failure, mis- 
fortune, cuphem. for defeat; "IVIS d-di-rruc Ex 30. 36 Xu :6. 2 
Dt 31. 10 IS 20, 35 IIS 20, 5 Jcs 33. 20 E2 36. 38 Hos 9. 5 
Job 30. 23 Thr 2. 6 HCh 1. 3 meeting ; T"" c-cvtclj : meet Ex 25. 
1i;face y law-term, meet in open court "TiTT! Job 9. 19 

T?"2 <f>dopa Ex 4. 2 I, 7, 9 Dt 6. 22, 13. 2 pclv^\ phantom; pheno- 
menon, (pi.) ot strange phenomena in the heavens: sign from heaven, 
portent^ omen (pi.) ; prodigy 

K^r.n v.s. mn Dt -t. 3.1. 26. 3 
„ uiyasjMopios Ps 76. 12 £f*a.', might;,, free, epith. cf goes, o ^. 

ZtuV; epith. of Zeus as guardian cf ( -::.'i; cVwts :hat grow in 

the precincts of temples^ ; v.i. rr~" 
"T— „ Gn 12- 6 D: : :. 30 

"V2 uaxalpiov Jud 13. 5 surgeon s cr SirrSfr"; : ;;: V *V: :, r.7^X~ 
nzr? t?uata<7T7}p<of Gn 3. 20, 33. 20, 35. : Ex 30. : IIS 24. :3 altar 
P")*? parnjptoi/ Nu 7. 13 An; 5. G Zacn 9. : 5, : 4. 20 ; = —eptppa-.r—picy : 

vessel for besprinkling, esp. whisk for spr:rJ:li:ig water a: sacrifices, 

or vessels for lustral nater 
"£.*? oTrraVto^ u.s. T-n Lev :. 5 E: 4 3 
n:n^ r.j. pin Gn 15, : Xu 24. 4 
7*"3 x°p€ v H- a ^ s ! 49- 3 ^ra/ dance 

ri7n^ ,, Jud 21.21 

,, X°P tur7 7^ Can: 7. : choral dancer 

- 7 ^ „ J Ud - 1 ' 2 J 

^n „ Ps 3 7 . 7 

**'?Li5 fiayaSts- Ps 53. i magadis, an instrument with twenty strings 

arranged in octaves (cm". TH^sa/aJAr/ia; 
niTiS aK^^aj/xa Gn 32, 3, 9, 50, 9 Ex 14. 10 Jud 7. 1 Ez 1.24 ICh 

9. 19 I ICh 31.2 mostly in pi. ; = a*w-rj, a<aydi tent, booth; pi. 

camp; tabernacle 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 275 

HE?? pdxrpov Gn 38. 18 Ex 4. 2 Nu 17- 17 Jes 10. 5 stick* 

cudgel 
cna £*!? i\/iata-h^ix:/>o? Xu 5. 18, 1 9 sea-water, brine, pi.; pungent, 

bitter \ 3^n D^D (u5an>) £cuy lb 5. 1 7 spring water; cf- aia3f 
rC2 uavr^rof Zach 13. 6 oracle, oracular response, mostly in pL; 

method, process of divination ; cf. Mich 5. it, Hdt 4. 71 
,, rrXrjyrj, -y{xa Lev 26. 2 1 Dt 28. 6[ Jos IO, 10 IS 4. 8 IR 22. 35 

Esth 9. 5 (tt\ti<j<ju>) blow, stroke of axe or sword; mctaph., blow, 

stroke of calamity, esp. in war 
~K?~ ifr/d-rr^ Gn 32, 4 Ex 23. 20 Xu 20. I4 : 10 Jud 1 3. 3 

IR 19. 2 IIR 5. 10 Prv 13. 17 workmen, Heme: (messenger of 

the gods) 
nnrp AvdBeua, -O^^a Gn 4. 3, 32. 14, 43. 1 r Lev 2, 1 Jud 3. 15 IS 

10. 27, 26. 19; dvvrjfjia (B; : poet, for cL, ojering 
T^rz GKtTraaua, -pos Ex 20. 36, 27. l6, 35. I2 ; 15 IIS 17. 19 Jes 

22. 3 covering 
ZZtZZ c^c^ua Ez 28. 13 outside show, pomp] dress, equipment 
7"^ duGprdvoj Lev 5. 21 Xu 5. 12 Jcs 22. 16 Ez :3. 24 Prv 16. 10 

Esr 10. 10 HCh 20. 18 do wrong, err, sin. go uror.g; neglect 
7> r duaprla Jos 22. 22 Esr 9. 2, 4 ICIl 9. I IlCh 33. :c error, guilt, 

sin 
"V"? avXicv IlCh 32. 33 chamber, cave, grotto 
"^*? avXrud Ps 121- 1 piece of music for the fu:e 
TZ**1 euu£^r Dt 33. 2~ well-disposed, kindly, epith. cf goes ; -Evao-iSe? 

(sc. deal), at, strictly the grzcicus goddesses, euphem. of the *Eptvv€s 

or Furies 
rrs'y^ rrXda^a IR 1 5. 13 anything formed or moulded, image, fgure 
-9pr XpTtapos Ez 12. 24, 13. 7 oracular response, oracle 
K^pz Kf'Aa-aa Ex 12. :6 Lev 23. 3 ordVr, command 

, t tcrpvypa Xu 10. 2 that which is cried by herald, proclamation 
„ Xpfjji* Jes 1. 13, 4. 5 crowd; in pi. goods, properly; v. ninp 
r^z vs. z*hrn Gn 12. 1 1 Ex 3. 3 IIS 23. 21 Ez 1 :. 24 Dan 9. 23 
njr^ ,, ,, Gn 46. 2 Xu 12. 6 IS 3. 15 Ez 1. : Dan 10, 7, 8 
TIE ;\_r. Vvs Gn 14. 4 Jos 22- 29 E2 20. 38 Job 24. 13 Dan 9. 5 

Xeh 2. 1 g fail of having, be deprived of 

Tin vs. Vi2 Jos 22. 22 

?.n*i$ „ „ IS 20- 30 

ma ^. ^ya Xu 20. 24 Dt 21. 18 Jes 63. 10 Jer 4, 17 Hos 14. 1 
mZTl Stapaprdyw Ex 23. 2 1 Dt l. 26, 9. 7 Ps 1 00. 43 strengthd. 
for dpaprdvu} go quite astray from 



27 6 XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

no o.s. bvn Nu 17- 25 Dt 31. 27 Jcs 30. 9 £2 2. 5 Nch 9. 17 
rrnb Utopia (A) Gn 22- 2 IlCh 3. 1 mostly in pi. piopiai (with or 

without iXaiai), >Ju sacred olives in the Academy; s^r-raUV of 

o/zo« fAa* grew in the precincts of a temple 
K79 66pT}^a Nu 11. n, 17 IIR 8. 9 Jer 17. 21, 22 Neh 13. 19 ICh 

15. 22, 27 that which is carried, load; metaph., burden; of a harp 
pturrctov IIR 9. 25 Jcs 13. i , 14. 28 Jer 23. 33, 34, 36, 38 Ez 

12. 10 Hab 1. 1 Zach 9. I oracle, oracular response, mostly in pi.; 

v.s. nan 

,"Kra pavrela. Thr 2. 1 4 pi., divinations ; conjecture ; oracle, prophecy, p\. 

TiTKpn al-rqy.a Ps 20. 6, 37. 4 request, demand: C!. oeTj^a 

p^3 o.s. n:nD Ex 25. 9 Nu 1. 53, 24. 5 Jes 22. 16 Ez 25. 4 Ps 40. 
5, 84. 2, 132. 5, 7 Cant i. 8 

"1K2 Ka.Tapaou.ai Ps 89. 40 Thr 2. 7 call down curses upon, curse, execrate 

X-} TTpofapi Jer 20. 1 say before 

K2:n „ Jer 11. 21, 26. 20, 28. 9 Ez 1 :. 4 Am 3. 3 Zach 13. 3 

KTinn ,, IlCh 18. 7 

JOIT.n <TTi4>-np.lt,u Nu I I. 25 IS 10. !0 utter u.ords ominous oftheeier.t: 
call, narm; cf Ex 23. 1 3 Jos 23. 7 Jcs :2. 4. 26. 13, 48. 1, 62. "5, 
63. 7 Ps 20. 8; cf. S"o, (praise, g:orif.cat:on of God, when 

swaying men intone in chorus: '. *- ■ «-' : cf. "V-Tn Jcs 62. c 
ICh 16.4 
~\r.Zl -poor-da I ICh C. 2Q, 15. 8 concrete, prophecy cr c? s.--.'-:.- 

K-21 TTjPo^Tjr^i Gn 20. 7 Ex 7. I Dt 13. 2 J-^d 6. 8 IR 18. 22 prep. 

one who steaks ''or c *od and interprets his will to man; Jto? rr. inter- 

prctcTy expounder of the will of Zeus; :r.;crCre:er 3 expounder of :he 

utterances of the ud-sris; possessor of zrzrjlar powers \ generally, 

interpreter, declarer] cS. nTH, HJO 
r**C2l rrpo6i}ri? Ex 15. 20 Jud 4. 4 IIR -22. IS Xeh 6. 14 fcrr.. of 

Trpo<f>T]rrj^ y esp. of the Pythia 
'/I? I'aSAa, later ;-c£.Vo* IS 10. 5 Ps 7:. 2Z - --;;rj: instrument of :r: 

or twelve strings .Semitic word, c:. Hebr. iebel\ Phoenician; 
mrn ifaw<rrdfforiccL-Tof Gn 8. 2 i Ex :o. : 3 Lev 20. 3 1 Ez 6. 1 3 h-~r-.: 

offering for the dead, wholc-bumt-ojferzng 
n^na av\6s Ps 5- 1 pipe.fute, clarionet, pL 
tra €KyoT}T€vuj } strengthd. for yotjtcvu* Gn 30. 27, 44. 5 Dt 18. :o 

play the wizard 
Z?m ycrqr€v^a 1 -€ia, -<uoir Nu 23. 23 j/k/.\ charm ; witchcraft , juggler; , 

ma£i t ; sorcery 






XIIL CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 277 

]ncm ,s?ni €x i ^ va Gn 3- l ^u QI - 6, 7, 9 IIR 18-4 viper, prob, of a 

constrictor snake; "E^tSfC! pr. n. of a monster 
n?3 actSios 1 , a*i£ajo$-, -wf IS 1 5. 29 everlasting] ever-living, everlasting 
^jO ctt)k6s> oaKos Ps 10. 9, 27. 5, 76. 3 pen, fold, csp. for rearing 

lambs, kids, calves; den; sacred enclosure, precinct, chapel, shrine; 

the (ttjkos was sacred to a hero, the vaos to a god, a distinction 

not observed; sepulchre, burial place, enclosed and consecrated 
Thr 2- 6 

Gn 33, 17 Job 27. 18, 38. 40 
nro a*ia9 Lev 23. 42, 43 IIS r i. 1 r Jes 1. 8, 4. 6 Am 9. 1 1 Jon 4. 5 

Neh 3. 16 canopy or arbour (in form like a sunshade) 

niso y.j. re co Am 5. 20 

V-w <juL\<rufia. Dt 4. 16 Ez 8. 3, 5 £:*« of carved work 

n:c crAnjvTj Dt 33. 16; z.s. nsia 

TDD ypairj Gn 5. 1 Ex 24. 7 Dt 17. l8, 24, I, 31. 26 Jos 10. 13, 
18. 9 IIS i 1. 14 IIR 29. 14 Jer 32. 1 i, 36- 2 Job 31. 35 Dan 

1. 4 Xeh 7. 5 writing t letter } also in pL, document, book, written law, 

contract, copies, catalogue, list, return; reading; bill of indictment in 

a public prosecution 
r pC Am 6. 10; va. "r 
^\Z*J rrapcSalvw Xu 14. 4 1 Dt 26. 13 IS 1 5, 24 Esth 3, 3 overstep, 

transgress, sin against a god; commit an ofence against 

Crrrcpopdiu Am 7, 8 Mich 7. 18 Esth I, 19, 9. 27 overlook, take 

no notice of 
T;v ;idffxoff (B) Ex 32. 4 Lev 9. 2 IS 28. 24jes 1 :. 6 Jer 34, 18, 19 

Ez 1. 7 calf , young bull, which form the god Apis was believed to 

assume; as fcm., heifer, young cow, girl, maid 
n'"?^? „ Gn 15. 9 Jud 14. 18 Jer 46* 20 
p? u.s. b-?n Gn 2. 8, 15 Jes 51. 3 Ez 28, 13, 31.9, 36. 35 Joel 2. 3 

TV ,*737 poOoa, fxwac Ex 1 5. 2 UCh 30, 2 1 (cf lb 34. 12) music, 

song; strain 
7*K]V d^aJKioy Lev 16, 10 aridity; U.S. mil 
r cy r.:. 7XT Ps 102. I 
nTy rrypdaj Gn 8. 20 Dt 12, 13, 14 IR 3- 4, to- 5 .Am 5, 22 Ps 66, 

15, 78. 21,31 burn with fire, burn up, burn as a burnt sacrifice 
rs^vn *K- Jud 6. 20 IS 6. 14 bum to ashes, consume utterly 
H7V TTvpaxxtj Gn 22* 3 Ex 18. 12 IS 7- 9 Jes 40. 16 destruction by fire 
mnbs Ps 46. 1 ; v.s. nVyra 

1SS? aua-Ua Dt 24. 1 9 Ruth 2. 1 5 bundle of ears of corn, sheaf 
QTU3? TTtvd-nfui Am 2, 8 lamentation, mourning (pL) ; ^-T. G*3frX 



2 7 8 XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

]13? otcjvi^ofiat Jes 2- 6 take omens from the flight and cries of birds; 

generally, divine from omens 
py Ja Lev 19. 26 

Y+2 oiujfurrrjs* JCS57- 3 [cf. cuudi^j] Jer 27. 9 on* who foretells from the 

fight and cries of birds 
ins? „ Jud 9. 37 Mich 5, i r 

]V* €vvd£tu Jcs 57- 3 go to bed) sleep] of sexual intercourse 
HIV irraiv4u> Jes 27. 2 Ps83. I applaud, praise, commend, esp, compliment 

publicly 
~* „ Xu 21. 17 Ps 147. 7 

rV£? aiWair, €tt- Ex 32. i3 praise (pi/ 
H2V TTtivdoj, Sta* Lev 16. 31 Jes 58. 3 Ps 35. 13 !o be hungry, to be 

starved; hunger one against the other , haze a starvation match 
n^2!T dy€pats 9 TraJHTyuo-, rraidy* IIR 10. 20 Joel I- 14 gathering, 

mustering; esp. a festal assembly t in honour of a national god: 

holy-day; general or national assembly, any assembly 
n-i?J? ,, „ Lev 23. 36 D: 16. 8 Jer 9. : Am 5. 2 : 
r p> pa^'£u>, P aK X~ Ex 13. 13 Dt 2 1. 4 Jes 66. 3 ri;.' through the spine, 

esp. in sacrifices; i\ ^*-, p. 259 
~"~V (o tq? ^ooociVcr; dorrp Jud :o. 6 IR : :. 33 the Planet Venus 
***■? ^N en^ dv7?j-«r€:o? ^fdy Lev 16- 2r a przrate citizen, opp. these 

who hold office; yearly, annual; accustzmed :z a thing, acauainted 

with it 
^r.S alreaj Gn 25. 2: Jud 13. 3; ;.:. VttT 
^T^JT} TTapaireatiai Ex 3. 4 Job 22. 27 beg of cr from another, ask as 

a favour of him 
*l-D <?op6$ Esth 3. 7, 9. 26 bringing on one's way, forwarding ; of a 

wind t favourable; meraph., Kv t 3os {cube, esp. rubical die marked 

on all six sides) 
"rnp &otflos Gn 31. 42. 53 Phoebus, i.e. ::/ Bright or Pur*, an eld 

epith. of Apollo 
"X7P .-iTroAAcuno* Jud 13. 18 of or belonging to Ac-cllo 
■????? d^rtSoAecj Gn 20. 7 IR 8. 33 Jes 44. r; IlCh 7. 14, 33. 13 

meet; meet as a suceliant, entreat, subbliecte\ "S Ps 106. 10 
'?? drraXXdaau), cTroAt'u; IS 2. 25 set free, deliver from^ loose from f set 

free , release^ relieve from 
CIS ftTjw?, jAdv- Gn 32. 21 Lev 17. 10 IS 1. 1 3 irrs/A, of the Gods 
rtCD TrrjSdoj Ex 12. 13, 23, 27 leap, spring, bound over 
ncp rrj&rjfLa Ex 12. 1 1, 27 leap, bound 
be*} 0iAor Ex 20, 4 Hos 11.2 smooth; without feathers, bald on the 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 279 

head; of animals, stripped of hair or feathers; generally bare, 
uncovered 

-nyp o r5o? Nu 23. 28, 25. 5; o.s. inp 

13 Sow, o and ^ Gn 32. 16 Ex 29. 1 Xu 23. 2 Jud 6. 25 Jts 34. 7 

Ps 69. 32 bullock, bull, ox or cow, in pi. <ra//fc 
mo „ Gn 41. 2 Nu 19. 2 Jcs 11. 7 Job 21. 10 
r.3^D rrvfr/Zr:?, to's Ex 26. 3 1, 40. 2 1 Nu 4. 5 made like a tower, 
* iu-traoiiara ~. curtain hangings edged with a pattern like battle- 



ments 



-*K;>* ctB cy IS 1 . 3 Hos 12.6 Am 9. 5 (oiBouai) reverential awe which 
prevents one from doing something disgraced:, also aire with 
a notion of wonder; generally, reverence, worship, honour; J«j? a«S<xr 
reverence for him; after Horn., the object of reverential awe, holiness, 
majesty; object of awes t nick wonder 

"IS Jcs 4. 2, 13. 19, 28. 5 Jer 3. 19 Ez 20. 5 Dan 1 1. 16 

r.*.X-"J atSaois Jer 3. 19 reverence, pi. 

=^ ,='J c^Tji-off, ~ov Jud 20. 26 IR 21. 27 Jer 14. 12 Zach 7. 5 Esr 
8. 23 Xeh !. ± fasting] c. gen., fasting from food 

=VJ £*:-■?, -a IIS 12. 16 fas: 'Derivation uncertain', 

*v,3 Zfv? Xu 1.5 Dt 32. 4, i3; v.i. "~~ 

sees Dt 32. 15 IIS 22. 47 Ps 62. 7 Cod, the Deity 

prv* cy^- ;=.-=«. Gn2i. Q, 26. 3 Ex 32. 6 Jud 16. 25;^: generally, 
cznienc ~':r victory; struggle, exert oneself; contend with W) ^^> 

y."4 tl*u V ~;i<ivov 1 1 S 5 . 7 IR 3. 1 I IR 1 9. 2 1 likeness, image, whether 
cicturc or statue, bust; image carded of wood; then, generally, 
image, statue, esp. of a god; v.s. ]'"3 

T^S * :W 1 1 R 2 3 . I 7 J e r 3 1 . 2 I ( 2 0} Ez 3 9 . 1 5 p iilar ; :o lumr.ar grave- 



r ' 



tone 



='•?? aycVi Gn i. 26 IS 6. 5 Ez 16. 17, 23. 14 Am 5. 26 j.'a.'w in 

hzneur ■:■' a god, sculpture, statue, portrait, picture, generally, image 
XZT4 ., Dan 2. 31 
]~TS „ Jud 9. 43 IIS 23. 28 
r.1^3 „ Xu 33. 41 y»7S Jud 8. 5 
I'V.*'^ xeAz-Sor Ps 1 50. 6 generally, loud voice, din, clamour ; of musical 



sound. 



r'WX *i^3o.W IIS 6. 5 ryTTtiai, mostly pi. ^JV??? Xeh 12. 27 
rxrs' "ffvacvo? Nu 15. 38 fcu«/, mostly in pi, fringe; of the ru/ix of 

the golden fleece Ez 8. 3; = olcrvBos 
rip;, Pass, iytfoi Ex 29. 43 Lev 22. 32 Jes 5. 16 Ez 36. 23 hallow, 

make sacred, esp. by burning a sacrifice 



a8o XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

U-rf> iyt'£a> Ex 29. 27, 37, 30. 29 IR 8. 64 Ez 20. 12, 36. 23 

tf^?? „ J« 29. 23 

trrpnri, Pass. „ Ez 38. 23 

SHp xafl- Gn 2. 3 Ex [3. 2 Lev 8. io, 1 1, 12, 25. 10 devote, dedicate, 

csp. of a burnt offering; make offering 
V~ip s „ Ez 48. 11 Esr 3. 5 IlCh 26. 18 
tPipn „ Ex 28. 38 Lev 27. 14 Nu 3. 1 3 Jos 20. 7 Jud 17. 3 IIS 8. 11 

IR 9- 3 ICh 23. 13, 26. 27 IlCh 7- 16, 30. 8 
Tlprri ayvifa Jos 7. 13 IIS 1 1. 4 Jes 66. :- ICh 15. 12, 14 IlCh 

5. I I, 29. 5, 30. 3, 17, 24 purify oneself: cf. *-roa£a> 
r~p „ Ex 19. 14 Lev 16. 19 I ICh 29. 5 -j. ash of, cleanse away, 

esp. by water; cleanse, purify \ v.i. w?~p//n)S<i£a> 
3-p ayio? Ex 3. 5, 35. 2, 19 Lev 27. 9 Jos 5. 15 IS 21. 5 Jer 2. 3 

Ez 42. 20 ICh 24. 5 sacred, holy 
:rrrp T „ Ex 19. 6 Lev 11. 44 Xu 6. 5, 16. 3 IS 2. 2 Jes 6. 3 Ps 34. 

10 of persons, holy, pure; dytardy hallowed Ex 29. 31 
t"£ aylaaua Ex 3. 5, 26. 33, 28. 29, 35. IO, 36. 3 Jes 48. 2, 52. I, 

62. 9, 65. II, 66. 20 Joe! 4. 17 Dan 9. 20, 26 holy place, sar.c'.-aar; 



o-^ 



3 
W 



K - „ Ex 15. 17,25. 3 Lev 16. 33, 2 1.23 Jes 63. 18 Ez 44. 9, 45. 4. 
48. 21 Dan :i. 31 ICh 28. 10 I ICh 20. 3 : 26. :8 

P Kara\d^u} Jes 65. 5 befool 

/cr8c.^ Ex 29. 21 p'-tfify oneself, get farfed: Kzdcpl^a} 
■5 „ Ex IQ. li Lev 16. IQ IlCh 2G. 5, 17 cleanse, pur: r'y 

kt^qj Neh 3. 1 fourJ, build 

KGTco>«vd£uj Ex 19. 14 Jos 7. 13 IIR ro. 20 Joel 1. 14, 4. 9 
Mich 3. 5 prepare, make reedy for, prepare for the purpose 
r^rprr ,, IIS 8. 1 1 Jer -2. 3 

„ ddpol^Wy cw- 115 3. I I gather together, collect, muster; gather 
together j assemble 
r^TP M IIR 10. 20 Jcr 22. 7, 51. 27 Jet: 2. :6 Job 1. 5 

r*Tj? Kivai&os Dt 23. 18 IIR 23. 7 (*:m:3t£cj* catamite 

rrnp rcStirafa Gn 38. 2 1, 22 Dt 23. 1 3 women from Cadiz 

(rip/^rJi/dyiaff/ia), courtesan [The Greeks, I submit, confused 

n^ip {woman from Cadiz) with nr^p cSd^c {lecherous, lewd 

woman).] 
nop. fyudO, -icrijw, -ic'oj IS 2. 16 IR 22, 44 IIR 23. 5 Jes 65, 3 

Jcr 44. 15, 17, 21 Am 4. 5 Hab 1. 16 bum so as to produce smoke; 

bum incense; smoke, fumigate; "VOpn Ex 30. 7 Lev 9. 10 IS 2. 16 



XIII- CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 281 

"IDp dvfjuafui Jcr 44. 21 incense 

mTOj? „ Dt 33, 10 

rncp; „ Ex 30, 1, 7 Nu 7. 14 incense-; usu. in pL, fragrant stuffs 

for burning 
HCp tTndvfuduj Cant 3. 6 o/f<rr vicense; Pass., \l3aix>$ tntdvfitadels 

(Dioscorides Medicus 1. 68) perfumed with frankincense? 
"ICpO dvptaTTjpiov, -rpov Ex 30* I censer 1 vessel for fumigation 
mep?:? Jf Ez 8. 11 HCh 26. 19 
V?P vj. nx: Gn8. 21, 12.3 Ex 22. 27 
n^^p :\j. "X Gn 27, 12 Dt 1 1. 26, 23. 6, 27- 13 IR 2. 8 
zzp XPV& Dt 18. 10 IS 28- 8 IIR 17. 17 Ez 21. 28, 34 Mich 3. 1 1 

warn or direct by oracle; = XP aaj (B) : deliver an oracle, foretell 

CC R XPV^r 1 ^ -^ u 2 3- 2 3 ^ c r ^ I0 ^ z 13- 6, 2r. 26 Prv 16. 10 
oracular response, oracle 
y> XP rr i aT ^P iOV ^* u — * 7 Qracu ^ aT response] an offering for the oracle, 
made by those consulting it; cf. n212ffiavr€iov t sup. 

~ = ? XP^i 43 ^^ IS ^- 2 J cr 2 7- 9 ^tich 3- 7 Zach io. 2 one who gives 

or expounds oracles, prophet^ soothsayer 
"yp GK€vapiov Ex 25, 29 Xu 7. 13 (a«i;or; jmr// vessel or utensil, 

mostiy in pL 
vr\p xp<im ;B) Ex 5. 3 Xu 24. : IR 13. 2, 4 IIR 3. io ; 13, 8. 8, 9, 

23. 16 Jon 3- 2 Zach 7. 7 warn or direct by oracle; Pass., to be declared, 

proclaimed by an oracle; consult a god or oracle: = XPV^ 

nx*" XP^r- a J on 3- - oracle C^J 

-*Hpri <c5t«€i;a> Ex 29. 3, 10 N*u 3. 9, 10 sesrihee, offer 

]"? tf^Tov Lev 1. 2, 2. I Ez 40. 43 victim^ animal for sacr7f.ee 

nxn 6pdtu Gn 16. 13, 41. 22, 48. 3 Ex 4. 1 Jes 30. 10 Ez 1. i, 8. 4 

see visions; Pass., appear in a vision [future and aorist formed from 

roots &rr- {^21) and rtS- (ST*) respectively] 
n>p ovoc? IS 9. 9 Jes 30. 10 ICh 9. 22 HCh 16. 7 watcher } guardian 
n?i ,, Gn 4, 2, 48. 15 Ex 2. 17 X'u 27. 17 Jes 40. 1 1 Jcr 2. 8, 

23. 2, 49. 19 Ez 34. I-23 Ps 23, I, 80, 2 

T*2"J iJcfSo* Ez 16- 11 rod, wand, magic ivar.d, staff of office, rod for 

chastisement 
TS*! tprrerov Gn 1 . 25, 26 Hos 2, 20 Hab I. 1 4 beeut or animal which 

goes on all fours; creeping thing, reptile , esp. snake 
XDT dtpwtvtu, 6ap- Job 13-4 be an attendant, do service, do service to 

the gods, worship; cf. ^XST 
|1ST x c / ucrr "°*' Ex 28. 38 Lev 1. 3 Jes 56. 7 Mai 2. 13 thank-offering 

pnv v.s. pns Jud 16. 25 



282 XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

]Ctf $t9vpt£cjj Zach 3. 1 Ps 38. 21, 109. 4, 20, 29 whisper \ whisper 

what one dares not speak out, whisper slanders 
]rt> i/utfuoos-, c&tSdt-e^, 6v6<Zt>€$ Xu 22. 22 IS 20. 4 IIS 19. 23 IR *. 

1 3 Job K 8, 9 whispering t slanderous, as epith. of Aphrodite 

(c^j-i^) ; as Subst., = cittfi/cua-rrj?: whisperer, slanderer ; slanderous, 

back-biting; SubsL, slanderer o^r-t 
n^Ct? xpidvpiopa, -pas Esr 4. 6 whispering; whispering, slandering 
Z*2 t-I \ en ps ^o. 23; cf. lb 10 1. 6, 1 19. 1 Prv :k 20 
p^£^rr drroxpdcn Jes 2. 5 deliver an oracle: c.\ 7roi:riac*ti** Tra:Oi*'of> 

Xpfjodai, TTovviov yij o ocx-ruAtOi Hcsychius 
r p7 tprrtTQv Xu 21. 5, 8 Dc 8. 15 Jes 14. 29. 30. 6; ~\j\ r^ 
lt SepcLTTaj^, poet, -co, rare in sg. Jes 6. 2. 6 henchman, attendant, 

worshipper, servant; cf. *7XDT 8. (rov) $cov 
^K3 airtuj Ex 3. 22 Dl 10. !2jud 5. 25 IS I. IT, 2. 20, S. 10, 20. 

6, 28 IR 2. 16, 20, 22, 3. 5. 10-12 IIR 4. 3. 23 Thr 4. 4 Xeh 1 3. 6 
ask, beg, ask for, demand: ask leave to depart ; ask a person for a thing ; 
ci. Seaj (B;j ^xr c; 1 ^-; Gn 46. :o 15 o. 2 IIR 6. 5 ICh 4. 
24, 6. 9 asked for [0: God by his parents]; rrrutVoy IS :. 20 
IIR 6. 5 (aiWuj. air^-Li^ borrowed] "NT ,"T -Tr-natf IS I- 17, 
2. 20 IR 2. 20 Eiih 5. 6, 7 request, denand: CL carets- : "NT 
rrevdouat, rrvvcdvo- Gn 24. 57 Dt 4. 32. :c. II IS 22. :} ~ear 
or inquire concerning, tncuire about one cerrcn ;* :r from ano:;:er: 
inquire whether 

7sr t b*n? ,n'Tj{T 3;5r> Dt 32. 22 IIS 22. 6 jes 5. 14, 7. 1 :, 14. - 
Hos 13. 14 Hab 2. 5 Ps 9. i3 Prv 15. 24, 2-. 20: :\s. 7"Tn 

"T Trautu Gn 2, 2, 3. 22 Jes 24. 8 Prv 22. :o Thr 5. 14 take one*: 
rest, cease; rest or cease from a thing, stso; "ZTr* Kara-. Ka^r-rci^ 
Ex 5. 5 Dt 32. 26 IIR 23. ri Ps 46. :o ?r/ :3. 18 put an end :_\ 
sioo\ *^-^ KZTc.77ti<ji> Ex 20. 8, :o les =3. 1 1 } stcooing: r*_\\ 
cairn 

rzr c7K-7j^rpo^ Gn 40. 10 Lev 27. 32 Xu i3. 2 Jes 9. 3, 10. 5, 1 =>. :_;, 
5, 29, 28. 27 Ez 19. 14, 20. 37, 21. 15 An: :. 5 Ps 45. 7 Prv 
26. 3 the Prose word is Satrrnpta; stayer baton, esp. as the badge 
of command, sceptre, in Horn, borne by kings and chiefs, and 
transmitted from father to son; by speakers, who on rising to 
speak received it from the herald [a custom in pre-lslamic 
Arabia] ; as a symbol of royalty, kingly power t etc. ; used as a stick 
or cudgel to punish the refractory 

"*T7 crvVS^afxos', -tens' Dt 32. 1 7 Ps 106. 37 thai which binds together 
[mortar, stucco, lime] 



XIII. CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 283 

Tt7 „ Dt 27. 2 -^ 

rrTT ,, Gn 14. 8, 10 
*"T7 Ztvs Cn 17. i, 49. 25 Ex 6. 3 Xu 24. 4 Ez 1. 24 [cf. IS 2. io, 

7. 10 IIS 22, T4 Ps 29. 3, 96. 1 1 Job 37. 4-5, 40. 9 ICh 16. 32], 

io. 5 Job 3. 3, 5, 2i. 15, 34* I0 > l2 Ruth i- 20, 2I <>** 
fT? Ztjv Job 19. 29 Z cus 

3:7 uxt/to* IR 12, II Xah 3. 2 Prv 26. 3 leather thong, whip 
riT3 cod^aj, -aTTco, -aytc£oiiai Lev 1. 5 IIR 25. 7 J^y, slaughter, 

oroo. 5v cutting the throat: eso. slaughter victims for sacrifice, ruJ 

.'£*:> throats \ generally, j/s;\ kill, of human victims; :j. "Z? 
riVT ~c*iy£L : > Jcs 57. 5, 66. 3 slayer, butcher; a: a sacrifice 
::n7 aocxTo? Lev 14. 6 j/ffi/i, slaughtered 
r^TTD ffoa-zij, -af IlCh 30. 17 slaughter 
nnr IWj Ps 55. 24 Job 9. 3 1 , 33- 28 T/i* Sty-, i.e. :A* Hate/ul: a well 

of fatal coldness in Arcadia 
r?~r ,r/77 .I"?- J^jAo? Jos 2:.2 Jud 21.21 IS 3. 2: Jer 7. 12 Ps 78, 

60 Dclos: 11*71 Jos 15-51 
]rr?z £vacv Ex 25. 23 Jud 1. 7 IS 20. 34 IR 13. 20 Ps 12S. 3 /£$:* 
H^'^C rf'Ao? Lev q. 22 Xu 1 =>. 8 Ez 46. 12 fiur.lne-t: Cayment (-V7T 

Hcs c. 7 n^lbv Ps 91. 3} ; pL, services or ojering: due :o the gods 
Z~7T rzlyujvov IS I 3. 6 5 musical instrument cf triangular fom with 

strings of equal thickness but unequal lengths 
zr Z^ : Jtjv, Ztjv ICh 13. 6; v.s. ~r 

"tT a/u ; o^cu, <r?it±a, cdua Gn r. I, 8 fl/iT/h en .^"jA ; :n heai'en, Opp. 

earth: generally, on /A* upper side, i.e. en :A* rcr:A TN-7 Gn 13. 9. 

ij.. 15 Jos 19. 27 IR 7. 39 J't— :"; constellation, mostly in pL, 

heavenly bodies «-LJ- 

Z":T ;z*-co^ Gn 37. 9 IIR 23. 5, 1 1 yellow, of various shades, frcq. 

with a tinge of red; after Horn, of all kinds cf objects; of geld 
^ ^» ■ 

— in 

"*r ,"r <epa? Ex 19. 16 Jos 6. 4 IS 13. 3 IR 1. 34 Jes 53. t 
Hcs 3. 1 Ps 47. 6 Job 39. 25 the horn of an antmal: horn for 
blowing: Ep. gen. *«p GO * (prob. Ir. xepa-oV/ 

TCr orro5t*ur Ps 22. I 6 r^GjJ or 0tfX£ 1/7 3J^J 

TVSr crrraSos; Neh 3. 13; :\J- HS7X 

"2™ crrcOi'rTiy IIS I 7. 29 baked in ashes 

7*p> tlxcoros, aTTctJcaa^ia, -fi-or, -ata IR I I. 5, 7 IIR 23- *4 Ez 7. 

20 aoprehended through an image, opp, alcBrjro^ (perceptible) ; 

representation 
„ cW^fia, in/!, Zach 9. 7 



284 XIIL CLASSIFIED HOMOLOGIES 

J?V d-rrexdrjfia, -ij^ajv, -q> Lev 7, 2 1, II. 10 JeS 66. 17 object of 
hate; worse form for drr^x^' hateful, hated 
M tixaarost sup. y Ez 8, 10 
f^? drrt^aipuj, Karexvpaivtu Lev 1 1 . 1 1 , : 3 Dt 7. 26 /ifl/* utterly, 
detest ; Aj /* inveierately 
„ arre^aVo^at Lev I I, 43, 20. 25 Pass., to be hated, incur hatred, to 
be or become hateful to one, incur his hate; causal, that causes haired 

s*2-,7 3.j. -rm Esih 4- n, 3. 4 

r 1? £Kd(pa7T€vuj Gn 39. 4 Dt 10. 8 IS 2- 11,3. : IR 1. 4, 15, 19. 21 

Jcs 56. 6 Ez 44. ii, i2 Ps 101- 6 ICh 23. 13 strengthen for 

c?tfpc-€ucj: to be an attendant, do service to the gods, serve them; 

worship] take care of ^secondary); urr^ptriu^'. to be a servant, do 

service; minister to, serve 
rrrj deparr^ta Xu 4. :2 IlCh 24. 14 service, atter.dar.ee (secondary- ; 

Crrr.percLa: = Crrnpccia; generally, service 
"■?r trrrTiptTTjs Xu ik 28 IR 10. 5 Jes oi- 6 Joel 1.9, 13 Esr 3. 

17 IlCh 22. 3 server.:, attendant 



r "^ , s Am 6. 10 



1 !T7 >> 

en u.s. =*2n Job 2. 3 

rtrc;r> G-nfstZov £lx 20. ^ D: -i. 16 Job .t. :5 i<::v. image 

= *-%* re.Wto? Gn 6. 9 Ex 12. 5 perfect, cf victim, :c:tkc~: :?:'. cr 

i :>.•?: :jA; of cersons, acscmolisked, i-erfe:: in hi: kind 
r.^rn d c?G*'aro> Ez 8. 14 i** tfw.'A [i.e. that of Adonis] 
"-r= Ituyai Ex 20. 30 Dt 33. 3 Esr 2- 63 a: Athens the Erinyes 
were specially the acu*ai cfcai, or simply JT«a>-ai ; ctui-d* {qcj$ougl] 
revered, august, holy \V; ; devoted to ike gods; itortky of ressezt, 
honourable; prop, of gods, Dcmeter, Hecate, Thetis, Poseidon. 
Pailas Athena 
r;7E" ^-rtSoXva^ IR 8. 28 IIR iq. ^ [es ^5. - Thr ^. ^j. s- 

entreaty, prayer; */*?ZT7\ aynSoX^aj IIS 7. 27 entreat 
r*S?2r rrAdcri? Jer 49. :6/:r::0/i, invention 
T?n orrTjct^ IIR 23. :o Jer 19. 11, 12 roasting, frying 
"";•? -pi-ous Gn 31. : c Jud 17. 5 IS 15. 23, : 9. 13 IIR 23. 24 Ez 
2:. 26 Hos 3, 4 2ach :o. 2 tripod, i.e. three-legged cauldron; placed 
as votive gifts in the temples, esp. in that of Apollo at Delphi, 
or they were preserved in private houses; from a tripod the 

Delphic Priestess delivered her oracles 

+ 

"2~n d<emoT7Js IR 17. I prophet; v.s. *]-*< 



285 

XIV. CONCATENATION OF 
HOMOLOGIES 

LIL Each proposition stands or falls by the intrinsic evidence of the 
examples adduced to support it, and of similar homologies distributed 
throughout this work; but the concatenation of homologies adds extrinsic 
weight to the probative value of that evidence. 

This will be made manifest by the following analysis cf the 

nomOiCgV u i\ ; avnrjp. 

The analysis of a Graeco-Hehraic homology imports three 
main factors: an exposition of the relationship between its 
constituent homologues — two :n a simple homology, more in 
a multiple one; a consideration of associated homologies; and 
a reference to any special connection with other homologies, 
especially as regards homonyms. As a matter cf fact, the 
homology about to be analysed as an example c: this process 
has been chosen for the following reasons: it is a multiple 
homology with numerous homolcgues; it is a combined homo- 
logy, since they include Arabic and A.ramaic words; their 
phonetic and semantic variety is considerable: some of them 
homologize with the Greek noun in the nominative case, others 
with its genitive; some have unsuspected homcr.vms: there are 
significant associated words; while most interesting idiomatic 
ohrases are involved. 

*** * v* \**** * v* -^ *** V? ^ *** V.* ^ *** *^ ^ ^ ^ ^ % ^ * 



*) 






j; ;i ,-•- . s * T! 



'±'-r ; p: a man, Lat. vir (not ^om;?^ ; 77!tf;r, opp. woman ITX Gn 2. 
24 _\u 5.6; 77:^/^ children r"X IS 1. 11 "TIT Ex 23. 17 Dt 20. 
13 ^2! Gn 1 . 27, 17. 10 Lev 27. 3 Esr 8. 3; a. d-rficv one of the 
people Hyri "7HX Gn 26. 10; man, opp. god E~7X Gn ■ . 26, 6. 2 
IS 15. 29 IIS 24. 14 Jes 31- 3 ^XNu23. ig^X Ps 9. 21 Job 
0. 2, 33. 12 X2T0X Dan 4. 14; a man in the prime of life, esp. 
warrior T~7X Jer 14. 3 Xah 2. 6, 3. 18 ETX Gn 14. 24 Ex 15. 3 
Jes 4. 1 HIL* Gn 14. 24 * J^-t; man emphatically, man indeed D1X 



2 86 XIV. CONCATENATION OF HOMOLOGIES 

Jcs 13. 12 Prv 28- 12 £T£X Jcs 13. 12 ^Job 24. 4; husband IPX 
Gn 3. 16, 29. 32 Lev 20. 10 Xu 30. 17 Hos 2. i3; alydtv ai-ep, 
Virgil's ::> S rt-is ]N2n -"VTX Jcr 25. -.;, 35. 36 Xah 3. r8 
]X!in *' s ]17 Zach 11. 7, 1 1 ; joined with titles, professions, etc. 
avGpes SiKaarai (jurors'; 5\*TT1*")"7X Dan 3. 2 '"TiIT iT»\ Esih 2. 5 
]m5 'X Lev 2 1 . 9 ^"f 'X Gn 38. 2 "HSE 'X Ex 2. 1 1 , 1 9 X™ 'S 

jud 6. a nD3 'x Dt 17. 15 n^y 'x Ex 2. : 1 n^n-^ tjx iis 

23. 21; -d? a. every 77:27:. every one l~X"7- Lev 10. 17 ~"7Z 
j N Io 22. 3 IIS 13. 9 ^ Nil ,0 Dt 4. 3 .\cr. 5. 13 ^ ^ .■- 
Dt2.3a'-:X-72 Dan 3. loT^Z'^r Gr. *5. :?. : -. • ; .: .7:-. --. 
m^n C7X Lev 1. 2 Jud i 8. 7 TR 8. 46 Ez 10. 3 Ps 105. 14 Led 
7. 20 ETX Lev 27. 2 Xu 21.9 Jud 4. 20 Ps 141 . 4 ICh 16. 21 
SuX Jes 56. 2 Ps 55. 14, 103. 15 ~ZX Dan 2. :o, ;. 4 NITIX 
lb 4- 13 X2]X lb 2. 43 ^~X HCh 34-22 "VI* Jud 20. 4 S Dan 4. 
10; d'-np ainqp any one «TX ;2TX Lev 22. 4; r:zle animal ^2*7 
Esr 6. 9 *1DT Gn 6. :q Ex 12.5. Cf K m --ptc$ ^~Zl vir — v . 

j- i, Jl-/ 1, i-*i, 1 ^, ~v, J-^, - - ::orr.o.O'j!2c wit:: c;-r^ m 
the nominative; the res: with its genitive, under Proposition 2c; 

The soiritus lends exchanges with: X. Z. "7, 7, IT, ! ^ i : ^. 
under Proposition 1 : ; "~ 

5 exchanges with o and \ under Prcn. ' : and with T, 7. 
- and , J;_ under Prco. o; 

;- exchanges with trutturais m. 2 "and its suhstitute _l . 
under Prop. 9; and crops out in ~TN. r"*y TK. "~X. TI. 
"V17. juJ". , under Proc. :~: 

— exchanges with Z, under Prop. 5; 

d croos outmu iN, a jX. \j X, ^ :*X. N^ -N, _-X, N^-N. -^ . 
>^ ! r ^^l (jl ;[, under Prop. 17; and changes into J in ^_:. 

under Prop. 5; 

-. > and J are terminal, under Prcn. :a: 

There is consonant vowel metathesis in the ^enit:\'e homo- 
logucs — except in £~7X, ZTX, ^^T^^ 1 J; ;: — tinde: Prop. 2-; 

The vowel, vocalization exchanges are as follows : a ' _ : 

t? ' '/ ; and o- / ' / , under Proa. 5; 

There is ample corroboration in the remarkable identity cf 
the following phrases: a. Stjuov, a. Stpcacrrai. a. J,, rrds d.. alytZv 
avep (2 versions, cf, Gn 41. 32), 



XIV. CONCATENATION OF HOMOI.OCIF.S 287 

This is how these phrases arc dealt with by the Scptuagint 
and the X.E.B.: 

rr" "mX— LXX: t:» 2k rod yivovi\ X.E.B.: or.e of the people. 

X""U1"N-LXX: iy/oviUvoi* ; X.E.B.: couhscIIuts. 

TTX ^X— LXX: ai-Oparrot; X.E.B.: .Vo ;rrd;i Lev 22. .t, awy 
77:2/: whatever lb 24. 15. 

--ir^-LXX: -d> avdpoxros] X.E.B.: .\a of/;*r »:<!«; 
VTX'TC— LXX: T7d? ai-0 parrot Lev 22. 3, ra:T2 d"3pc IIS 13. Cj ; 
X.E.B.: J.-r,- /nn.'j Lev 22. 3. everyone IIS 13. 0. 

r:;"7:-LXX: ^^j^o.-; X.E.B.: ^y—w 

-~ Z"73 — LXX: 77*011 cdp£ : X.E.B.: all 7zc::. : ;:::d, ever; human 






]X2n "T"7X— LXX: d xpiol :-""2; -Civ rrpczzr^.-: X.E.B. 
masters of the flock, flochnasiers: ]X*£i"i ""217 — LXX: rf:- A'avcavin:-, 
q[ Aai-cavaroi rd rrpc'Scrc ;":*v being mistaken for "^IT^;; 
X.E.B. : .'/« dealers. 

I have been able to equate ,Niii -^ wim .2\.*n 1 uN, 
or.lv because I realized that in the former the homology was 
ordinary, with a;-r;p in the nominative; while ::: tit; latter it 
was exceptional, with Ji-rp in the genitive. Whether the appre- 
ciation of this equation preceded the discovery c: the homology 
l-.<ilui I" ;Es:h 2. i} } or :bllowed it.. I do net remember. But 
this I know, that long alter I had been apprised of both tacts, 
v. hiie I was browsing through she book of Danish it suddenly 
occurred to me that X"")*:""! ~X might be a composite word; and 
the nroblem presented by it ■.-.as soon solved. Thus torumous 
finds have alternated wit:: fruits of persevering r.-dy, sustained 
consideration, and close concentration in the course of my 
prolonged research. 

ASSOCIATED HOMOLOGIES 
■Ivdpa-oSlZtm enslave; especially of conquerors, sell :he free men of 

a conquered place into slavery .Jf .J^t-I 
<!:■■} pa-caitTuos: selling into slavery;, slave-dealing '\\') <jJJI ijUJ 
<LvSxi-<&ov: one taken in war ar.d sold as a slave, whether originally 

a slave or free, captive; originally distinguished from SouAos-; 

generally, a slave fjj 



288 XIV. CONCATENATION OF HOMOLOGIES 

Mark that the derivatives preserve the original £ as substi- 
tuted by (j: they behave like Hebrew derivatives. 

(LvSpaxw) : purslane jj^JI oLi; avSpax^os 

The Arabic homologuc being in the feminine, must be ad- 
judged as the counterpart of dvdpdx'-r, — ;«'J — and not ot its 
masculine synonym and cognate. dvcpays.cs. A.' J; cf. vlrpcv. 
Xi-rpov, "in?. Jer 2. 22. 
av8p*(a, -17117 : generally written dvcpla: manliness If — ^\ hardihozd 

- exchanges with 3. as does C :n rrr-z ■:_> "C^; and ^ ex- 
changes with the spiritus ienis, as decs \ :r. aut{5V 7~Z. 
av&ptiTos, -£os : manly, masculine, courageous e^S^jj — ^ ; stubborn cjj*> 

r- exchanges with the spiritus ienis. as :n 6i-a j'^^; and as 
does n in ovo>/T!£n; while ^^ ar.d jj^ corroborate zzc'~ 
other's homology, though Arabic scholars do not suspect tr.eir 
twin etymological relationship. 

dvOpeiuj: fill usith CDUrcgi L^J 

Note the corroborative force derived from the iarruly con- 
nection between *."_». and . ; — ^ : as indeed between is . '^. 
t c ^ and I jt^ ! . 

cfopta?: image of a :r:an, statue of stcr.e cr wood'; o: icrr.a.c 
figures; of men, opp. ciyaA^arac- the zca: rare:y o: t:te zzc-i 
mtfg IR 16. 33 cf. d*rr lP ) ; statues "VS jes 45. 16: mother's 
term of endearment "T£K On 30. 13: c:. p.dnzp 

dvSpids (IR 10. 33^ ; ic-rrjp if r<2> .*4oj5C^;ri>-_ . .'-jcrrciprr? I iv If. 
13 IIR 21. 3, 7}; ti(7*T7pa. ilcxrpa, £v.\cv Jud 6. 26 IIR -23. If 
— ail six words coalesced in pronunciation to become a sin^.t 
word, mS ; K or ""ITX IIR 17. 16; ; although dorrp preserved 
its special name r^'r™? 'IR ::. 5 • B -- ! - m b >* ! -° "• c - : " i 
sure that m^r^y or IT 73; 2 ;ji:d 2. 13, :o. 6) is in the plural. 
If the latter be in the singular, then it would homoiogize \%::n 
A-oWujv. darrnpd and daxpa are obvious atavisms of £l'Aoi-. 

cy&ptov: Dim. of <ir-?v> c^Spo^}, mtzn:/;::: ^i 

The spiritus Ienis exchanges with ^J, as in odo-sr). y=5 T-^K 
Prv 7. 16: as it does with p in ciWouc: 71IP Gen 33. 19. 
dyfyU: fem. of av-rjp H^X Gn 2. 22, 23 Cl*. yvvrj) »\~\ 



XIV. CONCATENATION* OF HOMOLOGIES 2O9 

avcpoylyas: giant-man p7Cy Ex 17. 8 (j*}L^ 

Arabic led mc to this homology. 

'* * * 

diapcr/wos: man-woman, hermabhrodiu t_:_*L Tcf. vvj>7> ^ : I] 

This homology is most remarkable, for two imoortanc 

reasons. First, ^>i^ sccins to be a mere variant of jtll, the 

homologue of yuin} in the genitive (ywaiKo?) : in the former 

the y exchanges with ^. as in vo-vcoj/^JLl: whereas it droos in 

the latter. Secondly, because it homologizcs with di-cpoyui-o* as 
:f it were drdpoyui/Tj Hike d^cpoy:ya>j, and dispenses with one of 
the two operative element in the comoound bv a chancre in 
the pronunciation of the other. A somewhat similar homologv 

1S "JT~ PI rpic>cc>, dSo£. 

dvb podia: man-goddess^ i.e. Athena 

I difndentlv submit that, according to mv Propositions, this 
compound is a variant — or the etymological origin — o\ QapaL 
and QpaoL, the names of Athena, thus: avopcci 'a — * di-bpodia$ -* 
OpodecLS -> Spatfca? — > 3pacr££>* — > 5occa/> -^* dpacuj^ — > G^zcuj — > QaDdL . 

dioodoouo*: = d.ootuy men s accrimenl in a house, bancuninz '"all 
j^niC^p Jud 3. 23 surf.-pref. metathesis, s^iritus C 

■I;c?pcj7rci-, d, ',prob. :rem d:~p, cZ-o, ma::-/-c*S\ Attic crr.iii 

dvdpijrrQS; Ionic c*?;rp<^TT-^. :cr d avdp-\ ma::, both as a generic 

term and of individuals "X Ex 13. 1 3 Jes 2. 9 w*X Gn 2. 24, 

:o. 3, 32. 7 Jes 2. 9 mx Ps S. 5, 9. 20 «X Dan 7. 4 N^IK 

lb 2. 43 Z"X 12 lb 7. 13: opp. gods, T"-S Job 13. 9, 33. 26 

"X~p Xu 23. 19 Ps S. 5 7ul\'p Ps 144. 3; Plato uses it 

both with and without the Art. to denote men generally, 2~iNn 

Gn 6. 1-7 (;\ dnjp] ; in pL, mankind E*7N 12 IIS 7. i.ijcr 32. 

19 Ps 49. 3 :TX":Z ?s 4, 3, 49. 3 S£H\":2 Dan 2. 38, 5.2: 

J:-ci-8oo^: = creu drocd* busb endless , of virgins' c 1 *^; = d^v 

di-opcur iL'tihout men 2"7X~i\"7 Job 38. 20 2^X~i\*7 lb.; icarAin* 

in manhood, cowardly 2~7X~X7 Jes 31.8 UTS - K7 lb. 

avdpajTTos is a compound oi dvhpo$ 6<p, D"7J\~]S or Z*7X~p — 

by the all-pervading sufRx-prenx phenomenon — p being the 

singular of D^D as p is of Z*22. A rival to homology with ~p 

21X is another phrase, 6<L$ d-srjp] but the contest is distinctly 

unequal, as will be apparent from a comparison between the 

intrinsic meaning of dydfxi*ro$ and that of 6<lr$ avr^p: 

«31 C 77 l 



290 XIV. CONCATENATION OF HOMOLOGIES 

<£ajs-, <£cuto£: poet- Noun, also in late prose; man ]2 Ps 17, 14 

™? J« 3. 25, 5. 13, 41- 14 Job 31. 31 nnzp T17 Jud 20.^48; 

man, opp. woman ]Z Cant 2, 3 CHE ~VU Dt 2. 34, 3. G; mortal, 

opp. a god DVsQ Ps 17. 14 

<£ changes into 2 3 as in ^po>/XH2; and into Q, as in <iaof 

HOMONYMS 

ClX/y^/S^: earth (including land and sea\ opp. heave?:, or land 

cpp. j^a; m^:A, as an element; land, country; native land: the 

earth or ground as tilled Prv 30. 14; ct. H^IX Gn 4. 2, 47. 

20 Ex 20. 24 IS 4. 12 E2 11. 17 Jon 4. 2 Xeh 9. 25 
"7nX/«is7€tV: one Gn : . 5, 2 r . 15, 22. 2. 32. 23 
ETX/ets : one IS 30. 2 Ez 46. 16; ZTX ~X e.V occcro* each one 

Lev 20. 2 (cf dvrp : sup.) 
^rX/eKaaros*: *<rrA Gn 15. iojud 16. 5 Ez :. 9, : 1. 12. 10. 22 

Job 41. 9, 42. 1 ! ; c:" n^X/ocacrr-n Ez :. 9 
tT£X/Sot/a£: pole-reed. A rand J c/o/iar, smaller :han :he k-ciAcuo^Jcso. : 
n % 272X/— cVflij/ia: lamentation, mourning pi. Ez 24. 17. 22 I\"" *H- % 

Ps "106. 28 C™i; Am 2. 3; cf. -"X ^X ITIX Jol : ^: — r': 

oSlVtj 'HpaxXvoi £ r -/ J or bin* II. -5. 25; more free. ::: Od.. 

ahvavs in pi., Dt 26. ij. Hos q. a 
rX £^j: there is IIS 14. 19 icf T^ tf*- [Iraci vernacular: 
^*7X/£JAoy: /r« ''*v-*c* Zacb 11. 2 

i^X.orroLr: verier e On 2 1. 17 
^i™K2 ! oTToirmsp: wherever Ruth 1. iG 
"^wX/oarrfp, ^-w, orr*p : :A* :*£ry /ns;: uho Gn 3. 12, ^4. i 

:rry /A//?* zrA:VA Ex 10. 15, 23 
"irx/oart: rrAo, which Gn :. 7, 1 i, 12. 2 : : 29, 30. 31, 2. 3. 
^rX.an: for that, he;zit:e IR 3. 33; cf. i--.. p. :oo 
~^X "DIJ/t'Tr^tST^rfp: since 7 seeing that Mai 2. a 
^jZ72/t7o<7^ : membrum virile Ex 28. 42 Lev 15. 2, 3, 7 Ez 16. 26, 

23. 20, 44. 7, 9 
TS?/yTj: freq. in Trag., rz/v Gn 4. 17, :i. 4, 24. io ? 33. :3 
^llJJTrtvTjs; (-jro-ofta.) art* :rAa zvor ks for his living } day-labourer, poor 

man Dt 24. 12, 14, 15 
^HjfTTtivaAtQs: hungry Ps 88* 16 






T *** r* « 



XIV. CONCATENATION OF HOMOLOGIES 291 

INCIDENTAL HOMONYMS 

In tlic course of our investigation into the above homologies, 
we have incidentally come across new words, some of which 
have homonyms, as follows: 

]2!~/€vos: offspring, even of a single descendant Gn 4. 25 ,\i[ ; )2 — 
in such phrases as: n"*^2 Gn 23. 3, ^K^—ID lb 32. 33, 

n:-:2 ib 10. 32, -)2ir"2 ib 10. 21, <jui w ^ ; pay-^ 

lb 19. 38, *W^2 Ib 23. n, mp"^ lb 29.", Ty:?—:! 
Ib 36. 21 — is also the homclogue of yeVor: race, s:s:k, km: clan, 
house, family 

]2!6xrr6v: plant, esp. garden plant or tree Gn 49. 22 ^,1 oLi 

(Tiw\~}]2.'{o iyuos tlt&lvtuv. -ovos'. of a child, produced by (my; 
0a;: *j or //:ro« of childbirth Gn 35. 18 

n*2i?!<'~72Vo</Kvovo9: of a son, late-bom, bom in one's old age 
Gn 37. 3 

•;""r*";]2;'-;.'lrp«i;ST;j: -*3.-! of IS 25. 10 

pWffoj: uecrov, midst Gn 42. 23; Sui ucW, between. Gn 15. 
17 Ex 12. 6, 13- 9 — : ; £1 ue'eof, dj /t. duportWt' ;;:^i.':: jo.'.: ;' 
.'xo), freq. in Horn, for €» uiccv peTa.lxu.ioi' between two armies 

zr:z is 17. 4 , 23 

"7172 ^Ato;-: as pr. n.. Helios, the sun-god Juri 6. 25 

7172 'raffrcj: (ttcouc: ■ WS.TJ rrarajp : ; .-aofia: COSSCSSOr Ex 
21. 34, 22. 7 IR 17. 17 

7172 rroA/nj?: citizen, freeman Jos 24. 1 1 Jud 9. 25. 51 
7172 ttoAlV: /tic/zv; much; -cAvurp-is, of many counsels r.*,!"2'i*'2 - 7172 
rv 24. S - i\; iui- ii 20. 7 ;_! i/y-', *-'•?•.- ->-" j- 4 
71:2 -dc-o-: husband, spouse; lawful husband Gn 20. 3 Hos 2. 18 
"12. -aw: child, whether son or daughter Prv 31.2 
"12'rrupOi, (jTTupu-;: wheat Gn 41. 35 

mcny'OuTj/Joj: rYo^r Gn 34. 4; 'O^pi'S^T--"!- lb 34. 2 
Dy.'ya^'TT^ : husband, spouse IIS 11. 3 ICh 3. 5 
ny.yaftos-: unlawful wedlock Gn 19. 38 
DS?/y«voj: r<z« Lev 19. 18; dan, family I IR 4. 13 Ruth 1. 16 



292 XIV. CONCATENATION OF HOMOLOGIES 

Ux.lyovev?: begetter, j'zlker Gn 19. 38 

Dy/Aao\-: a people, i.e. ail who arc called by one name Dt 26. 
15; mw. i.e. soldiers D: 20. 1, c, 5, 8. c IR 22 -3 IIR 13. 7; 
OTJpo?: people Gn 34. 16: commoner IIS 22. 2c; :'r.t popular assembly 
Gn 23. 7 

i7:U/77o*^Couai: «---: 2 terMl*; Ex 2:. 22 D: 22. :o; cf. d-or:'^ 

CIS/^atJi'i?, pi:-: ^.'j;.:; from Hon. ::cv.r.v.a:di free, of the 
ri-rc/A of the szods. ol.. Gn 72. 2: Lev :~. :;. 20. 3. 5. '1. 2O. :; 
IS :. :3 Ps 34. 17 Tr.r 4. :-3 

mDVi-u^oi-: •:--.' :; "--.v. :':.' t.-ir:cr. E>: ?■. :: D: 3.:. :o IIR 
14. S Job 2. 5 

n^IS '«VJi-to : 'iVu/ j:-:: = . ;r. the \i-cer ::Jf or f-v: "S"7N Lev 

T • 

14. 53 ^D~'"i; Gn :. 2: :^/j«, ir.frcr.: ^"lTS lb 19. 13. 27 

IS 7X Nu 17. 8 :•:" Gn 0. 1: -2 7- i:::.:o-.- Ib:o. 

9; :>. .'A* presence 2/ T£ TX Gn 27. 30; cf Tin:', in y':r:r.er tines 

I'lD? Dt 2. :c: c:" Nun:ber. ::i,e::. ••:..-.' Tr"~S Mz .:";. 2: 

2: Ez 36. 27, 3". :.;. :\. 2?. Joe: 3 :. : H-j 2. 5 Zach 4. r 

?s 104. 30, 143. : : . «r.: ;.. 20 ; cl. je; 3 " .33 . . - ::ere.-.:v. 

ii.-w*, ^ -D anc , . it-: £\:;ony::.2, :\ r. 2^_ 
; -1 Oaipo*: r::v: :y - -::jr <->r ^ — ^ ;\ . _t. . . r 

Jes 57. 9 Prv 13. :-. 25. 13 

"T-S'tfofAor: ej.'.'.oi. .--::"::; esp. cf .-.:::::>.- in :::e :;:c!y. ri <. 
IS 4. 19 Dan :o. :f 

""!*!£ o-T<i,\osc jvc- -; '.c. :V^: J es iG. 2 

j -^ c^0t> . riiO:>^ * p- r ^ J ^* * ■ - ^- -„ ■ — •- J Lb • j ■ w - 



— J 



Tiie nbove an^lviii i::o^"s tha: a!;::o-g:: :::e Propositioiii 
which I have e:iunc:a:cc ai governing :he inierchange otletieri 
and :he role of voca;:za::on in Graccc-He^raic homology maw 
a: first glance, seem :o he very widely ca^: — indeed, so widely 



XIV. CONCATENATION' OF HOMOLOGIES 293 

cast that almost any Greek word could ultimately be trans* 
formed into almost any Hebrew one — on closer examination, 
this superficial impression disappears. It is certainly otherwise 
in practice, especially if the Propositions as a whole, and parti- 
cularly the safeguards of Proposition 59, arc duly heeded. On 
the other hand, if the Propositions are applied singly and in 
isolation, and the provisions of Proposition 59 arc ignored, one 
is liable to be misled and to court disaster, as the following 
example will show. 

I~?rT is an exclusively Hebrew word, with no phonetic counter- 
part either in Arabic or Aramaic; so that neither could a:Tord 
any assistance in the search for or confirmation of a genuine 
Greek homologue. Therefore, when rripQcj presented its creden- 
tials, its candidature was approved, esocciallv as some corro- 
boration came from its fellow homologue On cf. ?s 78. .17*:. 
It looked 25 thoucfn - crooned out of both, while 5 exchanged 
diaiectaily with a in one, and with y in the other. Nevertheless, 
there were real misgivings: for one thing, there was no Verbal 
Adjective to homologize with 1^7} or DTllj. and no Substantive 
to homolcgize with ni^H: whereas oth.cr derivatives of OH 
were provided :or — rrcp?~u.a C^m, -dot^cr:? *mC IP! 7*C In. But, 
:n any case. I'^m seemed to be a strange word which rendered 
iito phrases apparently meaningless, CTPin TT\T "Jes :o. 4" and 
Ti rZ7 . - r ° : 4- l 9]- I» the circumstances, the matter was set 
aside for review. 

One day, as I was looking for an homologue for n^T, I had 
the good fortune of spotting tmpiZtu as the perfect homoloeue 
of l^H also, and h r apa as the ideal one of -2^7 n: 

ivzoiZ^j: ::r:t> a slain fit or' his arms Uvapa) ; h.ence :i~v in n*hi\ 
general! v, i.'jv I^m Gn s. Ex 2. u Lev 20. :-. :5 Nu : :. :^ 
IIS 23. 2: Jes 27. 1 Hcs 5. 5 Job 20. 16 Esth 9. 6 

Ivapa. rz: .Jva:puj} only ph ? arms and tm&bin^s e r ~ a slam foe 
D^"in Jes 10. 4, 14. 19 

Mark how the Hebrew derivative preserves the original £ 
which was converted into I, 

So now both texts are plain; (1) 4 . . . and they shall fail 
under slain foes 1 arms and trappings . . .' (2) 'But thou wast 
cast out of thy grave like an abominated corpse, sword-girt 
and dressed (^3*7) in the arms and trappings of slain foes who 



294 XIV - CONCATENATION OF HOMOLOGIES 

went down to the last bed (CT33X/eijnj: ones last bed, the grave; 
slants thrown out from tht prow and used as anchors Job 38. 30, pi.} 
of the grave ("TO/raoo?: grave) like a putrefied carcass.' 

Therefore, if my early experience is anything to go by, any- 
one who — misusing my Propositions — indulged in the fanciful 
exercise of transforming any Greek word into any Hebrew one, 
would before long stumble, fall and break his stiff neck. Let 
who will try! 



295 
XV. MONOGRAPHS 

M AH ATM A 

LIII. The ii-ord 'mahatma? occurs in the Bible. 

If in the far-off days of my adolescence, when Gandhi was first 
surnamed 'Mahatma', one of the world's most reputable scholars 
had claimed that that word — derived as it is from Sanskrit 
(mahalnuz:: maha, great; aiman, soul) — was wnt :n our sacred 
Scriptures cryptically, yet plainly enough for the knowledgeable 
to see through the disguise, his learned colleagues would have 
thought him barmy on the crumpet. Why, the suggestion that 
'mahatman' and nQn" ! ?']i 'Prv 19. 19) are interchangeable 
terms is enough to make Tchernechovski, the imaginative 
translator of Homer, turn in Ins grave. Even Professor Cyrus 
Gordon— the famous expert in Mediterranean studies, who has 
detected a close affinity between the Greek and the so-called 
Semitic cultures, and has viewed my theory with sympathetic 
understanding — might at first blush raise his eyebrows :r. wonder. 

I should, therefore, be neither surprised nor offended if I were 
not taken seriously now that I, an imperfectly equipped new- 
comer in the vast and snarefui field of philological research, 
confidently make that very claim and that very suggestion, in 
support of my revolutionary theory that Hebrew and Greek are 
identical tongues. On the contrary, I should deem it a compli- 
ment or a soecial favour, and feel deeply grateful, if the interested 
student would bear with me through my decoding of the crypto- 
gram. So let me proceed from bold assertion to conclusive prooi, 
incidentally soivine other obscure mysteries and bringing to light 
other hidden treasures of inestimable value, so as to convince 
even the sceptics. 

The Greek for 'mahatman' is the identical Homeric word 
>ic/dduuos] alternatively, u*ycu\6dvuQ$ which approximates 
nsn^li more closely. It is a compound made up of fieyar and 
fluids, the respective homologies of which are as follows: 

I. ptyas, /icyoATj, H«V a > S cn - H e 7^ 0U i ^ ov > ( ^ t - * u€ W*Vi 77* V* acc - 
ptyav> ficyd\T}v s peya ; dual pcyaAw, a, oj ; pi. jieyaAoi, pcydXai, ftcyaAa, 



29 6 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

etc.: the stem peyaAo- is never used in sg. norn. and ace. masc. and 
neut., and only once in voc. masc, <L /icyoAf Z(v (Aeschylus, Sep tern 
contra Thebas 822 (anapaests)). 

big, of bodily size fin Ex 29. 20 r '<~Jj b'~i Gn 1. 56 Dt 9. 2 Jes 3. 1, 
27. 13 Ez 17. 3 Jon 2. i IlCh 2. 4, 36. : 3 "i Esr 5. 8; 

freq. of stature 'm: Jos 14. 15 :il Ez 38. 2 vzz lb 39. 6 ; 

/u// grown, of age as shown by stature 7"~: Gn 19. 11; 

uast VniGn 15. 14 Dt 1. 19 jcr 44. 15 Ps to.:. 25 Thr 2. 13; 

high Vn: Jos 7. 20 IIS 18. 9 Zach 4. - XY:> 3. 27 K7y **x N-.: 
32. 37 nTs>s; lb 32. 3 J'-; 

of quality or degree, great, mighty *7VT1 Gil :8. 18, 21. 8 ._x ! 1. 3 j-cv 
19. 15 IIS 3/38 IIR 4. 8, 10. 6 Jes 36. 4, 13 EccU. 14 IIGhc. 4 
Vn: Prv io. 19 :~ IIS 23. 20 Vr; IIR 5. 1 r.-rit IIS 22. 5: 
mis Job 36. 22 7"25? Ez 32. 27 '"?-? lb 32. 30 K_^ ~-~ „-.-*: 

freq. cpith. of goes, o :t. Z e -u>, etc. ; ii«yc.-.c :-*c, ot Demetcr ar.c 
Persephone; Bed ucycAoi, of the Cabiri ?*.*:: Ex i3. : : ICh :5. 25 
bus Gp.49. 25 V:-i- IIS 22. 51 XT~ Ps 76. 12 r.-.*:: Gn :2. -5 
Job 36. 22;--»"; 

greatness "brr; Eiih : . 4 "*7- Ez 3 :. : o "*~ X- 24. 18 PYv 3:. : , : 
;r.e e:crr.er.:s. e:c. ■■■ • > IK :c. 4 : _^ ... . y-i 2 3 . ,. jo». . . .. . 

of passions, :cehr.2s. etc., of r»:er:, ~~ G:: 2". 33 D: 29. 27 l.i 
1 3. 15 IIR 22. \2: -2- -5 Jcr 36. 7 Zach 3. 2 ; 

cf sounds, grez:, .'.--i Vr:: Gn 39. 14 Jes 6. 20 jes 29. 6. 36. 13 ~~ 
Dan 3. 4 ; 

generally, greet, rzigzy. ckos -oa:h : 7*~; :_>: : 5. i'J Juc 2 : . 5 ci. ..:_"- 

19. 1 13), oAfcf happirieis) 7Vt; IR :. 4c: 
0:5, i.e. jf/fe".' question T*~: Ex i3. 22; :ic:±~:y. impcrw.l 7~~: Ex 

V 31**5-0; 

with a bad sense, ::er-greC, piyc. <;Y«iV to speak ^ ar.c so provoke 

divine wra:h .""■" :* ?i 12. 4; cf. IS 2. 3: 
of days, /<?r* ""~; Gn 29. 7 ; 
Adv. fi(yaS\uji , very rr.uch, exceedingly "7X7 Q:\ 1 . 3; . 4. 5 7*H Job 20. : 5 

nn Gn 2S. 17TS lb 27. 34 '^-; 

iW(y Vni Dan 3. 4 X"" Jcr 12. 6; 

strengthened, ^cAc ueyiW 7X:: Vn: Ex : 1. 3 Juc 1 1. 33 "7X2 ~X- 
Gn 7. 19 -7X- txtz lb 17. 2, 6 7X7 -rxr2 711: e z 9 . 9 zr~: 
-TKab-Tj IlCh 16. 14 -IK2-1V r,7-r: Gn 27. 33, 34; 

degrees of comparison (regul. peya\aiT€pos "l"'? " ?1 ~ 13 J 5^ - ! 2 ? ■ 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 297 

comp. }i€^cuv } ov greater "S bill Ex 18. 11 Lev 21. 10 p nVni 

Jos 10- 2; 

[i€tZu>r the elder Vn:n Gn 10. 21, 27, 1 Lev 2 r. 10 IS 17. 28, r 8. 1 7 

Ez 16. 46, 23. 4 "2 bMir* IR 2. 22 ; 

* * 
fjL€iLujv ku>ut)s headman of a village *-Uj^ ; 

generally, /A* higher authority 7V7: IIR 10. 6, 1 : ; 

a strong form of denial, nothing whatever ^Z Prv 13. 7, 30. 30. 

1 1, dvuos. 6 y soul, spirit, as the principle of life ^ feeling a?:d thought^ esp. of 

strong feeling and passion 'rightly derived from fi'^ IV . rage, seethe] : 

- < --- JC5 ^^- 3, 3/. IO ii» _U. -/JUL? * /t j, j_j. ..., 

in a physical sense, breath, life 7T^73 IR 17. 17 Jes 2. 22 Dan 10. 17 

ji/rr':, strength n^n Jes 63. 5 Dan 8. 6 L«^ ; 

rr::hi, temper, will E*E IS 2 : . 1 4, 25. 33 Ps 34. : . : :o. co Prv ; k 22 

.-r :>:":. courage HEm Jes 27. 4 <*^^ ; 

G-fiT. LtT-^ m Jes 10. 25 Ez 21. 36 Xah 1. 6 ?s 78. 49, 102, : 1 r ,in 
Jes 30. 30 m^u Dt 20. 27 Jes 42. 25 Ez 5. 15 Ps 37. 3 Prv 27. 4 Esth 
3. 5 'L'j*:e 4. 28'. 7. 10 zvz Prv 26. 16 ntr: Jes 30. 33 ; :■. p. 292 
in rl. 'nc: earlier than Plato' ,/hi of anger, pascicns "Z7. Prv 22. 24 
:~* .^f^rr. as the scat of emotions n.tn Prv 1 0. :c. ZV or *.-V lb 30. 3 : 
.Tif^ ;*v^:\ as the sea: of thought ri^n Ps 76, : : "r; Job 32. 3. 

Compounds and associated words lend further and firm sup- 
sort :o me homologies above set out: 

aS\xiuo$ -s-uot, of stout hear: nV ~p7X Prv 30. 3:. 

u€yd$vLiG£ f ov t great-hearted 7 m iZ" m ?~)l Pi"v ig. ;o_ 

^r/c:pw from ptya^ , feel grudge towards ^^1 Lev :o. 18. 

^cvcl^clW-v = u^yoAocdo-Ttr [of great strength] ""12 Xah :. 3. 

:zey:iA*fo>\ z ? of -'u€y<i$\ magnificent, splendid', of persons, j-j:*/-/. 
^;^{v p^r Ps 46. 5, 91. J^ J'^. 

ur/au'^uai, .'0 £<r exalted, bear oneself proudly T"TirrT Ez 38, 23 7^T;n 
Ps 35. 20 JUT (jit). 

ueyo-Vdu-nrif^ of high design TVJV7\ 7T1 Jer 32. 3Q. 

/iffyoAi,Vaj \i«yas), make great or powerful, exalt 7"T2 Jos 4. 14 Esth 3. I 
?™ PS55. 13. 

*Grafx€ye-\LVo/jLai, «a// oneself against ^"TIm Ps 35. 26 VliT! Zeph 

2. 10 7"TiT.n Jes io. 15. 



29 8 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

ptyapov, to, bedchamber mj?3 Jud 3. 20; in pi., house, palace, freq. 
in Homer; later in sg. pre Ps 91. 9 IlCh 36. 15 "r.VC Ps 76. 3 7T.22 
Jos 13. 4 mnya IS 17. 23 ~~\p Gn 19. 8; the oracular chamber in the 
temple, sanctuary, shrine 7"- P: 2G. 8 mi": Jos 1 3. 4 Jcr 7. 1 1 ; iorf.b 
"1^2 Gn 23. 9 ; i±iyapa, re, pits sacred to Dcmeter and Persephone, 
into which young pigs were let down in the Thesmophona ruy2 
Am 3. 4 rrasa Cant 4. 3. 

ptytdos, to, greatness, magnitude \ generally, size ?~* Ez 31- 7, *2: 
also in pi., mbll Ps 131. i T 145. 6 ; of a mountain "?"::.- Cant 7. 5 *~~ 

Jos 12. 21 Jud 5. 19 ;'"-- Zach 12. 1 1 ^i:rz Ex 14. 2 -Jai- (the rocky 
ridge near Cairo; ; importance '"?":: Dt 32. 3 Ps !=o. 3; might, pou.tr 7*7: 
Dt 3. 24, 9. 26 Ez 31. 7, 1 3 Ps 79. 11 n7~ ICh 17. 21 ~K.r: Dt 6. 5 
Tra/V-iia IIS 22. 51 r.ra Jes 23. 4, 14 "T*r lb 23. 1 1 [cf. 6v£iua-i] 

Ti* IS 2. 10; grszuuzz, magnanimity nVn; IIS 7. 2: ?5 145. 3, 6 Eith 
1. 4, 6. 3 ICh 29. 1 1 *?""1 Xu 14. 19 Ps 150. 3 ; lofiir^ss, sublimity *?":: Jos 

9. 8, 10. 12 Ez 31. 2 J^ .;.f- ; in pi., ju£/;';t* osvrn r.^- ; i*: Gn 24. 53 ; 

as a title, £fe Highness *-j^ *>r 

ucy^uVui, increase in b-ik, magnitude or ni^rr, enlarge *?*- Gn 26. 13 
IIS 5. :oPi 104. i Job 2. 13. 

o^jSvuiuj. to be c^ick :o zn^er ~>L^_ 

pcf^uor, hghi-hecrted. ezTt-ternptred, jtz:cItjj. :zreie<s\ mostly in bad 
sense, taking things easy, indifferent SVS "C ?rv ::. 22 rsn l % "*r 
Hos 7. 5. 

A general survey cf the homologies relating to u-/y Q > shows 
that thev mostlv assume fitya; to be fxt'yaA, according to the rules 
that terminal a dialectaiiv changes into p. and p dialectally 
changes into A. This is corroborated by the following facts: the 
vocative singular nevcA* survives, the :em. :s i^yaA?;, the gen. 
LL€-/cd\oL\ most comccunds are formed with u«yaA- or /leyaAo-, 
and pdyapou derives from u.tya<;. Most of these homologies also 
conform to Prop. 5, whereunder ju is zdded at the beginning 
of a word, and therefore initial p. sometimes drops out of the 
Hebrew homologue. Vet the original form reasserts itself in 71i 
and ^-Qn, 111 and 111^, '"ny and ^"l^, nip and mj?D. 

A closer examination reveals that ""HI, the construct of obsolete 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 299 

TH\ is not a mistake for 7"71 (Ps 145. 8), the construct of 7111; 
for in 7T71 the A in ^eyaAou changes dialectally into S, whereas 
in 711 it changes dialectally into p. On the other hand, in 111 
and 1TT2, both the radical A and the terminal 7 change dia- 
lectally into 7. 711 and 711? are strongly corroborative of each 
other, as are 0170 niD and HEn CPT£. 

A general survcv of the homologies reiatir.z to dvuos shows 
chat many of them are based on Prep. 5, whereunder & 
dialectally changes into v. (This proves conclusively that the 
Asnkenazi pronunciation of H is primeval, which is corroborated 
bvGraeco-Hebraic and Arabic-Hebrew hemoicgies, e.g. xaxo.^ : 
pHi, ~X>I, Oin/i^, Snn.LL, T\V?2nU „,^.; On the other 

hand, the d drops out of "ulV t as it does out cf "NISI 'depa-eLc) 
2nd K£ 7 'J , ( dtpa—evui ) . 

The whole series is strewn with gems of inestimable value, but 
one. or two deserve special mention because they are particularly 
instructive. 

~7X. ::■ N7i;*7K and 17U7N, is the homoicgue of the definite 
article 6. the 7 beincr a terminal letter. Ac:crd:ngiy. i\7L*7i\ 
means t;:e n:irti civ*' . b:m::any u /N means o Z*l's\ but 
whereas in the latter examme the article is, as in Greek, cetnehed 
from the r.oun it defines : m the former it is attached to me noun, 
as are its other homologues ~T5, 717, ~7k\, anc -;' :n Heorew 
and Arabic respectively. C:. ^I^X, !7T7n. 

~7X^ 7Tf 7Hi is a unique phrase, because the construction of 
the comparative adjective conforms to the Greek pattern. It 
means: 'much greater 1 , *rnuch longer' — literally -eycA^-repo*. 
Vet "V here may be the homologue of Zrepcs: nort HIV Gn 

49* 3 J cs 5 5 - 12 *> ° : *• :h - T€St ^ rr Dc 3' ! 3 — ! 3- -• 

The accuracy q[ the homology ^VL^cV is confirmed by the 

fact mat both HUT and its homologue, dvuj B : from which dvuos 
is derived, apply to the seething of a wind-swept sea 'Jon i. 15). 
The homology r Ui * Jl^/dfvflv^oy enjoys a similar confirmation; 
for in addition to *J? being one of the homologues of Qvuqs, 
1U is one of the homologues of dfuV. Besides, the homologies 
nD~7X, mU7] *71}, HEn'TIl, and ^! j^, strongly corro- 
borate each other. 



2oo XV. MONOGRAPHS 

]H2 is an adjective used as a noun, and means both 'ihi::r.b' 
[o ueyas ZiLktv'Xo-;) and 'great toe' (o ueyac-ih-TVAo^ , :is is clear 
frcrr; bcth I'.x 20. -o and Tiai :. 7. 2"1L* ai;c »_L>. as ut!! as "?i"i2. • 

exemplify the Prop. 10 that Z interchanges with .^. 

The Bible contains good internal evidence that n2H and EL ?: J 
arc synonyms. The verb Z 1ZT 'crpepoj : /h-tz sr :::.'. .^::jV is used once 
with Z1TJ i Prv 26. :6 , three times with TZH G:\ 27. .14 Nu 
25. :: Jer 18. 20;, and six times with r X ?s "5. 38, 85. 4 Prv 
24. :3, 29. 3 Dan 9. ib Esr io. 14;. Mor^v,-v, two ;ex:s illustrate 
me s.-;:h of the Z^ZZH hi ca! miner anuer : :r.e hi corthmctic :i 
v.-;:;: Z1TZ, and the other in conjunc::on with r X Pr.* 29. 0. 

The homology" ueycrc^'^iL. adds yet another to a long list of 
Greek place-names which pullulate ail over the biblical map. 
from India to Egypt and frcm Hellas to Verne::. :: ceding with 

-**_*^..c*-». .*>ni l*-^. v, v_- ..».„.. . (J I L* it, -\ 1 . L* -- - _ *-».^-. !*.(_. ...L-U\^^. 

- — v- i^.^tJCLvC.^ i.^.....L^.Lb Ui . 1 I'w . iT\ --;. — ill- «« ,v\ 



— ~> * - 5 



Petra . H"/I PI""! 






'W 


1 


.- - 


i J! 


:.■-:■ 


^ ^ 


. «-, 


- 


- 


"^-, 


* 


1 1 ^_ 


— - 


- - - 1 . 






*~c 


-- ,1 . """ 


'i . :- . 


-oC 


^ ^ « 


» * ^-^ 




— - 


■ * > - 



:\: .*::;:. c^:*. ^» ^ ar. c;. Z^IT € ovule. Z~"X ~""Z ~t-^:c; c^-jf, 
J -_ v— :cc /hvL-rrro. Z~^Z "* rrvpd>\ w *' _ -.~ rrijoc-. T'^Z I'"'.: 

a - - - *"" 

i w' .:::s cay 7 tne i :gr:s ana tne Lupnrates are reierrec to as 
j -J'_b but no meaning ;s vouciisafed f:r .j . in the nresen: 

\_<w...^.«.. « w v.* *», -^ v_ — ^ . » »w ...<„ ..^..ii^^w^jw*^ *^. _,_-#. *..\„t »*v_*\_ rv»«w»»». 

as * ."^ i ci j riii'z^s m \ra n: c as v/e.. as iri ri e jr^v,' * ■* • * c * 
poor — j oc> -^p^joci — _r;^Jc 3 * Lat. r;/ 1 :;. '.:-." — ::Joc — Jiio^f -• 

-^J «. V w '. w :li- jei . O. I. 

Incidentally, the disco\'er/ of the homciccues to 7ZZ acci- 
dentally led me to the homology -du-oXv; _^ : . This Koranic 
hzpax ligominon occurs in the chanter of the Eletmam, where it 
probably means 'lar^e* z~d 'numeroush 

ue/GAtTos-'IV^y and t -iya? l\*?lj{*?i\] J ^ corroborate each 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 30l 

other. The homologies /leyaAtfoj/p^SJ and 'Y-tplcuvftV 1 ?!] (in 
the expression 1 H<!\lq? T./.I7 7K) differ one from die other in 
nuance, since the one is related to f±tya$, the other to v-4pp*£. 
The former indicates an imposing appearance and bearing, the 
latter a state of aboveness and superiority. A third homonvm is 
to be found in I R 9. 8 and IlCh 7. 21, where it is the homologuc 
ot dAoiOb/oAooV, destroyed. The X.E.B. translates it bv 'ruin', citing 
Pishiita as its authority. 

^cycojAor, aayScuA, J, zucteh-tower, are transliterations of 7 "TIC 
and TillC Once more my theory- proves that the Hebrew 
words borrowed by the Greeks are themselves disguised Greek 
words, atavisms, the Greek origin of which had — at die time of 
the borrowing — been Song since forgotten. 

Agaum regarding the recorded 771, which is traditionally reed 
772. my theory proves once more that the written word and its 
substitute are identical. There is no slcight-of-hand here or else- 
where :n this book: it is ail steadv sloggim:. resulting in clear 
proc: which renders a!! previous cathedra! commentaries out of 
da:e T and sends seasoned scholars back to the benches of their 
student days. 

LI * . 1 ne Cherubim an bird:. 

The second volume of the Cz:,:-c-gue of Scr:>ir::i~ Mi;:us:r:o!s in 
the John Ryiands Library- at Manchester, which lists and de- 
scribes the Gaster MSS., is full cf fascinating material. To mv 
mind, however, die most important feature is the eleventh, of 
twelve plates at die end 01 the book, which is reproduced from 
MS. 330A. It represents a char: of the Tabernacle and its furni- 
ture, prepared by Abisha son of Pin has. 

At the top of the plate, above die Ark of the Covenant, are 
two birds lacing eacii other, beak to beak, and with their wings 
outspread. They resemble doves and are labelled in Samaritan 
script *TI*HD n 2U7, and in English The Two Carubimsh 

Thus :s at variance with Jewish tradition, according to which 
the two statues above the Ark were winged human forms. In 
fact, die word 2113— which occurs many times in twelve books 
ot the Bible — is invariably interpreted and transliterated as 
'cherub', in the form we know it. 



3 <*2 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

So far the Samaritan representation has been ignored, dis- 
missed as spurious; for the Samaritans were ever the target of 
rabbinical scorn. Although they alone have preserved the original 
Hebrew script, they arc still spurned by the jews (John 4. 9} 
because of their provenance and original hostility. Yet my theory 
that biblical Hebrew is identical with Greek vindicates their 
account which is supported by several passages, where the context 
heios to ascertain the shaoe of the cherubim, as well as by a 
consideration that has been entirely overlooked. 

I submit that TH3 is homologous will; vopc£ -raier^ ctoil) and 
or kockLvt] (crow), thus: the genitive KGpixa indicates that the 
stem is korak\ k and y arc interchangeable dialeaaliy and as co- 
palatals, so that korak becomes xopay; while y interchanges 
diaiectally with 5, and <opay is pronounced <opaS. As a matter 0: 
fact, the Sanskrit word is karvc, the Latin corpus, die French corbcaii. 
and die English crowl However, -112 seems to have some 
afnnity with ap-iados: phoenix. 

Bv the wav, another homolo^ue of xo*^-n ; *doc£ is "U ■- reverts 
crou\ } changing in either of the following ways: the initial k — 

which interchanges with i in w! -i. as if the root were yopay — 

*— .• 

interchanges withU as fellow guttural, or crops Gut — as sometimes 
hastens in Graecc-Hebrew homology, e.g. <pd; : :^:J[ and Ti\*\ 
It is oerhaos significant that one of the birds sent out by Noah 
to reconnoitre the flooded scene was the raven Gn 8, ; y . 

Now on close examination of four verses in the tenth chapter of 
Ezekich one gathers that the shaoe cf the cherubim was net 
human. Thus verse 14 reads: 'And every one had four faces: 
the first face was the face of a cherub, and the second face was 
the face of a man, and the third the face cf a lien and die fourth 
the face of an eagle/ From which i: is clear that 'the lace of 
a cherub' is not the same as 'the face cf a manh Agam, verse 
reads: 'And there a^oeared in the cherubims the form of a 
man's hand under their wings.' Similarly, verse 2 1 reads : 'Every- 
one of [he cherubim) had four faces apiece, and every one lour 
wings ; and the likeness of the hands of a man was under their 
wings.' From this it follows that die only human feature die 
four cherubim had in common was die hand. As to verses 15 
and 20, the cherubim therein are referred to zz HTin, translated 
here as 'die living creature' ; but iTTl actually means 'beast', and 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 303 

is so translated elsewhere (e.g. Gn 9. 5 Lev 11. 2). In fact, this 
word is normally used to indicate animals as opposed to man. (See 
also Ez 41. 18-19.) 

If the cherub was an animal, it was certainly a winged animal ; 
for it is said: 'And he rode upon a cherub and did fly: yea, he 
flew rapidly upon the wings of the wind' (Ps 18. ii). But what 
kind of bird was it? There is reason to believe that it was the 
phoenix, whose threefold legend — long life, burning, and rebirth 
— is unmistakably referred to in the Bible. 

The word 6oii>t£ lias several homologies in Hebrew, three of 
which arc relevant here, namely: 1. "|j? ;pkcenix), because 
77 (of which 6 is the aspirate) dialectally interchanges with *. 
It occurs in Job as follows: "Then I said I shall die with the 
phoenix, and I shall multiply my days as the sand 7 (29. 18). 
2. *T|? ; Phoenician) which occurs in the Book of Judges thus: 
'Howbeit, Sisera fled away on his feet to the ten: of Jael the wife 
of Heber the Phoenician, for there was peace between Jabin the 
King of Hazor and the house of Heber the Phoenician' (4. 17) ; 
~1ZH and ^Zn arc homc!c?ues of KdSeioc?- In :ac;, cou-ikcvcs 
another word for Phoenician is identical with %ITI2 ^Canaan- 
:te . 3. "1T1 .'phoenix', apparency referred :o as an - y ::^:V, thus : 
'Who satisfieth thee with good feed, so d:a: thy vcuth is renewed 
::ke the easleY (Ps :c^ =/. No mvth or folk-lore ascribes to 
the eagle the virtue of reincarnation or rejuvenation. Indeed, 
^n here is the homologuc of oot^^ thus: ©o:V;£ -> ooiVlko? 
-* -n<Oi -* -:'tK-op -^ Tr2- By the way, this is not the only tex^ 
where H~l does not signify 'eagle' (Hcs 3. :;. 

Moreover, in the tenth chapter of the Book of Ezekiel reference is 
made thrice to fire burning between and underneath die cherubim 
w. 2, 6, 7 ' ; while die nroehet, addressing the Phoenician King 
of Tyre, says : 'Thou anointed cherub that shelters. I shall set thee ; 
thou wast upon die holy mountain of God, thou host walked up 
and down in the midst of stones of fire . . . and thou hast sinned ; 
therefore I will cast diee [like Adam] as profane out of the 
mountain of God, and I will destroy thee, O: sheltering cherub, 
from die midst of die stones of fire J (28. 14-16). No wonder 
Genesis records that God sctded the cherubim in the Garden of 
Eden. But does DTI^X 171 {literally, the mountain of God 1 . gods) 
refer to Olympus? (Cf. Ex 3. 1 IR 19. 8 Jes 14- 13.) 



3 o 4 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

Incidentally, there is an independent reason which drives one 
to die conclusion that it is most unlikely that the cherubim were 
of human shape. As Uicy stood above the Ark with their wings 
outstretched— both in the Tabernacle and in sioiomon's Temple 
—the pudenda would be exposed had they been human. This 
would not at all be consonant with good taste among the 
Hebrews, especially in the Holy of Holies. Witness the fact that in 
Isaiah's vision the seraphim covered their 'legs' with two of 
[heir six wings (Jes 6. 2), and the specific injunction against 
baring one's pudenda while ascending the altar ;Ex 20. 26 . 
Vet the 'trolleys' in Solomon's Temple seem to have borne a 
phallic ornament (IR 7. 36). Cf. Hab 2. 15. 

Finally, to prove that the myd\ of die phoenix lingered in the 
Jewish tradition till late in Hebrew history, it is fitting to conclude 
with a relevant quotation from the New Testament : 'And Jesus, 
when he was baptized, went up straightway out oi the water; 
and, !o, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the spirit 
of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him' (Matt 3. 
:6'. The dove was the other bird released by Noah (Gn S. 



(J— T ° 



I am informed by Rabbi Solomon D. Sasscom of Jerusalem. 
that in die illuminated Bible by Solomon ben Raphais of Per- 
Di^r.an (1299), the cherubim look almost l:.<e eras, out tue;. 
have human heads. 

MO LOCH- WORSH ! P 

LV. Moloch is a kih. 

rph was a rieitv to whom human sacrifices wereonered. Othcr 
r.ames associated with this cult are: "71*2, 7*-^, --??, "?*;. 
and WTJ. The following is how the LXX and the Lexicon inter- 
ore t them. . i 

The LXX transliterates '"7 17 2 by BdaX, and ™^r tiy BaaXi^ 
or £ca,W ; except that it substitutes cu'cnf-^ \sr.zmt, dishonour) lor 
7L"2 in IR iO. 19, 25, and i'iSwXa for u^b'^2 in Jer 0. 13 IlCh 
1 7. 3. On the other hand, it substitutes BuoA for T72, an alias of 
7L*2, in both Jer 1 1 . 13 and Hos 9. to. Sometimes BaaA appears 
in the feminine, e.g. IIR 21. 3. It transliterates ^QD by Xapws 
throughout, and -fib by MoX6 x in IIR 23. io and Mo\6x PaotXevs 
in Jer 32. 35— inserting MoX6 x paoiXevs in HCh 33. 6, and trans- 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 305 

lating "]7b in Leviticus by dpx<uv y and in IR 11. 7 by fiaatXeus, 
perhaps because they read it "H7/D Ashkcnazi fashion; but why 
in the plural in Lev 20. 5? However, it translates uD*773 in IR 
1 1. 33, as if the word were ^j7£ i n ^ 1C construct ; while die word 
is omitted from IR 11. 5, and A/oAo'x is substituted for it in IIR 
23, 13. It translates CT7 in Ps 106* 37, as in Dt 32. 17, by 
daiuoi'iov; and TiDD by Jii— cjair (as a proper noun) in Jer ig. 
6, and as a common noun 'j^'v lfi verse !4 5 by rj ctarrirrrovaa in 
verse 12, by 6 tottos hic-i—tuv in verse 1 3 ; omits it from verse 1 1 , 
and transliterates it by --6£d in IIR 23. 10 and Jer 7. 31, 32 
— r.Z7\ being the Ashkenazi pronunciation oirzdtd. 

Apart from these six words, three odiers are highly relevant, 
namely: p*7ft (read ]27£} in IIS 12, 3:, and TT in Am 
2. 1 — respectively translated by -rMvdiov (smell brick) and Kovia 
s cluster, stucco, quick lime) — 7172 in Xah 3, 14 being translated by 
-\l:do$ 'brick). The third word is H n 2I;n which is variously trans- 
lated as follows: in Lev :3. 2: by Xarpevaj iserce the gods itiih 
Or-v>iTS and sacrifices), in Dt :3. 10 by —eptKaivlpui \pw\jy com- 
pleleij), in IIR 16. 3, 17. 17, 21. 5, 23. 10 Ez 23. 37 and HCh 
33. 6 by didyaj (carry acres: ; in Jer 32- 35 by lvc.ee 3 & \P 7 ^i, 
carr: no , in Ez 16. 2! bv l—crzo—id^ouai. c:cr: ev:: iv sacr:r,ces\ 
and in Ez 20. 26 by ctarrcjcvc^-a: 'carryover ; whereai a enferent 
text annears to have been translated in Ez 20. 3:. 

The entries m die Lexicsz concerning die above ten words are : 

" 71T2 . . . n. m. owner, lord . . . Eso. . . . lord scecif. as divine name, 
Boa:. :. xj:r.c:i: article: '*?-- ?'-Z Nu 22. j.i 'coe:. Balaam* : "V-2 b'JZ 
Nu 25. 3, 5 (Elohist) Dt 4. 3 vid. below). This divine name is not 
used elsewhere in Hcxateuch. It probably originated from the sense of 
divine ownership, rather than sovereignty . . . It seems to have been 
used in Northern Israel = ~~N in the South. It was the special name 
o: the God of the Canaanites. Philistines, etc., = Babylonian T2 . . . 
In later tiir.es scribes substituted ~7-> i n n - ? r - "— ' = ^-"J\ 
:;::x [sic] = V'varx, vie. rra _..),& also in the text for bzz 
Ho 9. 10 Jer 11.13 (hence ~ fccA Jer 2, 23, 7. o ; : :. 13, 17, 19. 5 
Ho 2. :o, 13. !-, Rom 1 1 . 4 . . .\ 2. c. art. : ^Vir; - - 3- -^V-" em ' 
tkatic 0l. [ci. Q^n^xn, "ItTXIV Ike great lord, ike sovereign owner , . . 
{or local special Ba'als . . .\ 4. c. atirib.: fi %m )2 ^*J2 Lord of covenant 

Ju 8. 33, 9. 4 (cf. nn: ?k 9. 46 . . .) ; ^-J '2 i^ri o//i« 2K 
1 . 2, 3, 6, 1 6, Philistine god, Greek version of the LXX BaaX fiviay . . .* 



3 o6 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

"rii7D by? n. pr. m. Nu 25. 3, 5 Dt 4. 3, 3 4 106. 28 Ho 9. 10, Bccl 
of PeoT (Variorum Bible), i.e. worshipped at "iiss q.v. ; or Bad-P. 
(whence Peor as n. pr. loc.) . . .' 

'"rii'D n. pr. 0o-/cyp : 1. mom. in Moab fappar. from some reel 
n33) ; — Nu 23. 28 cf. ('3 rrz, '2 ""7 S3 and rcfT. ....... [Greek Version 

cf the LXX Jos 15. 59a [60] gives a *t>ayojp with Bethlehem; v. also 
Greek Version of the LXX for ii'p, , Vy]- 2. dc: appar.) Xu 25. :3, :3 
[a. '3 7^3 v. 3, 5), 31. :6 Jos 22. 17.' 

"nsp n-3 n. pr. loc. '= '3 T*3 '2, cf. sub 333; E. of Jordan 
Dt 3. 29, in land of Amorites 4. 46 cf. Jos 13. 20 where assignee to 
Reuben) ; in land of Moab Dt 34. 6 . . .' 

T.73 n. f. shame Jb 3. 22 . . . 1. share :S 20. 30, 30 ... 2. 
shameful thing, substituted for 7y:i (q.v.) by later editors, Ho 9. :o 
Je 3. 24; r.573 1 ? r.in2T? Jc 1 1. 13, cf. ~73"V 25 : :. 2: = "V-T Ju 6. 32 ; 
T.ZZ'^K 2S 2. 8 = 7333:* :Ch 3. 33.' 

':T!33- n. pr. div. Chemosh (-33 Mesha-Imcripticn 3, 5, - - - also 
333 "sr.CSJ 1. 17 and n. pr. m. "J7~r22 i. 1 ; Assyrian Knm:r.'us'jrxd'zi. 
a king of Moab . . . Greek Version of ihe LXX Xii^) ;— god of the 
Moabites to whom Solon.cn erected a high place :X 1:. ~, 33 2K. 
23. 13 Jc 48. 7 K: 3~33 , v. 13. Moab is '3 - 3V Xi: 21. 29 -jde 
ctzcU of Chemosk, and Moabites his sons and daughters, ci. Je u.3. go. 
He is said to be also the Gcd of the Ammonites jui : :. 25 prooa^.v 
an error . . .).' 

''37'? n - [ in J l - brick-mculd; 2. quadrangle . . . Ar. jr-: . . . 
— :. brick-mculd, 25 : 2. 3: Qr ,Kt, by error. ;3""7 '. i\'a 3. :.:. 
2. c'jaarcngU, Je 43. 9 at Tahpanhcsl.' 

"~j7*2 n. pr. div. Moicch Greek version cf the LXX .UoAoy, Valgaie 
Miloch) (= ™V3 i.e. [Ji'.-ir.t] A'i'-g, with vov.cis cf r~3 to denote 
abhorrence . . .) ; — c. art. '3~ : — the god to whom Isr. sacriil children 
\%-::n fire ^n vahcy o: h:nr,cm ; ^/ ^ r * --.- 2^ 23, io, -. . --.. 
Jcr 32. 35 (synonymous ~V" > Lv ^ 2: .Cede of Holiness* ; "I 
'-: Lv 20. 2, 3, 4 -Code c: Hoiineis, ; mere jem '" *"_r:X r"T" 
v. 5 v Code of Holiness . In :!<.::. 7 rd. prob- -"", ^- v *' 

337? m pr. div. Milcorn, goc oi Air.mcr.i.o . . . — - -.-^ j j.;- - 
iK. n. 5 (contrast rrj"?-j] ; cf. ]Y2V "3 *-"■:?$ '3 v. 33 (comras: 
'3 — 3*133), so rd. also (for Massoretic Tex: "]g3} v. 7 (synonymous 
7*33) ; ]i33~' , 13 n3inri '3 2K. 23. 13 ^synonymous as in iK 1 !. 33; ; 
rd. 237p also for 3373 Je 49. 1,3 (Greek Version ci the LXX 
MtXxoX, MeXxop), ■ ■ - prob. 2S 12. 30 = iCh 20. 2 \v. : "^77. 5<i}. and 
perh. Am 1. 15 (whence Je 49. 3 . . .).' 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 307 

'^*? . . . n. m. king . . . 5 . . . <L . . . G^Vs rn?2 2S 12. 30 crown of 
their king = rCh 20. 2 (but rd. 22 1 ??? ...).. .' 

( P7? v. p>3 sub pV 

'"izy vb. pass over, through, by, pass on . . . Qal . . . pf 3 ms. . . . 
suffix riz^Je 23. 9 . . . Hiph. Pf. 3 ms. *v?vn 2S 12. 13-^ ; 2 ms. rnnvn 
Jos 7. 7 - - - V/ntf. ms. . . . ~~p5n 2S 24- 10 • . . l. cause to pass over 7 bring 
over . . . Esp, d. devote children to (b) heathen god Je 32. 35 Ez 23. 37 
( — n^x?), Lv 1 3. 21 {Code of Holiness), cf. Ez 16. 21 ; -fixs 07^^ 
2K 23. 10; c. ace. alone ^;o^ Ez 20. 26; c. ace. — ZXZ aione, de-ate by 
freDt 18. 10 2K 16. 3, 17. 17, 21. 6 = 2Ch 33. 6, Ez 20. 31 . . .' 

'"7*7 i'root of foil. : Xcw "Late) Hebrew "7"C lime, **Z whiiewasher: 

r 

Aramaic XT*c_ . . . lime. Ar. -i-i ;not loan-word . . /..' 

*T5 n. [m.] lime, whitewash; — always 'i? ; — line, Droduced bv 

burning bones Am 2. i, in sim. Is 33. 12 ; as whitewash Dt 27. 2, 4/ 
'["] n. [rm] appar. demon (loan-word from Assyrian ledu, a 

protecting spirit, esp. of bull-colossus . . . cf. .Aramaic X~rr . . . demon, 

and (perh.) Phoenician n. pr. Tni . . .; orig. root "vr {= Ar. 

-'<— n::V; ... to be preferred :o Ar. -X*- (III, IV j:i r . . /. ; — -.nsr 
rpx X7 2"*737 Dt 32. 17 ... u too. 37 (human sacrir.ee'-. ' 

*II. rsn n. or. loc. in vallcv of Hin~]2 S. of Jerusalem "ctvm 
doubtful . . . al. think Aramaic. = f re-place, cf TZZ : — c. art. Tn 
2K 23. 10 . . ., art. on 1 ., Je 7. 32, [9. 11, 12; — z\~cz 0: sacrificing 
children Je 7. 31, cf v. 32a, :o. 6 {cf. v. 5}, 2K 23. :o; to become 
burial-pla.ee Je 7. 32b, 19. 1:; in sim. of desecrated city v. 12, 13 
{'" -"- ; scene of a prophecy ofjerem., v. is; — Tec*?, T>z6<d . . . 
Qa66<7 . . . ! 

I shall prove conclusively that 7272 — as the name of the Phoe- 
nician deity — has nothing :o do with ownershio or sovereisrntv, 
any more than ^772 with "7^, £272 with E2*7 j : cr r.~2 with 
j/:-^; that TpE was not vocalized like m .or 727, for that 
matter) to denote abhorrence or for any other ulterior reason; 
that mrS is not the name of a place; that ]37.\2/]27^ was not 
written for ]27fr ; that 7272 was referred to as 'kiln' or 'lime*; 
and that David found in Baal's kiln a readv-made instrument of 
torture to use against his Ammonite enemies (cf.^Atukvw: torture). 
However, I am inclined to think that Scythian ^\712 12V 
(Jer 38. 7) and pre-Islamic ^J! jlx reflect Moloch-worship. 

Among the above-mentioned words are two clues — as un- 



3 o8 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

suspected as they arc sure— which lead directly to the nature of 
Moloch-worship, and indirectly to die ascertainment of the true 
meanings of OTDD, pS, GD7S, and p72 ; namely: Tt? in 
Am 2. i, and D"HE? in Ps 106. 37. It is to be noted that botii 
nouns are in the dative — TEr? . . . iS"l^» WIV? . . . ^~2j" 
— likc^a 1 ? . • • r p?7 (Jer 19. 5), ?f?iy? T^gn? (Lev 18. 21 :. 
Furthermore, it is particularly to be noted that it is TU/ " n( ^ 
not T2? 1 ? ; that is to say, 'for his burning the remains of the king 
of Edom unto the lime', and not — as the A.Y. and the N.E.B. 
have it — into lime and for :ime, respective!'*'. 

As to D" , *T!Z7, the word occurs in two ditTercnt books, and each 
context indicates the meaning of die word. In Deuteronomy it 
is said : 'They sacrifice to the m"2 who are no god' ; while in 
the Psalms it is said : 'they sacrificed their sons and their daughters 
unto the Q***7*2.' Seeing that the Arabic hemoiogue of VT is j*_i, 
all the surrounding circumstances point to CI-? meaning 
CTt? limes. But 'limes' simtliciicr constitute no deitv; which 
justir.es the description of -"™ as r.o god. On the other ha::c. 
die divinities whose worship involved numan sacrifices — more 
specifically children— were : the Canaan::; 71*1, the Ammonite 
■q7"C'n":*7Q, and the Mcabite ZT*Z. As a matter of fact. 
Ps 106. 38 makes it clear that the D'7-' were Canaanite ice'.s. 

Accordingly, the words Vt? and Z~T~ lead firmly to the con- 
clusion that human sacrifices were, somehow or other, con- 
nected widi lime. 

Which brings me to the consideration of ]-7^. a word e'eseiy 

resembling -J^ -'brick-kilr' die sure meanir.2 of which led to the 
discovery that ail the four words, .■_ _ ; ]Z7^, £27.^, arc 
p7E, are the homoic trues of -rXtvdeiov brickworks). It i.orno- 
logizes with each of them directly, according to the Greek pattern 
of construction, in di.Terent ways, thus: in all - turns d:alcctahy 
into Q/>, consonant vowel metadiesis occurs between A and :, 
and the" middle v drops out; in p72 and .U_- : tiie 6 also drops 
out, whereas it dialectaily turns into 2 in DD7*0 and p72; the 
final v turns into 2 in C3-7Q, while the vocalization in .w, 
ED7.0 and p"?S betrays the first :. Obviously, "7 "0 is an 
abbreviated version of "TD7?2. 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 309 

Both EHED and ETED arc homologies to the quasi -synonym of 
rrXwdecov, K-d^uros- [oven^ furnace or kiln for smelting, baking, burn- 
ing earthenware and bricks} — or Kauiv<L§ri$ [like an oven or fur- 
nace) — which also hornologizcs witli -^ and jc^J [brick-kiln). In 
EHQD, the tv drop out ; and in ^T2D, die vo drop out. Alternatively, 
■iTiDD turns to CT7D3, as pn does to ]Tl3, Ashkenazi fashion- 
Thus the accuracy of die biblical record is confirmed, and die 
scrupulosity of the scribes is vindicated* Wc ought to be grateful 
to them for having preserved various structures, instead of 
presumptuously accusing them of numerous errors. 

"n2i?ri in IIS 12. 31 is a different verb from TH17m in Jos 7. 7 
and in IIS 12. 13 or 2,1, :o. They are three different homonvms, 
the respective homologues of itcrvpouj [burn to ashes, consume utterly), 
ota— €o<il6<jj [take across, Jerr; o~er) y and urrtp—tpdcj 'overlook, take 
no notice, remit). The worshippers of *717D did not 'devote' their 
children to him 'by fire 1 ; they burned them in the f re for his con- 
sumption (Ez 23. 37} — just as the Israelites burnt sacrifices to God 
as n^X :Ex 29. 18}- This is a homologue of laria^ ''banquet) ; 
another homologue is mT^ "Gn 26. 30) s by sumx-srefLx construc- 
tion. In Esr 3. 7, however, occurs an entirely different Hly-"?, the 
homologue of -orov jha: which one drinks, drink, eso. of wine). 

Phonetic identity sometimes conceals etymological difference, 
e.g. nrr^ in Gn 26. 30 and Esr 3. 7, "V2S?m in IIS 12. 13 and 
Jos 7. 7; at others it conceals a difference between verbs of the 
same root, e.g. TQ57T1 in Jos 7. 7 and IIS 24. 10, Similarly, "1217 
in Jud 3. 26 homologizes with -€pda> (pass the guards, secretly 
or by force) ; whereas "12S7 in Jer 23. 9 is the homoloeue of 
-vpccj -'inficxie). Whence we pass on to "7172. 

*7T- has five homologies, as far different from one another 
as any five distinct words can possibly be; yet each one of them 
tallies with it, in accordance wiui well-tried rules of phonetics, 

and in cerfec: semantic harmonv with the context — namely: 

* * * 

r}\to$, d, Epic t)*'Aio£, Doric dc'Ato?, aAior, Pamphylian 3a3eAior, 
Cretan tLZcAto? (i.e. a?) t Aeolian dcAio?, ezAtoy, Arcadian dcAio? (or 
d-), 3l\a also occurs, sun; as pr. n,, Helios, the sun-god; identified 
with Aoollo Va Jcs ±6. 1 ?J?3 IR 18. 26, 

rrdoTas, d, {rrdofiat) owner *?V2 Ex 2 1. 34, 22. 7, 
[trdo/iat, possess ^V^ Jes 26. 13] 



3 io XV. MONOGRAPHS 

ttoAittjs, 6, citizen, freeman *7V3 Jos 24. u Jud 9. 2 IS 23. n 
IIS 21. 12. 

ttoAi/'s-, in several compounds: tto\u-/\w<j<jos, ov, many-tongued 7*3 
prbn Eccl IO. I I ; -oXvetdr.fi.ujv, or, knowing much *~V?V? *Ch ! 4- 
7; 7roAi/'0/n£, d, 17, if&A 7nurA /w:> "13? 73? IIR 1.8; ttoAi^/kus-, 
d, i} t many-homed trrrpjl ^V? Dan 3. 6; roAJuijrif, d, 17, of many 
counsels niajp 7~5 Prv 24. 8. 

Trdffis, d, husband, spouse; esp. /<Ht/«/ husband: rare in prose. (Indo- 
European £0<£l 'lord, master', cf. Tron-ia, 0«rrr6r^^, Skt. pc'-'if 
'lord, master, husband', aa'tai 'lady, wife', Lat. potis sxm), etc. 
bi'? Gn 20. 3 Hos 2. i3. 

-601s has another homologue, namely, n?2 (Jer n. 13). 
This noun is masculine; but it is feminine in form, because 
direct homologues of r.cuns ending in -<> terminate in a letter 
characteristic of a feminine noun, e.g. *c<tt?: 5 - 712^7, ac^ij.iiw^ 
riD*0/nD57Q, SouAtuffo-.Tt^T. "1172 has two homonyms, the 
homologues of which arc sicois (as a moral feeling, reverence, cure, 
TisOecl for the feeling or opinion of ethers or :or one's own con- 
science, and so shams. self respect) and or zlcr^-.ri IS 20. 30 c.\ 
n:~5 Hos 10. 6;, and 6Cc-.s Mich 1. : :. But 72*2 in Zeph 3. :q 
means reverence, sense of honour, and not sh-z^ie. 

With the passage cf time people forgot that -nAtos - and 7172. ir.e 
Phoenician deity, were interchangeable ; and 7172 came to be 
assimilated to, and confused with, 7172, husband. That is why 
the deity was also called 7272. Far from being a pejorative nick- 
name of Baal, it was an appreciative alias, since it especially in- 
dicated a lawful husband. However, the Bible provides conclusive 
proof that ^172 and r\-.cs are interchangeable, for H*72 7172 P.* 2 
in Jud 9. 4, is referred to by 7772 7X 772 in verse 46; and 7X 
is a homologue of r.uo>, e.g. *H£\ios '}':repaji"]r7V 7X 'Gn 
14. 18). This is further corroborated by 27i\ 7217 (IIS 6. 10; 
—the attendant of the Sun(-god)— SIX, like SEtf, being a 
homologue of f a^ds-. Which brings us to the consideration of 

The homologue of "111*3 is: 4>olfios, tj, ov. pure, bright, radiant: 
as pr. n. Qolfios, 6, Phoebus, i.e. /A* 5n£rt.' or Part, an old 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 3 n 

epithet of Apollo, <£. AttgXAcjv; rarely inverted, ArroXkuv 0ot£os* 
TIS7D *7272 (Dt 4. 3) ; then alone as pr. n. TISD Nu 23. 28. 
I cannot help thinking that *7!72, and especially 2"7U2 3 may 
well be a direct homologue also of ArroXXcov. 

Lastly, FiDH, the homologue of which is — by die suffix/prefix 
construction — ottt^gi^ (roasting i frying; baking of bread, of pottery). 
Hence ETDn Lev 6, 14. 

To round off the terminology of Moloch-worship, it is necessary 
to advert to a list of compounds of 7173 and TiwZ — which con- 
firms the Hellenic character of that terminology, and incidentally 
corrects the Bible as well as die Lexicon — that is: r~2~?TX, 

T22&K, bisinx, ^2T\ r.vi'v, ntfrrso, bzi :nc : t^2^d. 

To begin with, T\Z2~ , Ti\ is TJ2m (IIS 2. 8 ICh 8. 33), 
'^'jTisTi^T (Judo. 1 IIS 11. 21). bU2 ZT-iS is T^2~^72 
and HS'lTDa (IIS 9. 12 ICh 8. 34, 9. 40). It seems that bV2 
and P~2 were used according to fashion or taste, if not in- 
discriminately. But since these form compounds they must have 
a meaning, thoueh the interchangeable names need not have 
the same meaning. 

We are told that 71727", die surname of Gideon Juc 3. 35), 
is a contraction of the phrase 7SJHn 12 2~T {lb 6, 32* 1 . If this is 
more than a hen trouaio pun, why was the son of Jonathan called 
7172 2^72 ? There is no evidence that he had any difference with 
Baal. The Lexicon tries to get over the obvious difficulty by 
unaccountably suggesting that 7172 2"H/2 might mean 'Baal is 
.'our, my, his) advocate {?{', and cites an authority who thinks 
that it actually meapi 'hero of Baal', on die assumption that the 
original form was 7172~ 1 7'-, But, then, how is one to explain 
that the same person is also referred to as r~2"22 : for which 
name no meaning is vouchsafed? Again, d:e Lexicon interprets 
7172T.S to mean 'with Bcal, i.e. living under B/s favour 1 . 
Moreover, in the entry- sub voce 71727^ it cites an authority who 
suggests that 7!72~V stems from the root m n (ihrau:, shoot), and 
draws attention to 7XW (IlCh 20. 16) and *WV {ICh 7. 2), 
saying they mean 'founded of EI\ My theory reconciles the dif- 
ferences between tiiese compounds, and puts an end to legend 
and fancv alike. 



3 i2 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

It was clear to mc, at the start of my investigation into Moloch- 
worship, that these names were — like ^NW and 7 JOT 1 — 
composed of a deity plus a prefix: ETX, ~C7i<, ~fli\ - T, ~*T\ 
"H\ "^DQ, ^3, '-^3. Obviously, ETX and - ^K rcsemf-lir 
each other, as did ~tf X and ~nX,' no and Tin ; but ™3 
stood on its own. It suddenly struck mc that — like "3 in rri'iTv 
(Ps 149. 6) — ^SO might be the'homologue otduSl (about, around; 
of persons grouped about one, 01 cL TJplauov Priam and his train; 
ol d. npajrayopav the school of Protagoras ; old. Ev9u6oova Euthv- 
phro's friends; of a single person). This led to my finding that *^ - 
and I3*Hft were the homologues of -ept [about* near: of persons 
who are about one, *x* iv TLV * ~* avr6v\ esp. ol — . nvd a person's 
attendants, connexions, associates or colleagues, ol -, rot- Ileicav- 

bpov rr pea fit 15 ; ot rr. 'HpaxXetrov his school ; ot rr. J^o^'a^ — oA/aca;f o: 

Arcliias and his colleagues; ot tt. nvd so-and-so and his family,. 
7y2SX, then, meant 'an adherent or follower of 7172'. But I was 
at a loss about the other prefixes, and only by pure chance did I, 
in one leap, reach their happy solution. Thus, in the course of my 
research, I came across r<D2~"p (E230. 17; which, if it be Buba:::; 
in Egypt, of course, had no connection with Hw2"£?2. Vet m2 
]1X ? die phrase nex: :o it, caught and riveted my a::en;icn. 
I argued with mvse.f : If On had voun? men about him. whv 
not Baal ? And there and then I set out in search 01 S*oun? men". 
Within minutes I found : elprju or Iotjv [Lacedemonian youth :cho had 
completed his twentieth year) , and rftfeo^mn 2 [unmarried \0uihj\1s1 come 
to manhood). The former homologizes with P, "IT, and P ; 
while the latter homologizes with ^TK, ~TX ? and TX. In the 
result, the situation became crystal clear: the comoounds were 
surnames of persons who. when voune, had been initiated in 
Baal's worship, or dedicated to his service, or had served ar. 
aoDrenticeshio as acevtes in his temple, heloir:? his lon^-hairec 
priests in the discharge of their sacred duties — like Samuel a: 
Shiloh (IS k 22 7 2o — or, again like Samuel, a gift of the deitv 
craved for bv his parents. The DTirfl or ITrri however, \%cre 
originally laymen permanently attached to the Temple, who 
formed a class of Temple-attendants inferior to the Levites .'Esr 
8. 17ICI19. 2). 

It is not to be wondered at that ^yDT'or fiSST and nE^TS 

* 

were novices at the shrine of Baal, or Baal's gifts to their parents; 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 313 

for the concept of monotheism had a hard struggle to monopolize 
religious belief among the Hebrews, and probably never com- 
pletely prevailed in biblical times. 

UNDERSTANDING GREEK THROUGH HEBREW 

LVL A better understanding of Greek can be obtained through Hebrew 
and Arabic. 

There arc two ways in which knowledge cf Hebrew helps 
understanding Greek: one, by tracing to their Greek origin 
words which the Greeks borrowed from foreign sources; the 
other, by applying to Greek words the rules of decoding Hebrew 
words- 

L The Asiatic Greeks called Arabia 2~}y Jer 25. 24) or 
n2")y ''D: 2. 8;, and its inhabitants ^2^17 'Jes 13. 2o\ mi* 

fiR 10. 15), erii-jy {lb 17.4), Q^3T* (iich 17- n), c:n ; y 

To 21- 16}, D^?"1V Tb 26. 7). There occurs also VCIL? 
IIS 23. 31). These words form the following homologies: 
"V, "~*V ^pTjtiiG. 7, - saiiixdt, desert^ luiiderncss. 
*2^Z : e!C "«rp7j;itjccf. r. cV. //riVr* r>: .'« deser:. 

Many generations later, when all this had long been forgotten, 
the European Greeks borrowed Apaflia, Hpc.6, ApdStos, .MpaSt/fcV 
— as thev did Nel\o$. For -YefAo? is identical with 7H1, the homo- 
lo?ue of poos, a noun which derives from pt'cu, p^ouat^ jiow y run, 
stream, gush. The homologue of this verb is ^ijjl; and the noun 
derived from it, 1712, resembles poos more closely than 7H1 The 
main difference between the Greek words and their respective 
homologies is the MY I. The fact is that when, a: the time of the 
Patriarchs, the Greeks ruled over Egypt, they referred to the stream 
tli at flows through it simclv as the 'River'. Then the Egyptians 
rebelled against them and enslaved the Hebrews, but the name 
6 -Yt-uW persisted and has survived to this day — J-i!!, a name 
given to a tributary of the Euphrates. Another name that 
persisted for more than a millennium is &apau> whicli is, to 
this day, believed to be an Egyptian word; but I think it is a 
relic of ZSopos or 6povpo?, or of both. 

II. appa3d)v } and IIL ^aySoiAo? are dealt with elsewhere. 



314 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

IV. KdfjLTjXos is supposed to be of so-called Semitic origin, the 

Hebrew homologue being *?Qi; but J^^ is nearer to /ca/xTjAo*, 
because it happens to be paroxytone. I submit, however, that 
7Q1 is a compound word made up of ^ya and pfjXov — big sheep — 
and that the Hebrew oxytone is therefore die correct accent. 
The following are the seven reasons for which I make this claim: 

1. The ostriches were called arpovdol al /zeycLW or ol fxtydXa 
crrpovdol, large sparrows. 

2. The homologue n~TOn (Job 39. 13) suggests that these 

words underwent crasis (to yaaovdos) by dropping the first syllable 
fie (as in 7ftl), and r and p t which is not uncommon — under 
Props. 14 and 17. 

3. ^afxeX-qs = M e V a p&os *X cul '> possessing a large limb ( — fie). 

4- One of the manv names for the camel in Arabic is , U, the 
homologue ofot?, T;X and **7]?S (Zach 11. 15;. 

5- Like the sheep, the camel yields milk and wool. 

6. The young of the camel is called #ca/xTjAo* c<h-o>, a camel-lamb. 

7. Like Kdfj.Tj\o$ 7 7-1 :s of epicene gender ;Gn 32. 16 Lev 1 1 . 4'- 

It is therefore safe to assume that when the very ancient Greeks 
first came upon the camel, they called it 'big sheep' — as they 
quaintly called the ostrich l big sparrow', when they were first 
introduced to the giant bird. This appellation was preserved, in 
abbreviated form, 7^1. by the descendants of the Ancient 
.Asiatic Greeks; but its meaning — and much else besides— had 
been lost at the time i: was borrowed by the European Greeks. 

V\ The joint operation of two phonetic Rules — Prop. 1 : 

concerning the change ef the spiritus asper into 2 ; and Prop. 17 

about the dropping cf - out of Hebrew homologues — have 

solved at least one puzzle, that is, the relation between 0-A7; ar.c 

Xl^V- They are simply identical and — together with y^Wcs, 

X^AoV — are akin to o-Aot\ This is proved conclusively by the 

following table of homologues and synonyms: 

• * * 

The homologues of C-A77, 77, (ottAoi') hoof^Zp Dan 7. 19 wiUi *J&; 

in Homer always the solid hoofo[ the horse J 1 ^ ^J^ ; after Homer, like 

X^Xtj, the cloven hoof of horned cattle 1DD Dan 7. 19 ^Ui ^U; dis- 
tinguished from x^Atj, Galenus Mcdicus, de Usu Partium 3. 4. 

The homologues and synonyms of xn^Vt V> horse's hoof J\*» <~i^ ; of 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 315 

oxen and the like, cloven hoof^DV Dan 7. 19 uJU; ^iUJ ; crab's claw ~)DO 

Dan 4. 30 fi22 Dt 2 1 . 1 2 ^ ^J^t »— JL*t« ; poetic pL, talons nso Dan 

• - 

4. 30 *-J^" v^^ ; breakwater, formed of stones laid at the base of a 
sea-wall, mostly in pL, so called because it projected like a hoof JU; 
spur of a mountain or ridge of rocks answering a like purpose *-j <J^ ; 
of various cloven or hooked implements ^y^i rims of the eyelids *->j^ ; crack 
in the heels or other parts "lis? Ex 13. 12; net bzn Ps 140. 6 Job 36. 8 
-^jr**' (which also means 'noose') ; plait *7*Ta Dt 22. 12 aIjJ^ Vr*^* 

The homologues of ^7JAtroy, 77, ot> = ^Act/ros, ayyos: x^AtvroV (netted 7 
plaited) ^J^^-lJ ; ayyo^ (vessel to hold liquids) ^SCjud5-25 rr-SC Ps 56. 9 
'bp Xu 19. 17 IR 17. 10 ^1 Jes 40. 15 >I^. 

The homologues of o-W, ro\ too/, implement ^D IR 6. 7 iJT; a 
jAfpV tackle, tackling, esp. ra£*j, halyards J**** U U^ ; arrp raptr 7ZH Jos 2.15 
J^ *??? P s r 49* 8 ; implements of war, amis, weapon, armour "7^ Dt 1. 41 ; 
heavy arms ^\~ IS 2. 4; men-at-arms *?*n IlCh 13, 3 TTi IR 15. 20; 
place of arms, camp Vpl? Nch 3. 27 -*J^- ; large shield ""7 Jos 15. 15 (cf. 
ZSpvpa) HSC lb 15, 49 (cf aiojinj) ^CO "yi^X -J- Hi? IS 1 7. 7; 
memhmm virile ^E* IS 6. 4 ~il* Dt 7. 13 ^1 ^- ^j . 

The homoiogue of x^AcV, n, krr?<r c/i«/, £0/^r *^3 Lev 1^. 4 Jon :. 5. 

Xotc that the homologues and synonyms of ^Ar are, for the 
most parr, phonetically similar to ottAtj, a derivative of orrXov. 
Moreover, there is semantic evidence of the affiliation between 
:(vXv and o-Xov 3 in that 'net' and 'plait' are related to 'rope\ 
Again, in one of its meanings — 'netted, plaited' — ^tJAivos is 
directly related to x^Atj I while by the other — ayyos — it is directly 
linked with ottXqv. Lastly, the homologies corroborate each other 
most strongly — whether Hebrew, Aramaic, or Arabic. Accord- 
ingly, there is cumulative evidence that 0VA77 was oronounced 
X^A??, and that these two words were interchangeable. 

VI. My theory sheds new light on the word -T/caiio-Spos', both on 
the phonetic and semantic aspects. We have seen that homologues 
of words with ok show that these two- consonants may be pro- 
nounced together as a digraph, or individually and separately, 
or by dropping one of the letters (Prop. 12). The late Sir Leon 
Simon thought this was the reason why Homer did not find it 
necessary to lengthen the short vowel before qk in Iliad 20. 74 : 

ov EavOov KoXtovot deot, avhpes Se Z*a/xai/Spoi'. 



3 i6 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

Again, this verse seems to imply that £avQ6<z and oKa^avhpo^ 
are synonymous adjectives; yet there is no trace of such equation 
or, indeed, of any other meaning ascribed to oKafiai>8pos by th< 
Greeks. If one turns to Hebrew and Arabic, however, one hnds 
that both languages have preserved several obvious homologucs 
which confirm the implication; while my rules of phonetics 
establish that these two adjectives are identical : ZxafiayBpos ; 
OH Gn io. 6 TTBO Cant 2, 13 nZ3S Gn 10. 18 DE lb 10, 2! 

- T : J t ; 

•• - • • - * ' o - - 

fLi [Sjria), j^\ {red), ^J {brown) ^ Jl^\ {jelhw': , jj^'r •'- ; b*tl . 

VI I. Only die so-called Semitic languages provide the key to :he 
philological riddle presented by the two idiomatic words, iwt* 
and 6<tu). They are not, as has hidierto been supposed, simple 
words; but compounds respectively made up of ev and eara, and 
€Ka and rcu — meaning ; ten minus one* and 'ten minus two'. This 
is proved by their several homologues 71^?) and HI/-Z7, The first 
syllable in the former -'~rO stands for ef?, and the second (HV) 
for -.*cl in SeVa, S dropping out and k interchanging with I? as 
gutturals, or dropping out. Whereas the first syllable in the la:: er 
(27) stands for 8vo, the second and the third letters \1?2) for <L-6, 
and the last letter for -<a in Soca (two from ten':. Tims, *;-.-*- 
consists of iv-vt-a —r ly c-6 ooctz (one from ten'., like undevigir.:: 
[twenty lacking one; ; whereas 6kt<L consists 01 oK-rd> -^ -o^c 
S<L : an order of words on the prefix-suffix p:;:ern, to avoid 
confusion with StoStKi — like Suoiv Stoirra eLKoat twenty save two* : 

€v\ f £a — *> tv u€ a ~+ €v ii € a — * O' fte [72] a — Iv d—6 a — ~ Iv drro St va 
oktuj — > ok rev —t ck rut — * *ra ra> — - Sck-cl t<-j — itvc Oqj — * 
5 oca 5Jcj 

Besides, it is quite possible that the S in Soca is prosthetic — tva 
"ITU — because Aristotle held chat the v at the end of eiVoat^ :s net 
movable v but part of the word, ttKoaiv being :hus homologous 

with anss? (or c*Trr ■ , 'two tens'. 

VIII. The verb ^7 ^pX, ^7 ^p, V? ^7m (Cant 4. 6, Gn 12. 1, 
Cant 2, 11) not only shows that the Middle Voice, a charac- 
teristically Greek feature, exists in Hebrew, but also that the 
Middle Voice suffixes: -pat, -oat 7 -rat, were originally -/xoi, -cot, 
cn>raj {to me, to you, to him), to indicate the reflexive nature of the 

action — just as il (in J^<i»J) and 1 (in *7S7D2) (cV) do. 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 317 

IX, Arabic joins Hebrew in proving at one and die same time 
both die etymological origin and true meaning of -rhSijs and its 
Epic variant AtStovevs, the homologuc of "]X (Prv 27. 20), 
piZlX (lb 15. n), oJbl 

Strangely enough, the traditional derivation of -MrSou-ci/V, 'un- 
seen place 1 , differs fundamentally from the traditional derivation 
of p"I2K, 'destruction, perdition 1 . It will emerge from the 
following analysis that both alleged derivations arc spurious, and 
that these two words are identical with dtBio^, everlasting, eternal. 

Hebrew provides the true derivation and meaning q[ AiZUuvtvs, 
die hornologue of ]1~72X. 

According to the Greeks, AzSojvcvs is a lengthened poetical 
variant of Atfys or ddrjs, which is said to be somehow made up 
of a privativum and IhtZv^ and somehow to mean *the unseen place 1 . 
On the other hand, the regular genitive of '4lBt^ is JiiSou, and 
the Homeric *4tSao and AiScu) ; there is also a genitive *4iSos 
and the dative 3rSi, as if from At$. None of diese words seems 
to have the remotest relation to the said derivation or meaning 
of.^rScji-cuV, which seems to have been suggested by Iliad 20. 62-5, 
rather than based on firm philological foundations. Indeed, two 
biblical verses situated widely apart show that — like die Greeks — 
the Hebrews believed that ]1~T2i\ was hidden from mortals' 

view: Prv 15. 11 and Job 26. 6. Yet this particular belief need not 
necessarily import etymological implications. Therefore, let us 
turn from this unsatisfactory explanation to a consideration of 
die homologies involving die words with die root 1 Z X, 

ctroiiUo; — lose 12K Prv 29. 3 Ecci 3. 6. 

c-cfcArj — loss m:x Lev 5, 22. 

oc;'uu — rzeke aicay tilth person "X IIR 11. : Ps 1:9. 95 T*-Nm 

V 
Lev 23. 30 Xu 24. 19; destroy "T-X IIR 21. 3 "ZXr: Mich 5, 9 -U ; 

ohsairt, rr.cr one's eood name TZX Dt 12. ^ "T^ZXn Dt 7. 2^: wipe out 

"K Dt 12. 3 IIR 11. i Lsdi 3. 9 TZKT} Xu 24. 19 D: 7. 24 -U; 

make away u*ith property T2X Prv 29. 3. 

doav-r^ — missing lax IS 9. 20; uncertain^ doubtful, obscure *TZK Dt 
32. 28- 

aoai'tcr/ior — extermination ]"[-? Esih 9. 5 *-kl; destruction p3X 
Ib8. S^Vil. 

$dlu> y -ly<jj t -iyv8uj — decay "T2X Jon 4* 10; wane T-X Prv 11. io, 



3 ,8 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

28- 28 ms Cant 2. 17 [cf. favyaj] ; be wasted 72K Jcr 9. 1 1 Joel 1 . 1 1 
Ecd 5. 13; perish 72K Nu 17. 27 Jcs 57. 1 Job 18. 17 Eccl 7. 15 r pxi 
Jes 57. 1 ; disappear 72X IS 9. 3 Mich 7. 2 X2J Job 2° 8 - 

4>dtyv6uj — poet, for 4>8lvu>, waste away 72X Jcr 4. 9 ; decay 72X Jon 
4. io;perish 72X Nu 17. 27 Jcs 57. 1 Job 18. 17 Ecci 7. 15 JU; as an 
imprecation 73X Jud 5. 31 Job 3. 3, 

^otQwetv—make perish 72X IIR 1 1. 1 Ps 1 19. 95 ~"2Xn Lev 23. 30 
Nu 24. 19 -iLjl; dTTotfCvui—make perish "iZH IIR :i. 1 TSXH Lev 23. 
30NU24. ig; destroy 72X IIR 13. 7, 21. 3 -^'- 

Kara6dl(Aj, -tw'tfoj — ram, destroy 73X IIR 1 3. 7, 2 1. 3 -V ! . 

<£oi7a£aj, -au, -ri£cu — £0 fo and fro, backwards cr.d forwards; roar: 
wildly about, wander 7ZX Lev 26. 38 Jes 27. 13 Jer 4. 9 Job 4. 1 1 
:-Nun.8 Job 1. 7 ccw Jer 5. 1 Am 8. 12 csTrr.rt Jcr 49. 3 r.vr 
Gn 21. 14,37. 15 J« 2I -4 (cf. Jer 4. 9) Ps 107. 4, :ig. 176 .U. 

<potra> — roaming wildly about, wandering 72X Dt 26. 5 Jer 50. 6 Ez 34. 
4 Ps 119. i76Prv3i.6Job4. 11,29. I 3» 3 1 - 19 "^^ST- 15EX23.4. 

.^iStjj or aOTjr — the nether world, place of departed spirits 77-X 
Prv 27.. 20 p733X Job 26. 6; I-itSov ot/njrtyp, cf one dead *?" 'zrr 
Jes 38. 11; pv Gn 2. 8 Ez 28. 13 ^.xr Dt 32. 22 Jes 14. 9, 20. :3 
tjt.xt Ps 9. 18 *\ -'- a^IjJI -juVI ; /A* frc;-£, c'/-A r-zs Ps 8S. 12 rx- 
IIS 22. 6 Hos 13. 14; '4:&6aSc, Adv. to the nether wcrld 77Xr Gn 37. 35 
Jes 7. 11. 

,1 

crSio? — everlasting, eternal 73? Hab 3. 6 o-V 1 ; «V dtoiov, for e:er 
" TS ? Jcs 30. 8 "X '73; Nu 24. 20 ynzx-73; job 31. 12 73,-73: 

Ps 132. 12 J4 jIJ! '-*■•; aiSicus, eternally 73.7 Ps 2!. 5. 119. 44. 

>!r5aik«u? — lengthened poetical form of 3i3?>-, "733K Pp.- 27. 20 
]1733X Ps88. 12 Job 26. 6, 28. 22 ]73? Gn 2. 8 Ez 28. 13 »-^'l. 

d<l, Aeolian a«», ci>;, Boeotian iji, Epic, Ionic, Poetic and czriy 
Attic aUl, Doric i«'r, aUs—ever, always T.L' Jcr 3:. 20 mo; ; (eW) =«/ 
a*.'!*' now ("r.V; 7> Gn 32. 5; aUl *ore, -on frzm of old !X7 Jcs 
45. 21 Ps 93. 2; o aUi every one ?*X bz Ex 35. 2! ; alii for eier 7".r 
Lev 27. 20 7i' Ex 1 5. 1 3 73fi lb. ; to del eternity 7X Ps 36. 7 7? Hab 3. 6 
(cf. <i\7 ,l ?X/117) 72X Nu 24. 20 -^t ; « dft xpovoj 73."? Ps 19. 10 733X *73.- 
Nu 24. 20 73;" , 7S Ps 83. 18 -^V'^ 1 [The Dictionary goes on to say: 
'The statement of Harp, that del ~ ea>s in Ait. is based on misinter- 
pretation of such phrases as isrovSe aiciTOKTrdAf^oi/Thucydides 1. 18. _. 

Here are the homologies of «co?(B), Epic €i*cy?, -70?, Dor. ds, Aeo. as, 
Boeotian Js and ows — relative particle, expressing the point of Time 
up to which an action goes, with reference to the end of the action, until, 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 3 : 9 

till ; or to its continuance, while : until, till "IV, Tiy ; I. av or ** with Sub- 
j unctivc (mostly of aorist) , of an event at an uncertain future time UK "73 
Gn 24. 33 *3 13 lb 49. 10 "UTS Jud 5. 7 Cant 2. 7, 1 7 ; <\ J r < //// the 
time when r.3"l» IIS 24. 15 Ji* ; «. <ty c ' (<> d<£<) /ifl /a/* ri2~ TV Jud 3. 
25; e. apri till now nny 13 Dt 12. 9; €. -n-pajt' 101/1/ morning np2"137 Ex 
12. 10 ip2~~"73 Jud 19. 25; u-A&, so long as Tiu IIS 1. 9 Job 27. 3 
Esth 6. 14 Dan 9. 20. 

Since pT2X 117 means eV atSiov, it obviously follows that 
p~72X means dt8ios, everlasting, eternal. Again, as p"THX is 
identical with AiScuvevs, so must also diBios be. The syllogism is 
impeccable. 

The above analytical recital shows : (1 ) That the radical 1 2 X 
involves four different Greek verbs, none of which is ISeiv, 
(2 J that one of them, a.6a-AL ) oj t means primarily 'to make un- 
seen ' i (3) ^ at one of the derivatives of this verb homolosizes 
with ]~T2X and «:>ljl, and not with ]V"QN or «-^l ; (4) that even if 
]T»2i< and 3 ju I had been variants of ]~nX and 9 *'J\ respectively, 
they would have indicated 'extermination, destruction', not 
occuliciion; 5) that the phrase ]T72N~1i; — like T2X "TS; 
^^l^j!, !-.!— homologizes with eV dt&iov ; ;6} that ]112S and 
"TUX are genuine homologies of XzSwvevs and AiSrj;; and 
{7; that these two Greek words denote eternity. 

Complete confirmation of this well-founded conclusion comes 
from the weighty evidence supplied by four synonymous phrases — 
ail euphemisms for 'cemetery' : two biblical. £bv£ rP2 Eccl 12. •"> 
ZT\ fix Ez 32. 23, 32, and the other two — though not to be 
tound m the Bible — are not necessarily pest-bibiical in origin, 
namely: CT'nri m and ]^7y IT3. l'TiH ITU is supposed 
to mean 'the abode of the living'; and it might plausibly be ex- 
plained that a cemeter\- is so described to indicate the continuity 
of life hereafter. 

Fortunately, however, QTI37 Gn 3. 22, and XC^I? Dan 2. 20 
and "p2"7y lb 2. 4 are biblical terms of no uncertain meaning, 
and they give a clue to the true meaning of D'Ti in the third 
phrase. In fact, ftt^y is a variant of Xft^V Dan 2. 20, 44 and 
plural of D7y Dan 3. 33 which— like its Hebrew equivalent, 
OTIS? Ps 90. 2 or, more accurate!?, U^V IlCh 33. 7 (which 



320 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

happens to be the Ashkenazi pronunciation of D^li?) — is the 
homologue of WAoj, end. This is in agreement with the Septua- 
gint's rendering of IJD^iy D^'^K by «j oUov al<l>vot a6roO^- 
that is, to his eternal abode — and with dloiot 0U01 (eternal homes), 
i.e. 'tombs'. In fact, the context in Gn 3. 11 suggests that 727 
QTin means 'the tree of eternity'. 

As to Q" n n, it is the homologue of aliLv in its various meanings : 
period of existence D*T! Gn 3. 14 Eccl 9. 9 -^ ; lifetime lj"m 

Lev 18. 18 ZL^; life O^il Dt 30. 19 pH job 24. 22 Dan 7. 12 
aL^. ; eternity WTi Gn 2. 9 Ps 30. 0; space of time clear! y 
defined and marked out 7CU Gn 18. 10 *u IS 25. G ,U { year., 

0M1 iJljl (season) ; as tide of various divine beings TI Gn 16. 14 
IIR 19- 4 Dan 12. 7 C'Tl Dt 5. 23 Jer 10. 10 bx~'ij Job 27. 2 
K"H Dan 6. 27. 

Tnerefore, according to the Bible, as well as to ancient Jewish 
tradition, the dead explicitly pass on to an eternal abode, and 
the belief is Greek. 

THE N'EW TESTA ME N'T 

Ll'II. The names of l Scez-a' and 'Thomas' can be explained b\ n; 
the or/. 

Whatever my qualifications to interpret the Old Testament 
may be, I have no pretension to be able to interpret the New 
Testament; although I am not altogether unacquainted wit;: 
this part of Israel's gift to mankind. But I have reason to believe 
that my theory sheds some light on at least two names mentioned 
in it, viz. Nathancel and Sceva. 

7»Cr] ^Nu :. 8} may be the equivalent, not the homoiocue. 
oi dioSoros or t?€ocr5oroi [given by God) — just as IVir;! IIR 25. 23 
may be die equivalent of JloSotos or Jtc'cfioroj- given by J^exs . 
It is vital to appreciate that die names are ^Kir.2 and IT'ir.j, not 
7XI7U and H^nj; for ]71J may be either die construct of ]?!, 
the synonym of ^1)72 and homologue of S<2>pov (gift, present, gift of 
honour; votive gift or offering to a god), or the homologue of Zhvov 
(gift) and variant of ]73. This interpretation would imply that 
the bearer of either name had been prayed for by, and was 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 321 

granted as a gift to, his parents. Yet the names arc susceptible of 
an alternative and more likely interpretation : eidier of them mav 
mean 'a gift', 'a votive offering', by his parents to God, in recog- 
nition of the divine favour. In diat case, ^Kjil] would be 
equivalent to dvddrjfxa. Now John 21. 2 reads; 

Tjcav ouov Eifiajv rierpos , Kal Qtufids 6 \cyQfjL€\'o$ JiSu/xos-, Kal Na8avai)X 
o ctto hai-d tt)$ TaAtAauxs*, Kal ol rou ZVScSaiou, >cai aAAoi £k t<1)v 
tuidrjrdjy airrov SJo. 

In my diffident submission, the punctuation is deceptive : there 
ought to be no comma after Ji'5t//xoy, as I think diat Thomas had 
two other names, Didymus and Nathanael, I suggest that his 

original name was ^KiTu, and that — in their attempt to trans- 
late it to the Greeks — the Jews used such words as SeSouevo? 
{given) and dvddrjfia (a votive ojfering; a slave in a temple), which 
were perverted to JtSiyio* and B&u&s respectively. 

In support of my theory, I would refer to two texts in the Old 
Testament and two others in die New. Samuel was prayed for 
and dedicated to the sen-ice of God in die Tabernacle at Shiloh 
TS 1. 11, 28;- Moreover, in ICh 9. 2 DTjij is translated in the 
Septuagint by ol SeSoueVoi, Z"-*TJ being laymen dedicated to 
serve in die Temple (Esr 3. 20;. Then mark die similarity of 
reaction in two different contexts bv Nathanael and Thomas 
remembering diat 'Rabbi' is identical widi 'Lord'. 

'Nathanael answered him. Rabbi, thou art the Son of God ; thou 
art King of Israel' (John 1. 49'. 

'Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God* 
(lb 20, 28}. Cf. Mark 3. 13-19. 

As to Sceva, Acts ig. 14 reads: 

~cay Ct Tir'oz Sk€uq. ' lovdalov ZDXLtptcjs errrd viol rovro —otovi'Ttz. 

It is spelt Sceva in the Vulgate, while it is respectiveiv rendered 
nj[PO and lj<L- in the Hebrew and Arabic translations. Neidier 
of these two renderings resembles any Hebrew word, any more 
1 ban Sceva or Hkzvcl seems to do. However, those acquainted 
witii my homological Propositions will not be slow in seeing 
through the disguise of -T<€va the true faces of I?5?? or ni7Z127 and 
its homologue, Irrrd. For according to them, ok— as a digraph — 
is equivalent to 27, and so is the spiritus asper; v is equivalent 

6034 C?7 M 



3 22 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

to 3, and so is tt; a is equivalent to V or H^ ; while r drops. So 
it seems that the priest concerned was nicknamed 'seven 1 because 
of the number of his sons. Indeed, this must have been fhe 
reason for mentioning the fact that he had 'seven' sons, which 
number is otherwise irrelevant. 

On the other hand, the fact that he had seven sons may have 
been sheer coincidence, and his real name may well have been 

2J22? (x^), after the rebel who fought against the resumption of 

the kingdom by David when its brief usurpation by Absalom had 
collapsed (IIS 20. 1). Vet that would not affect my reading of 
Ixevd, although the homologue would then be okv^vqs {lions 
whelp) instead of ^a, thus: okjV, u/ hJ /x/2, volov, o/_, v ; L\ 

Curiously enough, the rebel's name is rendered Za3*£ in the 
Scptuagint and Seba in the Vulgate. 



THE KORAN 

LVIIL A Greek word which occurs in the Karen car. only be explained 
through the. Bible. 

Hebrew is my mother tongue, but .Arabic was spoken in my 
paternal grandfather's house, and Ladino or Sephardi a: my 
maternal grandfather's. Besides, I heard Arabic all round me in 
my native Jerusalem and in Cairo, where we lived for eight years. 

Indeed, at one time I knew two oUL*w {among many poems) and 
about half the Koran by heart ; so that Arabic is not foreign to me. 
My remote ancestors, too, were familiar with Arabic; but the 
Sephardi they knew was Spartan, and their Ladino was not La::r. 
but Attic. For the Children of Israel maintained contact with 
their maritime as well as their land kindred Jud 6. 1 IR 10. 15 
Ob 20 Jon 1. 3 IlCh 1 7- 1 1}, and mere was a mutual love-hatred 
between them. The Midianites (pe<TTjp3pLv6$) raided the Land 
of Israel (Jud 6. i), and the Aramites ruled over it for a time 
(lb 3, 8) ; while the Philistines were a thorn in the side of Israel. 
However, King David changed all that: his armies established a 
base on the Euphrates (IIS 8. 3), and a governorate in Damascus 
(IIS 8. 3, 6) ; they carried out a systematic genocide in Edom 
(IR 11. 15, 16), and subdued the Moabites and the Philistines 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 323 

(IIS 8. i, 2). Arab princes brought Solomon (and Jehoshaphat) 
tribute (IR 10. 15 IICIi 9- 14, 17. 1 1), and the Queen of Shcba 
paid him a State visit (IR 10. 1-2) while his and his ally Hiram's 
ships used Aden as their port of call on their voyages to East 
Africa (lb 10. 22). But throughout the Assyro-Babylonian crises 
which resulted in the Captivities, the Syrians and the Phoenicians 
in the north, the Philistines and the desert-dwellers in the south, 
joined the enemies of Israel (Jer 35. 11 Joel 4- 4-6 Ps 137. 7). 
Nevertheless, the Midianites never molested the shrine of Shiloh, 
and Israelites settled in Arabia (as they did in Greece) ; so that 
the priests of Apollo at Mecca — even if they did not maintain 
regular intercourse with the priests in Jerusalem — must have 
been conversant with their laws, customs, and way of life generally. 
Of this there is ample and clear evidence in the Koran, Part of 
that evidence is philological ; and it is not less convincing because 
it has lain there unsusoected for fourteen hundred vears. 

Now I am no more Qualified to comment on the Koran than 
I am to comment on the New Testament; but here, too, my 
theory helps to explain a: least four puzzling words that occur 

in it and nowhere else. Thev are : LjU and , l_*^ -Sura CV, The 

Elephant), j^^ [Sura CXI I 3 The Unity), and o«Ji {Sura II, The 
Cow), in alphabetical order. The first three are easily disposed of: 
, LjL! is the homologueoi -gllttoAuj, very great, large, or numerous] 
Jl-j^L-, I submit, is the homologue of diayov, a variant of deiov 
(A) : brimstone] and j^? — akin to HH?p^ Lev 25. 23, 30— is that 
of dddwiTQs: undying, immortal; iu.-<[8aj$: permanently (W). Here 
they are in their inimitable settings : 



> + „ 

1 ~ 


O 1- O t 

1 


a -t 

r" • 


^-* - 




& > 


: <~ 7 


-1 

1 




* ^ 

1 ' 1 


1 


1 




" 
^ 1 


4 








I 


i^jt 

> 1 


> * ~ * - - 




* 


» / ^ • *>* 

cf r-> 


>■ / 

1 . jJ*j 


$ 


4>* 




> * 1 

* 


* - i * > / 





3 2 4 XV. MONOGRAPHS 

OjJlL, however, is in a class apart. Its context is no guide to its 
far-fetched homophonous Greek homologuc, reXeirraios. What is 
more, one cannot get to it outside the context of the Bible "as 
a whole. The way I came by this homology is so characteristic 
of my method, and so relevant to the evolution and effectiveness 
of my theory, that I feel I must report it, if only briefly. 

Traditionally oJll. is the Arabic for bMx& t and the context 
accords with the biblical account and confirms the tradition. 
But since the Arabic alternative to TiX~ is phonetically un- 
accountable, I wondered whether it might have some semantic 
affinity to the Hebrew name which I — in common widi every- 
body else — thought was the original, an affinity that would show 
up in a Greek homologuc. This suspicion crept into my mine 
when my research had led me to two conclusions: one, that 
because of its vast vocabulary, the isolation of die Arabs by 
and within their desert fastness, and the further conservation cf 
their language through their deep attachment to tradition. 
Arabic claimed a wider — though not closer — relationship to 
Greek than Hebrew did, so that it had many more Greek 
homologies than Hebrew had. while Greek had a verv much 
larger number of Arabic than Hebrew homologues ; the other, 
that although Mahomet — like other .Arabs before him — was 
obviouslv influenced bv biblical and rabbinical accounts ar.c 
concepts, he undoubtedly spoke Arabic, even as Moses had spoken 
Hebrew, whatever the proximate or remote origin or origins o: 
the words they uttered. Therefore, I shifted the investigation 
from o JU> on to 71X*, and tried to hnd the equivalents in Greek 
of 'requested' and 'borrowed' — apart from the homologies con- 
nected with 7X2/ ('"7Kr 'alriut Jud 5. 25, "/"Xy T^/xeVci IIR 6. 5 ; 
n'TK^/arrTj/ia IR 2. 16, '"715\S7>t'n;rd i * IS 9. 2;— in the hope of 
discovering a word which would homologize with oJ'i. I drew 
blank, except that incidentally I came across — s.:\ dp-q-ro^: prayed 
for, desirable — *4p-qro<; (o»l*) and Ap^rq t proper nouns, the Prayed 
for. This proved that the Greeks had the equivalent of *71Xt? for 
women as well as for men, and confirmed the biblical reason for 
the name — that the parents of its bearer had longed and prayed 
for his birth (IS 1.17, 20, 27 IIR 4. 28). 

This prompted me to study individually the four different 



XV. MONOGRAPHS 325 

Sauls in the Bible, and what I detected was decisive. For one of 
them — die first king of Israel — was an only child (IS 10. 21 
ICh 8. 33, 9. 39) ; another was the Benjamin of the brood 
(Gn 46. 10 Ex 6. r 5 ICh 4- 24) ; while the remaining two were 
indeterminate. Hence, the finding of reXtvraios {l&st) and 
Tr]Xvy€Tos (old Ep. epith.j of children, pf uncertain origin and 
sense ; sometimes clearly of a darling son, petUd child ... so of an 
only son. The best of the ancient interpretations is laUst-born 7 
i.e. after whom no more are bom . . . including only children, these 
being the best-beloved) was practically automatic. 

Consistently with this concept, the Septuagint renders "TiV 
by dyaTTTjros in Gn 22. 2, 12, 16 Jer 6, 26 Am 8. 10 Zach 12. 10; 
and by ayaTrcLuevos in Prv 4. 3 ; elsewhere literally by p-ovoyevrfi. 

The significance of this discovery — the result of determined 
and sustained efforts to ascertain and proclaim the truth — cannot 
be overrated. It establishes beyond doubt that the word o JlL 
is a genuine, independent , Arabic word, that it was known to the 
Arabs to be an alias of *71XT; and that bv Mahomet's time its 
meaning had been forgotten — like that of VV?, also an only 
child. The implication is inescapable that knowledge of the Bible 
is essential to the understanding of the language of the Koran. 
Because the marriage contracted by Moses not only resumed the 
contact first made by the Fathers with their Scythian neighbours, 
but also developed in the course of time into regular social 
intercourse between their descendants — raids, treacheries, wars, 
tortures, among other manifestations of mutual love-hatred, not- 
withstanding — over a period approaching two thousand years ; 
indeed, down to the advent of Islam, when the Jewish com- 
munities in Arabia were wiped out, the remote Yemenite 
excepted. 

The following is laid down in Deuteronomy 19, 15; *E -; 7!" 

~!" H*p" C"73J - nC? •£ *D~727 IX D^"Ti7 "'I^. Let, then, two 
witnesses sufnee — although they do not stand alone, if corrobora- 
tive evidence counts — further to support my contention: the 
books of Ruth and Job, Ruth, the great-grandmother of King 
David, was a Moabite — as Uriah was a Hittite (ZWv^y) — and 
Job, one of the outstanding philosophers of antiquity, lived in 
*p!7 ]HK (which, there are strong indications, was Northern 



t • *■ « 



Arabia) long before J I ^ M 



326 

XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

The disguise whereby a simple Greek word is passed off as 
a Hebrew one is mainly of four kinds: the addition of a letter 
or syllable to the Greek word, the elimination of one or more 
of its letters and/or syllables, metathesis, and/or a patchwork 
camouflage contrived by exchanged letters and/or varied vocali- 
zations — so that at the end of the process the Greek word often 
becomes almost unrecognizable at first sight, both phonetically 
and morphologically: e.g. -arrfc/^N, SL-vcro^'ucS/ajv/p^TK, Sepcr 

*vVAos77l7|, xa*Aeixu/n /!"!, Saos^OXT, Kou7j ; ri~TiQT, ScLpowTl**:*, 
evr^po^/mn, Kcyo^/DiPi, dpiOfittufY^*, KoaTj.riD^D, Kcrcxpoco- 

* - - - 

M i lil/n liu/i J, uirraxosv -,i;i, trpaoojti/ L/ j* i. 

This complex philological masquerading is further complicated 
in two ways: on one hand, the same Hebrew letter may mask 
a variety of Greek letters, digraphs, diphthongs, both the spiritus 
asper and the spiritus lenis ; on die other hand, any of these may 
be masked by more than one Hebrew letter or vocalization : e.g. 

yfjpRy yrj5uAAtV/*?S3, dy€tp<jji mm \li\ J Btadc^ : ^"T, dyarr dw t — nK, 
rrcjywvjGiaywv; h/\, y-ayo$v_;/Mj yevcj L^L\ yapppa$j 1_— , y£ .,, 
yvyat7j/i't,'f/n^7, dy^cj pIH, y«poi> ; "mnO, yfu^cj 0?-U } ycjvic 
i3, aycpaisv^a^/vpi^/i > 1^", y£waw ; 'i l-i]/, yaATJnj/i n /w, po^_ 
mKJ, YViQvjTl^lj S^Aocu/n^i, Ki><£o's7]5i> AJo/xatOKJi, rof a-UiV/ETS, 
7ro/a£aj/TU, Wro^/nr^A, <^cpvyf/]ni, o^^tj/iTTJ, u</rdaj/n2S, B<ifrn; 
"IKI^, dyaTra ^aj/^Dn, CKOtrds'/npl^, a^T/Tor/ClE?, ari6o^;T^ m S 9 
ottj^os'/I^, areAAai/Ti /E?, Afi'^a;/Tjn?/pp7, ev^/7l2^/]p, dya:rd£uj/ 
2HX, dyafUit/Eiy, owtta/DC7, cup«ai/*"in2, eSof/DnH, cB6$ TnH, 

€Trrdpj2v y dTrrw/nnnnrn/nDD/nny, 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 327 

Hebrew homologies are of four kinds: simple, compound, 
hybrid, and mixed, primary and secondary. 

Those comprised in the first and second categories respec- 
tively homologize with simple and compound Greek words, 
e.g. 2\Z?'n/^^t^cu, "yDTyjiefiTaifrq^L^uj, nD^n?3/n2EnO/</nj<£icr/ia; 
UnirtTll-CLpanvdtopcu, "ttWlj-apafivfyTtKOs; yWi'^WjcrTpeSuj, 

rii>*l 72jopa.ua. 

The hybrid homologies incorporate the affixes of the Greek 
word, including -Ccj, or combine more than one Greek 
word, e.g. 01 /Ujopapa, ^Dn/aya7ra£a>, ""ID 3/ Kara— pauvu*. ~)i"i3/ 
KaraKpodouai, nniD/ra 'o'£a, 071X aAA' ovv. 

The mixed category includes: (a) verbs with the built-in 

M.V. 3 and their derivatives, e.g. 7nj/*Aiipoo, r\~/~l')<\fjpo<>, 

'■/Dl'-tTrrcj, 7D2nri/rrpoc7-; (4) verbs on the scale 7^2"" which 

homologize with simple Greek verbs, e.g. Ipnr.njcpxofia.t, 
CnirnTWuj; [c) simple verbs (extremely few) which homolo- 
gize with compound Greek verbs, mostly with prepositions 
rrapa-, ~po-, ~pou-, e.g. -CLpa&i&cjp.ii'll'* , -rrpocrrl^rjui rC; and [d] 

such verbs as are followed by the personal pronoun in the 

dative case, e.g. ' 1 7 ^K.'Ipx^M* 11 - 

.As to the Hebrew homologues of Greek derivatives and com- 
pounds, they usually preserve the original letters of the simple 
Hebrew homologues, and their forms fall into four different 
categories : 

The first, the hybrid, comprises words which reproduce the 
Greek derivatives and compounds as if they were simple words, 
C.e. €>jOltS"m2\ aKOuoot *\sx, qlkovqos * J h' x , €— ;yoi/vt> mi-,. 

The second comprises words which follow Hebrew gram- 
matical constructions, e.g. ayaTnjTOsj^nXy SaveiCTr'sSi?]. 

The third category comprises words the construction of which 
follows directly the Greek forms, e.g. opauajW]*??}, pvoiov[7\2~}12! 

rn-jy, xo^/D , ^5/.^/^ D 3/ ^D ^/ u / ^0 / ^ ^ n P■ ; oL J: / ,D ^^. ,, 
main, opcw/n^/ryisn. 

The founh comprises words the construction of which follows 
indirectly the Greek forms, by having as a prefix the equivalent 
of the Greek suffix of the homologue concerned, e.g. opapaj 



328 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

nxift, opaots/ri^^, s<w/rni2?fi, dirTawo^rinnn, xpvp^I 

In the result, farcical situations would inevitably arise, unFess 
strict precautions were taken, and great care was exercised, in 
scrutinizing each disguise, and studying the processes of form- 
construction and literal replacements of each homologue, in 
faithful conformity to my empirical rules or Propositions of tried 
efficacy. 

Obviously, each homologue must stand on its merit or fall by its 
defect. It must speak for itself, and speak precisely and clearly: 
no stretching of points, no interpretations, no commentaries. 
Either die word in question bears a definite meaning which fits, 
or it does not* A doubtful homologue is discarded or put aside for 
further consideration; to a likely one, tests are applied and the 
homology is kept under review until finally approved or aban- 
doned. But few false homologies can survive such scrutiny. 

Now it hardlv needs statin? diat a Hebrew word that conforms 
to all the rules of phonetics and morphology, in relation to a similar 
Greek word, cannot — by these two qualifications alone — claim 
to homologize with it. If it could, we would have such mon- 
strosities as droves "pr.X, aroro?/|nn, Or dravoc ]Ej7. 

Nor could a Hebrew word that bore the same meaning as i 
Greek word, for that reason alone claim to be its homologue. 
Otherwise, anv Hebrew word would homoloeize with all the 
Greek words of its own meaning. This would be impossible be- 
cause synonyms in the same language are mostly of different 
sound, form, shade of meaning and origin one from the other. 

To qualify as hcmologues, such two words must not only 
relate as to sound and form, but also share the same meaning, 
e.g. nS7/dpeyaj. 

Yet two such acoustically and formally similar words might 
frequently coincide in meaning as well, without attaining homo- 
logical status, except in a certain context. This is obviously the 
case where homonyms are concerned ; and there are many hitherto 
unsuspected homonyms in die Bible, e,g. 73m or 72n, the homo- 
logies of which differ according to context. Thus: 

SoAtj, tj } pangs or throes of childbirth Jes 13. 8, 66. 7; xara£oAii, tj, 
throwing down : hence, esp. of begetting Job 39. 3 ; periodical attack of 
illness, jfr Ps 18. 5; 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 329 

dyxaMs, t), pi., arms Jer 38. 12; 

a/^^eAoy, 17, measure of length = 20 iraAaiaTcu (palm, four fingers' 
breadth) IIS 8. 2 ; yi^r, o, a measure of land Am 7. 17 ; 

1*777705:, o, Aor.v; KajidW^s, o, rca^, Latin caballus; KeX-qs. o, courser , riding- 
horse, horse Ez 27. 24 J^- ; 

k^cAtj, 77, ijflrf of men ; or vt<i>o$ 3 ro, metaph., j c/oud of men IS 10. 5; 

tfofAo*, tj, o^, of Places, /yi/?^ in a hollow or forming a hollow, k. AaK^halficuv 
the uale of L., k. O^guojXlt} Zach 2.5,*. slpyos -i"^X ^IH Dt 3, 4, as 
proper noun, K. Zvpta the district between Lebanon and Anti- 
Lebanon Dt 3. 4; cf. kvBqs die, 77<L\os lot Dt 32. 9 Ps I 6. 6 ; 

i'*o£Vrj, *h*fine bird- net, in pi. ; \-rjA7j, 77, net, plait Ps 140. 6 Job 18. 10 ; 

Jrr,W, rd, a ship's tackle, tackling; esp. ro/>*J, halyards, etc. Jes 33. 23; 
generally, any ropes Jos 2. 15 Jcr 38. 1 1 ; v. xi^Vi P* 3 r 5- 

On rare occasions even the formal, acoustic, semantic, and 

contextual conformity of a Hebrew word with its Greek equiva- 
lent will not suffice to cualifv them to constirute a proper 
homology', e.g. UUV-apa-tcaMouai. To be considered definitely 
sound, a homology must — in addition to fulnlHne n!I these re- 
quirements — pass one or more tests, each of which qualifies as 
a touchstone by virtue of two characteristics : iti independence of 
either of the two words constituting die homology, and its 
capacity to connect them to each other in a certain material 
particular, e.g. ]pTD.pcocv:V (Jud 8- 7). This homology is con- 
firmed beyond a shadow of doubt by an ancient Greek custom. 

The word ]p""l- occurs twice, both times in the fame chapter 
and in similar contexts, that is, Jud 8. 7 and :5. On the two 
occasions the Septuagint bypasses the difficulty of translation by 
transliteration ; whereas the Lexicon states that the rcot or the word 
is unknown, and explains CIp"l!2 as briars. It quotes authorities 
who opine that Q^2pT2 means ' threshing sledges furnished with 
sharo ■' zliaering) stones' — suDUOsine the root to be ;7^2. the 
homologue of which Is £6crpvxo$. In fact, there is clear evidence 
of such a contraption in the homologue i^lEVsryaVn: tribula 
[a thrashing sledge with sharp pieces of flint or with iron teeth) 
IIS 24. 22 Jes 41. 15 ICh 21- 23. However, the Ben Yehuda 
Dictionary — which states that ]p*n is a kind of thorn — rightly 
considers the said supposition to be far-fetched. 

However, in the first verse ]p13 is associated with die verb 
Cn~T, and in the second with the verb X7T 1 . The Lexicon resorts to 



33 o XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

the familiar and facile slander that the text suffers from a clerical 
error: it should read S?T*. instead of **Tn. Once more Greek 
homology vindicates the authenticity of the record and the-rc- 
liability of the scribes. 

The homologuc of 2H1 is 8atLu>, and that of I7T is t'Soj, a 
non-extant verb meaning to see . (second aorist tlbov) and to know 
(perfect otBa). It belongs to the mixed class of verbs, sharing 
tenses in the first meaning with 6pdu>, and in the second with 
YtyvtuoKtii. Of eiSoi in die first meaning die r.omoiogue is i* i JJt 
34. 10; otherwise, **T — like yiyvwoKtu — means to knew G:: 
4. 9, and to know carnally lb 4. 1 Jud 3. to. The identity 
of these Hebrew and Greek homoiogues is reinforced by the 
identity of relevant Hebrew and Greek expressions. Thus 
iTTcy, Boeotian, 'crrcu, 3 per. sg. imper. of oi3a, esp. in the phrase 

frrw Z«uV, <«tf be witness/ Cf. WD2 711"". "717 IS 12. 5; ictoj :<•* 
Z(.vs auTo's- Iliad 10. 329, now be my witness Z £US nimself\ Beol z' 
i-l fLdprvpoi Zgtuv Odjssey I. 273, and let the god: be tke witnesses; 

cf. *jT3* T2 ~V* 2*"'**^ riKi Gn 31. 50; LT7V ~yc x*r 
cssri Ex 5. 2:; -1*7 c:*"* mn* *:~x •-** Mich 1. 2; x**.* 
nrn vpn-nx --7X ich 12. 18; -riv*. -;-* st nc:~ 24. 

22. Moreover, the participle ci'Scir means cr.e who knows, cr.e 
acquainted with the fist, one skilled in; cf. C*r**i"i **J"T* Esth :. 13. 

As to the homology C'-pin/pacWo? itself, it raises two prob- 
lems which can easily be solved : die interchange between the 
spiritus asper and - r and that between 6 and p. The first inter- 
change occurs in dialectal Greek, e.g. ppc., Aeolian for p<£; 
3pa&iov (i.e. rpc.Biov), Aeolian for pahiov. zpaZoluJs, Aeolian tor 
p'cSiwy; SpaSn-oy, Aeolian for pad-.vos: zpc.Kf.rpcv, Aeolian :or 

paxi-rpov \ j3paxo s -. Aeolian for paKOS] zpardvav. pardvav: sptves, 
'pivdj; 5pi'Co, Aeolian for p/:<i; Bpddov, Aeclian for pJSo^-; fet-r;'?. 
Aeolian forpimV; £j , - : x €ll ';P t ^X €tl '> 1 7^ ios 'j ^-tA:c> i.e. a.--:, besides, 
consider the homologies, pTJrpa (f par pa) .7**12 and tjAioj. /i-. 
Regarding die interchange between p and 9, let die doubie- 
homology <fx>ivi£r??-^*p. suffice as an example. 

Yet however sound these diree homologies may appear when 
standing separately and independently of each other, they fail to 
support each other — or so it seems — when conjoint. For how on 
earth could radishes be related to 'piercing* and/or 'carnal 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 331 

knowledge*? In the event, an old Greek custom provides an 
unbreakable link between them. In ancient Athens adulterers 
used to be punished by having a radish (presumably of enormous 
carrot shape and size, the kind still cultivated in Israel — pa'077, 
p<L6a) thrust up dieir fundament (.Aristophanes, Xubes 1083). 

It does not need a great deal of imagination to visualize the 
cruel torture to which the inhospitable elders of Succoth were 
subjected when victorious Gideon returned to vent his threatened 
vengeance on them. By the light of this Greek custom, the two 
verses concerned become probatively complementary, each con- 
taining a verb (£n*7, 17*7*} which matches a particular meaning 
of the other verb (piercing, knowing carnally;, although both 
verbs are susceptible of more than one meaning. Obviously, the 
peculiar way of piercing rendered the use of radishes more 
humiliating, if less painful, than the use of thorns. No doubt, both 
thorns and radishes were emoloved to achieve the maximum 
mental and physical pain. 

Another way of punishing marital infidelity among trie ancient 
Greeks was by means of scorpions (Plato. Ccmiras 173. 21 ■. 
Which recalls another incident in the history of Israel, and con- 
firms the homology exop-tor ; -TpI7 IR 12. :: ::oro:cn. 

Thus in each case an ancient Greek custom has served as an 
ideal rest whereby to corroborate the homologies concerned. For 
it is independent of the homologues involved, while linking them 
together by a common usage. It appears thai those who fail to 
support their leader in distress, as well as those who betray their 
new king, incur the penalties reserved for disloyal spouses. Hence 
the scorpions and the radishes — adding the thorns for good 
measure. 

A third relevant custom worth recalling is referred to in Mich 
7. 10; although Homer 'Iliad 1. 314) uses cL\>. the homclogue of 
n7ijj ? and not aA^/M*/!^. This ritual continues to be solemnlv 
performed by the Jews once a year. 

Lastly, but not of least interest, is the jJC^ — the customary 
dance at the Baalbek Festival — a homologue of 77 Bdxxvlv Ba*xk 
Or tcl Bd<x€ta. 

However, there is seldom such a custom at hand wherewith to 
back up an homology. Fortunately, no less than eight tests are 
available, whereby it is possible systematically to determine — or 
at least to help to determine — the soundness of Graeco-Hebraic 



332 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

homologies. We may, therefore, lay down die following Proposi- 
tion: — 

L1X. It is not enough for a Hebrew word to ccco-d in form, sot/hd 
and sense with a Greek word to become its rightful homologue; the 
provisional homology must — in addition — pass one or more of the following 
tests: 

i. Comparison with other biblical homologues. 

2. The context. 

3. Comparison with Arabic homologues. 

4. Resemblance in more than one meaning. 

5. Resemblance of derivatives. 

6. Semantics, 

7. The Septuagint. 
3* The supreme test. 

I. Comparison with other biblical homologies. Comparing any 
homologue in hand with another biblical homologue often has 
a decisive effect, e.g. ]H\V;ya\r}u6^. This homology is easily ex- 
plained by die phenomenon whereby certain letters — including 
A — drop out of Greek words in Graeco-Hebraic homology. Tha: 
this phenomenon has been operating here will readily be con- 
ceded when it is pointed out that the truant A keeps its place in a 

variant of |2X2 []cs 32. 9}, namely, ]2X7r job 2:. 23]. 

A similar homology is *-Wia/X03 (Esth 1. 2 , where the A has 
been absorbed by die wi"T in die 0. As a matter of fact, it turns 
up under the guise of"! in Aramaic XC*lw Dan 5. 20), which is 
confirmed by Arabic rv 5"'- Cf. ^ai-nj 'ITT^ Hri^. 

Somewhat different, but not less characteristic, is die homology 

C^-'<ioiraaj, The lengthened form of <~ Nu u. 8) is rCTT 
;Jer 5. 1} which homologizes with ootra^. the lengdicned form 
of ootracu. Compare these two homologies widi another oair — 
ayarrao>.''3nX and aya^acca/^Dn — where the H and D in die 
latter homology respectively replace the equivalents of the n and 
the 3 in the former. CS. nhlO, nnmn; rhCiET), nsnn. 

It happens that in order to make absoiuteiy sure that die homo- 
logy in hand is correct, one has to make more than one comparison 
e.g. mn/dSSort'iff. (LSwvts is crasis for 6 sl&cjvtSy and the pheno- 
menon of duplication— widespread in the Bible — suggests dia: 
7\lTt ^H is equivalent to p*IX ^H (Jer 22. 18). Since ]T7K is, 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 333 

in the context, the homologue of --ISan-t*, it is possible that HIT] 
is the right homologue of <L8<vvt$. This possibility is converted into 
a certainty by the conjunction of two facts: thru ]V72X (Prv 
15. 1 1) is homologous with rlrSon-ei/r, and that it is a variant of 
H12K (lb 27. 20), as ]niO is of V7IQ. 

Similarly, the homology Y\72T\(8dvaTos is confirmed by com- 
parison with other homologues, one Hebrew and die others 
Greek- To begin with, nmCH (Ps 79. 11; — another homologue 
of ddvaros — resembles TlCTi (Ez 8. 14), Then, some more sup- 
port may be got from the puzzling equation, dibcLvia = davdaua. 
For the first member of the equation resembles l-lcwla^ rd — 
mourning for Adonis, celebrated yearly by the Greek matrons. 
Whereas the second member seems to be the plural of davdetuov, 
the adjectival noun of daydauos which means belonging to the dead. 
Clearly, the mourning for Adonis bore a funereal character, 
and the women of Jerusalem used to bewail M^TTi, the death (of 
Adonis), after the fashion of their Hellenic sisters, holding a 
ritual session at the very gates of the Temple. 

It is obvious that one of the customarv cirrcs intoned at 
iunerals in ancient Israel was the lament on the death of Adonis, 
the refrain of which was: n~7l"i ^Hl p*TK "PI. Another was en- 
titled or began with the words, 'Alas, my brother sister' (Jer 
22. 1 3}. For three millennia the scene did not chance; for when 
I lived in Cairo sixty years ago, I attended several funeral parties 
a: which lured women mourners (cf. lb 9. :5"' rituahy whined 
and chanted traditional dirges adapted to suit the particular 
occasion, such as the death of a father or a mother, a young man 
or a maiden (cf. Ez 19. 14 IICIi 35. 25). Indeed, faithful to and 
in conformity witii such adaptation, the Septuagm: onlv trans- 
lates *!"ii< 'In — leaving out TIHX "Hm — to n: the lamentation of 
the male concerned, namely. King Jehoiakim ; just as the same 
lamentation is recorded in IR 13. 30, where it related to the 
punished prophet. There is, however, an old traditional dirge 

specially [or women, 7Ti P.^X, in the 31st chapter of tiie Book 
of Proverbs; and another for men, Ps 91. 

2. The context. The context is the best test for a genuine homo- 
logy, e.g. ]n2X/-r!rStui>ei?r. The Bible and Homer are at one, 
that the nether world is hidden from the sight of men. This is 
vividly expressed in Iliad 20. 61-5, with reference to the realm of 



334 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

Az8a>v€vs ; and made clear in Prv 15. n and Job 26. 6, with 
reference to plZlK. The homology suggests that the word 
AlSojveus originated among the Asiatic Greeks, although the* 
belief in TltSrjs was common to both European and Continental 
Greeks. 

The context is also a very good guide, leading to the accurate 
Greek homologue, where the meaning of a Hebrew word is 
obscure. In the absence of other clues, it informs one's guessing, 
where necessity not only warrants guessing, but al<o compels it. 
In the light shed by die context, one endeavours rirst to ascertain 
the Hkeiy meaning of the Hebrew word concerned, and then to 
find a Greek homologue that conforms to that meaning as well as 
being agreeable to the context, e.g. ^DHI in Cant 2. 7, 8. 4. 

Now I found it impossible to accept diat in :his setting % fE" 
could reasonably be related to dya-deca, seeing that die subject of 
Y DH was rDHi\, dydrrr}. So I set about getting the exact sense of 
each other word in die context. First, comDarin? the two verses, 
one observes that the relevant passages in both differ in one wGrd. 
In one, die passage runs: rDnxrmX miTriKi 1TLT"ZK 
J£rC-.? 117; in the other: nSnxrrnX mL7. r^l m™ 7Z 
Y~~7 : 3 "»^- I made up my mind that -X could not be a con- 
ditional conjunction, simply because the verse ended wid: the 
supposed protasis and there was no apodosis. .As :o 7\*2 } it might 
well have been an interrogative adverb, short for Ht7 ; but in tha: 
case, the character of the passage in this verse would unaccount- 
ably differ from the apparently identical passage :n d:e other verse. 
I came to die conclusion that here — as in Tug v 3 Prv 27. 2_i — 
2X has for homologue o£, and not d: and that — as in IR 12. 16, 
Jer3. 9, Prv 31. 2 (cf. 7X 1031. 3, 4 and IN lb.", HCh 10. 16— 
T\Z has for homologue uv, and not -olq$ or ri rprua. I had ions 
since established die homology egcy€ipu> TUH ^1\ so that I 
was now well equipped to cast about for the homologue of die 
isolated word, *f SH ; but no amount of conjecture availed, and I 
abandoned — or rather suspended — the speculative search. 

Then one day, while I was dealing with 16oj and iotyw as the 
respective homologues of Yd2 and ?2?3, I recalled the above 
passage. Some time later, while I was dealing with the homology 
c^ds/TDIN, I again remembered it. And that is how I came 
across the alternative or joint homologues of f Sn, €6B6w and «<ia>. 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 335 

Such accidental finds come about because of my habit of con- 
tinually murmuring to myself puzzling words and phrases, as I 
go along in my research, and one of them accidentally relates to 
the Greek word which happens to be under consideration. One 
enigmatic verse that I have tirelessly repeated to myself for 
years, without the benefit of such a -coincidence, is the last 
in the sixth chapter of Canticles. It is the penultimate in the 
N.E.B. ? and does not seem to have baffled its scholarly editors, 
who are not noted for their sensitivity to ticklish passages. 

Another example of contextual help is the ascertainment of the 
homologuc ofn7Q in Jes 51. 6. As a matter of fact, the homology 
n*7^:^€AazVoj was one of my earliest discoveries. It seemed plain 
enough to me that in the prophet's imagining the sky might be- 
come overcast and darken like smoke. Yet I had my reservations, 
cending die discovery of other words where the v changes into PL 
although at a pinch one might allow die diphthong to account 
for the H. In those early yean I was full of reservations, as indeed 
was my note-book full of provisional homologies many of which 
have been discarded. 

But die context not only heios to ascertain a genuine homo- 
loguc or :o confirm a sound homology; it also determines die re- 
jection of a plausible one. An example in point is a compound 
o\ ^cAgiVcu — namely, i-iutXc-ivouai — which means, of fruit, 
hlackin in ripening. At first, I almost jumped with glee at the idea 
that here was an excellent hcmologuc for W/^Zn in Ez 16, 4, 
which, would incidentally corroborate the homology H 72 /^eAatVou, 
I thought the prophet was legitimately using poetic imagery- by 
transferring to human beings a chromatic expression which onlv 
fits certain fruit. I imagined he meant that Jerusalem a personi- 
fication' had not as yet attained maturiry and full development. 
For a moment I jibbed at a metaphor of my own creation ; for a 
moment or two I hesitated to erect an unsteady suoerstructure on 
an as yet unarm foundation. But die imagery was too attractive to 
bypass, so I provisionally adopted the homology n^En/e-cjieAcu- 
vofiai, ever mindful of a possible error of judgment. 

Much later, as is my wont, I reviewed diis homology — among 
others — and went back to die text with a fresh mind. The verse 
visualizes Jerusalem on her birthday, with her umbilical cord 
still unsevered, and herself not yet washed for a show or wrapped 



33 6 XVI. TESTS Or ACCURACY 

up in swaddling clothes. All this is infantile and fur too early for 
adulthood, I thought. The next verse goes on 10 say: Wo eye 
ottied thee to do any one of these things unto :h\self in com-. 

passion towards thee. 5 Clearly, then, H/EH was a service to be 
rendered to a new-born child, and not to an individual at an 
advanced stage of growth. Needless to add, the much favoured 
homoiogue did not survive this belated scrutiny: it was scrapped 
and consigned to oblivion, where so many other provisionals 
had and have been, relegated. Instead. I have substituted 
!Lz}.<iKiilouai {to be sotumcL cftoeawi* anc: or K-iri^nSiiccuj ''jo.ww 
apptzzt - At first sight it would seem tha: there was a conflict c: 
claims between tliese two verbs; yet none actually exists, since 
both derive from fia\ax6$. 

Fir.allv, the context can be hcinfui c\en where nrooer nouns 

are concerned, e.g. Ty/Z Q\o\alo^ . According :c the context, the 
now of die T\T2 is slon\ Therefore, assum:::? that the brook took 
its name from the sluggish nature of its waters, the homology is 
sound. The Septuagint refers to it as J7,.\^u, and to this day i: is 

known Iccaliv as .j : ± — an ancient variant cf PITT, because the 

v exchanges with* ail the -rutturals in Gvr.*:: -".-Hebraic homuh'gkf. 
This explains why Joshua's father. "I. is called Xai-r IT I 

in the LXX — like yiZ and "l Tz 16. 22 : 7"^ IR 7. .:u. and 

cjd: nn:i ;iv.- 27. :3' and enr: i-j 20. :■" . mx lie:. 

:2. :6* and u^ZX JR 14. 3:;. However, it is submitted that the 
context precludes the rossibihtv 01 th.e formal resemblance 
between Til'j (Jes S. G" and c\'oAgTo? being purely coincidental. 

~. CjTr:tanson itith A:-zbi: ::cmolo^:^s. Since Arabic and Hebrew 
are sister languages, scholars \ including n:y late hither; ha\c — 
from the Middle Ages down 10 our times — freely resorted to 
Arabic for assistance m the interpretation. 01 obscure Hebrew 
words. But such assistance has sometimes been illusory, lor lour 
reasons : first, because the formal and uhonetic resemblance be- 
tween the Hebrew and the Arabic words involved is insufficient; 
secondly, because resemblance in form does not invariably ac- 
company resemblance in meaning; thirdly, because Arabic arc 
Hebrew words often diner from each other in the sound and 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 337 

morphology of their homology with Greek ; and lastly, because 
die Arabic and. Hebrew homologues of a Greek word do not 
always bear the same meaning — die Arabic hornologiie bearing 
one meaning of die Greek word, and its Hebrew fellow honxologue 
bearing another meaning of the same Greek word. Pa contra, the 
assistance given by Arabic, in ascertaining and testing the Greek 
homologues of Hebrew words, is most reliable as well as very 
generous — whedier the Arabic and Hebrew fellow homologues 
tally or not phonetically, morphologically, or scmantically. Yet, 
for the reasons stated above, semantic difference between such 
homologues mav be even more important dian phonetic and 
morphological resemblance or identity of meaning, for the pur- 
pose of testing. Several examples will convincingly illustrate the 
various aspects of mv contention. 

A. <£uor, ro, Attic contraction ?£?: 

light *V:X Gn 1. 3 i-.x Jes 31. 9 mix Ps 139. 12 t; IR il. 36 

t: IIS 22, 29 ^3 Prv 20. 27 re Job 12. 5 rr~: lb 3. 4 p; 

Ex 10. 5 IIS 20. 6 xt^ xth: Dan 2. 22 jjJ ; 
csp. daviigki "HX Jud 19. 26; 
also of moonlight Tix Jes 30. 26 ; 
and starlight "11X Jes 13. 10; 

ra cxLra, sc. sun and moon, c::x Ps 136. 7 rT.xr Gn 1. 16; 
in c-oe:s, frequentlv in phrases concerning the life of men, *V:X 

job 33. 30; 
into '.he light, i.e. public ~nx Zcph 3. 5 Job 28. 1 : -':*" Gn 20. 16, 

j°- - ' > 
simpiy a day j^j ; 
the Ugh: of a torch "2 Job 12. 5, lamp *VX Jcr 25. io, fire lix 

Ps 78. 1 4 "HN Jes 50. n, etc. yv Ez- 1 . 4 ; 
pre "!-X jes 44. 16 1-: Dan 3. 27 x^ lb 3. 26, 27, j'J ; 
rd 6<Zrz the illuminations r.SCir Ex 13. 16 l-:r jes 31. 9; 
;A<r light of the eyes "lix Ps 38. 1 1 11X22 Prv 15. 30 ; 
pi., P«a r/« cry Gn 49. 12 jj-t ; octj sg. *"J Ex 2 1 . 24 /-* ; 
ifiiidote lin Cant 5. 4; 

opening "in IIR 12. 10 in Jes u. 8 .1*11X2 Jes 11.8 >**■ • ,-"* >" i 
Zi'wA/ as a metaphor for deliverance mix Esth 8. 16, happiness fl? 

Dt 33. 28, glory ~KD Neh 9. 22 ; 
of God ".IX Job 24. 13; 
with reference to illumination of mind WW Dan 5. 1 1. 



338 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

The homologies T3, T3, "li/^aos- [light) arc tested and found 
to be sound by the homologies jy{<f>dos (light) and jU/^a'oy {fire). 

Again, the homologies mm, X"nrU/£io* (light) and ITri}/ 
<£ao? (illumination of mind) are tested and found to be sound by the 
homology j l^J/^aoj (a day). 

Similarly, the homologies "113, KTU/^aos (Jin) are tested and 
found to be sound by the homologies . ^!<&dos (light) and , U >6<ios 

Also the homologies ifl, Tin and "1H arc rested and found to be 
sound by their fellow homologues ^^ and SS — although they 
do not tally with eacli other in sound — because die differences 
between them are accounted for. Thus, die ^ in ^*, and die o, 

in il, stand for the 6 which drops from ^H, "nn and *ln ; while 

the l in j£ — like die H in "in, *lin and "in, and the ~ in j>^ — 

interchanges with the internal vowel as a guttural. 

Note that the initial ] or j in die homologues is the Middle 
Voice 3 and <j; and that the initial 72 in Tl\£, HTIXO, and 
rniX/2 is not a prefix but a substitute for o f the aspirate of-. 

B. GT€A,\tjj t arro-, *£arro-, g-qgtgAt}, etc. 

are'AAai, make ready, prepare Jul ; 

dispatch^ send n7r Gn 42. 4> 45. 23 >- — ; 

repress ±~> ; 
draw in J^. 
a^ooTcAAai, send off or away from H7C Gn 3. 03, 25. 6 Ex 12. 33 Xu 5. 2 

Dt 2a- 1 IS 20. 1 1 rrrr Gn aa. ? ; 

send away Jl7w Ex 3. 20, 423; 

banish vhv Jud 1, 25 Ob 7; 

go away } depart yiL- ; 

dispatch on some mission or service; frcq, of messengers or forces 
nbv Dt 28. 48 IIR 24. 2 Jes 57. 9 Joei 2. 25 HCh 32. 31 nVr 
Ob 1 Prv 17. 1 1 rrVun Lev 26. 22 IIR 15. 37; 

put off, doff £Li. 
cfairooTc'AAcu, dispatch nbv Gn 8. 7-8, 10, 38- 17 IS 5. n f 6. 8 
Nch 8. 12; 
send forth T\bv Ex 8. 28 Jud 12. 9; 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 339 

send away, dismiss, e.g. prisoner, rHU Ex 21. 26 Dt 15. 12, 21. 14 

IR 20. 42 Jcs 58. 6 Jcr 34. 9, 50- 33 Zach 9. 1 1 Job 39. 5 ; 
divorce nbi? Dt 22. 19, 24. 4 Jcs 50. 1 Jcr 3. 1 Mai 2. 16 nnbv 

jcs 50. 1 c r-j^; . 

discharge a projectile nV? Ez 5. 16 ,J&>\ ; 

desirqyri'TJJesZj.iO. 
an-cxTToAij, 77, sending off or axqy nV?U Ex 18. 2 ; 

as a darting gift r^TV IR 9. 16 "77 Cant 4. 13 ; 

dispatching mb^Tp Esih 9. 19; 

expedition r.nbwS Ps 78. ±Q. 
cthjAtj, 77, prop or buttress to a wall w? Ez 41. 6 «-L-^ ; 

block or j/06 used as a memorial, monument inscribed with record 
of victories, dedications, votes of thanks, treaties, laws, decrees, 
etc. nv? Ex 24. :2 Dt 9, 9 Jcs 30. 8. 
aTrdcToAoff, o, dispatching, of envoys "7^2 Ps 78. 49 Eccl 8. 8, 
aroAij, rj, armament "TS7 Ex 33. 4 1173 Neh 4. 1 1 HCh 3c. 5 £*_ ; 

equipment in clothes, raiment, garment, robe, full dress "£^1 Job 38. 9 
~VJcs4g. 18. 
aroAt^aj. £tV^jj ^nn Ez 16. 4 ^rnn Ez 16. 4; cf. xl-tAcTo*; 

dVrA* adorn n™T2J , ">7! Ez 16. 1 1, 13. Cf. *Vol p oj- 
aroAtV, ^ garment, robe 71777; Job 38- 9 ^ J — ; pl-,/--/u'j in a woman's 

robe TTT Ex 28. 33 Jcs 6, 1 Jer 13. 22 Thr :. 9. 
crroAicts:, r, dressing Vu*" Ez 30. 21. 
ordAoi, o, gen. Aou, expedition ZIT Jcs 7. 4; 

generally, journey or -oftener} voyage ~— ; 

vestment "77)11 Job 38. *-*> ; 

ecuipmer.: "*ry Ps 32. 9 ; 

cm;/ -iTjes 7. 4 Vn Nu 31. 14 IIR 6. 15 Joel 2. 25; 

arrr.crr.er.: 7*n IIS 22. 40 ; :.:. o-.W; . 

sec force, j-eet Tn Zach 9. 4 *3 Jes 33. 21 1"J lb 18. 2 Jj^=-i ; 

generally, party, bar.d, trace, pi-, TVnV? Jes 16. 8; 

;/>* teocii "?n Ob 20; cf. .\'Ao> ; 

j/i',v:p o/.'.i* tai7, in animals Zl' Dt 28. 13 J-*- ^--j"-> J4- ; 

= Troaao.\oy (/><£, £a;V, J^t«) TS Prv 26. 14; spurious, cf. 6aip6;. 

The homoloffuc TV?? is tested and found to be sound by its 
fellow homologue ? - r- — although they do not tally with each 
other — because the sound -differences between them are slight 
and can easilv be accounted for. Thus— as with U*?? — one of the 



34 o XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

double As drops out from ^-^, while the j rightly replaces the 

remaining A. 

The homology Fi^WAAw {send) is tested by its fellow homo- 
logy O^/aTe'AAcu (Journey) — although the Hebrew and Arabic 
homologucs do not tally with each other — because the differences 
between them can be accounted for. Thus, one A drops out of 
both homologues, whereas the o and thej rightly replace the r 
and the remaining A respectively. 

Similarly, as regards the four hemoioeies — n*/S7a»ocT«AAtu 
(send away from), n7y/aTroc7T€«Ucu [send au-a/;, H^y a-ocrWAAti, 
(banish), n72?/a-o<7T«'AAtu (dispatch en a mission)— vis-d-vis their 
fellow homology, jL-/arear€AAtu [depart). Eesides. _JL. corrobo- 

rates _L. and J 

They are further tested and found to be sound by their fellow 
homology «Li/a77o<7T^\Aoj (dojf), where the Arabic and the Hebrew 
homologues— Fi 7U and »JL— tally perfectly. This double homo- 
logy confirms all the odier homologies which contain the verb 
n'/^or any of its derivatives. Indeed, its corroborative character 
is all the stronger because of die peculiar meaning of t-^., seemg 
that — on the face of it — stripping has no relation to journeying, 
banishment or divorce. 

The homologue H7v is further tested and confirmed in its sound- 
ness bv its fellow homolocues , and . iJ- — although neither 

tallies with it — because, here again, the di::erences between them 
can be accounted for. Having dealt with r _ in relation to ilT-\ 

it is unnecessarv to relate ^_ to nTT. 
* \^ 

As for . -dL, it dees not — at nrst sisiht — strike one as bemg 
related to nbti, although tiie two words have a double consonant 
and a guttural in common ; while $ replaces '£ :n wp7 vj b2a. 6'. 
But wide differences between homologues of a Greek word are 
common — e.g. il^w? and jit! — and irrelevant to die criterion of 
testing the soundness of an homology. What is important is that 
each homology should independently conform to the rules, and 

then pass one or more tests of accuracy. ^a^ocrcXXwl <jiW<J^i — 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 34 i 

like ^aTroor^AAaj/n^lL? — is a perfect homology: both verbs arc 
compound homophones, a drops out of ore'AAo*, t changes intoL, 
and a terminal guttural is added: each homology is well and 
truly tested by the other, and duly confirmed in its soundness. 
Similarly n^Tif] is tested and confirmed by its fellow homologuc 

jlL. ; just as */W is by JL:, ^ISJ by jlgI, and jl&I by jLi and 

JU*. TP, 7^H, and *7n are also tested and confirmed by al^. 

A word about J J=— I which is a perfect homologue of qt6\q$ 7 
except for the prosthetic I. In this connection, it is interesting 
to note that in speaking English, the Pakistanis and Iraqis add 
a prosthetic to every word beginning with s, saying: ispeak, 
istand, istation, istop. 

And so it goes on: the obvious iT7S? and ?OL-, anc * ^e not ~ 
so-obvious 2>7^ and a^'LL^ or 2IT (in its two or three different 

meanings; and JJb*. All of this adds up to a massive body of 
evidence the quality of which is of a very high order. 

Perhaps it should be pointed out that the initial 72 in the 
homologies — c-oaroAr'.Ti"/!^, nn"7'i ? 72 and cttoctoAo? 'Hn^^E — 
is the homologue of die prefix ^tto-; as distinct from the initial *2 
in the homoiogv opaua riX"!*2 7 which is the prefix into which the 
suffix ~ua has been converted. 



. 4, Resemblance in more than one meaning. When a Greek word 
has several meanings, and its Hebrew homologue bears more than 
one of them, the possibility of mere coincidence in formal and 
or phonetic resemblance between them is eliminated. Indeed, 
not only does this go to strengthen the homology, but it also 
constitutes a test of its soundness. For instance: 

A. SaT^cy : cleave asunder , rend, divide p 11 Jes 28. 23, 41. 15 Dan 7. 23 
p~ IIR 23. 15 pi-H Jes 28. 28 pi? Dan 2. 34 rrr Am 1. 3 

;ri Dt 25. 4 ?iw Jes 28. 27 m Dan 7. 23 j^ JjJI ; 
j/<ry, tkj.'roy ufter/y pil Mich 4. 13 TM Jes 28. 28; 
pierce through, rend ipi N'u 25. 8 ipi Thr 4. 9 711 Jud 8. 7. 

Here both pll and 2^11 bear more than one meaning of 
Sa^cu, while ^p~* rnay be considered as a lengthened form of 



- 9 * 

J— J- 



342 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

pn. The Arabic homologucs add some further strengtli to the 
Greek-Hebrew homologies formed by these verbs. 

B. o^Ao^, to: tool y implement, mostly in pL, ^73 Gn 31. 37 Ex 22. 6, 
35. 22 Lev 8- 11, u. 33, 13. 49, 15. 12 Nu k 50 IIS 24. 22 IR 
6. 7 Jcs 22. 24 Jcr 40. 10 Am 6. 5 Esr 1. 7 IlCh 9. 20, 36, 7 

jJT obi iJU jIJ aJU ^22 (v.i.) (xutprjua: receptacle); 
a ship's tackle, tackling, esp. ropes, halyards bin Jcs 33. -j } 
generally, any ropes brn Jos 2. I5jer38. 6, 1 1-13 Job 40. 25 Es;h 

1- 6 V35 Ps 105. 18, T49- 8 jll; 
took, strictly so called ^J IS 10. 3, 5 Ps 71. 22 Thr 4. 2 Vcc Juc 

5. 25, 6. 38 mso Ps 56- 9 *1J ; 
In pi. also, implements of war, arms and armour "'?: Gn 27. 3 

i f 

Dt 1. 41 IS 16. 21, 17. 22 Ez 9. i *-i-=- ; 
rarely in sg., weapon *rn IS 2. 4 IIS 22. 40 Ps 18. 33, 40 -^ w -j* 
(arrow) ; the large shield p"» ^?, n-3) from which the men-at- 
arms took their name of o^Af-a: \"?S IIS 8. 18, 20. 23; 
Amu? J777U IS 31. 9, 10 2*75. 
arrAa, = oVAT-ai, men-at-arms 2^21 Ez 27. u 2^n IR 15. 20 

ICh 7. 40; 
ri orrAa the place of arms, camp nina Jud 7. 15.8- 10 (cf. a^iru:- *"J 
IICh 33 . 144k-; 

of the jr77?j possessed by animals for self-defence ^^S^ Job j,:. : s ; 

. * k - f • * 

membrum virile */Z*J IS 6, a TiT Dt t. n -^1 <*-o j*. 

Each of the following homologues bears more than one mean- 
ing of orrAov, a fact which tests and confirms their homology with 

it: "7nn (supported by J-*), Tn (corroborated by oL^, *7-, 
and 7DS7. Although 722 also has three meanings — 'stringed 
instrument of music', 'wine skin*, and 'vessel of clay' — they are 
not different meanings of o-W. Yet it is corroborated by 

, LJ jJLJ and -dJ ; so is "7 CI by , U^- 

Resemblance in more than one meaning, of two homologues 
constituting an homology, can be ideally exemplified by compar- 
ing the kindred words that make up the respective families of 
those two homologues, e.g. "T7Q jfitrpeaj, X^D/Tri'pTrA^/ii, X£~! 
dcpairevaj, j"IK*1/o/xia> : 



XVL TESTS OF ACCURACY 343 

T7D : fi€Tpc<D } measure (Jcs 40, 12 Ez 40. 20) ; count (Jer33. 22 Hos 2. 1). 
TT£: *Kfxerp<oj, measure out^ measure (IIS 8. 2 Ps 60. 8) ; 

SmutTptuj, (astron.) to be in opposition, to be diametrically opposite to 

(Job 7. 4}. 
"nb : SiafLtTptaj, measure with the eye y scan (Hab 3. 6). 
*7*IE T\7\ ; GVfijierpeijj, to be in right measure with, to be commensurate with 

(IR 17. 21). 
ri"TD : fjJrpov, to, measure (Zach 2. 5) ; weight or measure (Lev 19. 35} ; 

duration (Ps 39. 5) : length (Ex 26. 2) ~E Lev 6. 3 Ps 109. 18; size 

(IR 6. 25} ; pi., dimensions (Xu 13. 32 Jcr 22. 14 Ez 40. 24). 
TEC: uirprt'^a^ to, measurement; fierpot-, due measure or limit ^ proooriion 7 

pL, dimensions (Job 38. 5). 
riT^: ueSifu-or, a corn measure: very nearly 12 gallons (Job 28. 25), 

The Indo-European mitro-m from rnidtro-m, 'measuring instru- 
merit 1 , orobablv accounts for the double 1 :n ~~?2- It is also 
relevant that HI?? is similar to Gothic mi tan 7 'measure*. More- 
over, Hebrew provides two homologues of ^irpov^ formed in 
accordance with the Greek pattern and similar to die Latin 
measure — but not PHE — namelv : HIDE and T\^rZ^: 

T ; 

"C^ : utrpoi', ro 7 limit, term (Ez 20. 37}. 

Tr~n : uerpov, ro } weight or measure (ICh 23. 29*; ; 

<i£rp7)jj.z y ro 3 measure, clhwar.ee, dole, soldier's rciicr.s .Ez 4. 1:, 16". 

n"T?p/^tcdto?: a measure of length, = 200 Gpyvicl {the length 
oj the outstretched arms, about 6 feet or 1 fathom • Ez a3. 30, 33. 

KTp : TturAru:,///; rrXvpouj, nil Ex 40. 34; N^I pass., :o be filed, to be 
full o/Cant 5. 2 ; 
t:\tuv olj = TrXrjpvptuj, oz*erfiow\ rise like the feed- tide. :j be full or in 
food JOS 3. 15 (cf. rrA^pr^; ; 

TrArjtfL'OJ, :<? if or become full Jud 16, 27 IIR 6. 17 ; 
ttAtipocj, make full or complete Jcs 40. 2 ; render, pay in full IS 18. 27; 
ttAt^oj, ra be full Joel 4. 13, intransitive form of tti^ttAtj^u. 
X?r : <u-li±r:\T}nt,fll quite full, fill full of a. thing; iKrrtjirTXrtp.^fill them 
yW/ 0/"; €7Ti7TLfnr\Tipu y f{lfullof; Kara-Tri/x^A^/ii, fill quite full fll full 

^7^35- 35 IIR21 - *6Jcr4i.g; 
€kttXtjp6<i} 7 fulfil; ifiTTlfLrrX^fLLj fulfil , accomplish IR 8. 15; 
€fivtfj.7rXrjfxt 9 fill a hungry man with food Ps 107. 9 (Od. 17. 503) ; 



344 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

ifarXripouiy make up the number of; ScqttA 77000*, strengthened for 
ttXtjpoo), make full, complete Ex 23, 26. 
xbsnrt: uvyL-nXi)6vuj^ multiply Job 16. TO. * 

X7n : irAij/n)*, solid, whole Gn 23, 9 ;full Jer 4. 12; full of Jer 5. 27 ; of 
wine, full-bodied, with a persistent flavour Ex 22. 28 Nu 18. 27 ; used 
indecL in later Greek, csp. of payments in full Gn 23. 9 TCh 21. 
22, 24; gorged, satisfied, saticUd Dt 33. 23 \full, complete Jer 6. 1 1 ; 
full of people Jud 16. 27 ; abs.,/u//, of swollen stream Jos 3. 15, 
KhTz: *\iwsifull Ex 9. 8, 16. 32 IS 28. 20; 
-rr\r)ouowq y 77, abundance Dt 33. 16; 
rrX^dtLpa, f}> fullness Jcs 34- 1, 42. 10. 
X72E: TrAiJpa^/ia, to, fullness Ez 12. 19, 32. 15. 
nx?2, mbn: ttAtJpcixt^, ^ t filling Ex 25. 7, 28, 17. 

-At^xtj, ttAtjct^, and ^Atjuu/uV, which derive from rrlurrXv^i, 
have a direct homologue, (lu^J, and an indirect homologuc — 
via the suffix-prefix construction — ^2ft, which do not seem to 
be related to X 1 ?^, but nevertheless are: 

r.^bl: ttAtJ^tj, j, flood-tide Job 26, 7; cf. Ps 136. 6. 
"/":; : ttXtjout] = rrAyj/iuptV. 77. generally, /?<W, deluge = rrXv^vpa: -\r^- t 
T n flood- tide Gn 6. 17. 

X£"V crepaTreu'uj, t?ao-, « service to the gods; abs. ; worship Job 13. 4; 
*r^* medically Ecc! 3. 3; .'0 A«/, rarr Jer 33. 6 ^ ; .'jav fjrr* of 
Hos u.3; of land, czdtizctc HCh 7. 14; m^:^ garments iij. 

HD*}: iKdtpa-xtvw, strengthened for ^paTr^uoj, rr^if; IR 18. 30; cure 
perfectly Ex 2 1. 19. 

XD*j"r!: €Kd€par7€v<u, Med., get oneself quite atrcd IIR 3. 20. 

r.-X£"5 : dtparrtia, 17, healing Prv 3.8. 

HKicn : deparrtla, 17, medical or rurgical treatment Jer 30. 13. 

TS^r : d€Qa7T€l*. Vy medical treatment Ez .17. 12. 

f ; . lit * * 

"X": Qepa-rtla, 17, ph, r-w Jer 46. 11. 

HZ^)\ dtpa-nevnis, medical attendant HCh 16. 12. 

xmr, nsna: Btpdrrtvpa, care of the body Jer 8. 15, 14. 19, 33. 6. 

Xote that the first syllable of depam-vu* drops out of all the homo- 
logies in the family, except nsnri and ^^A 

mix: 6pdu) } look Jcs 60. 1, nxn IS 24. 12. 

nr.^OT : opa'aj, j** to, perceive IIR 1 1. 1. 

nxn: opaaj, j« Gn 29. 10 Jes 40. 26; look Gn 29. 32 Jer 6. 16; see, 
observe, behold, perceire Ex 20. 18 Lev 13. 3 f 56; see that Jud 20. 41 ; 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 345 

perceive Gn 16- 4, 39. 3 ; behold Gn 27. 27 Dt 1. 8; discern, perceive, 
mctaph. of menial sight Mai 3. 1 8 EccI 1 . 1 6 ; observe Gn 3 1 . 12; 
see visions IS 9. 9 Jcs 30. 10 Zach 1.8; look to, pay heed to ; see to, 
/00A- to, i.e. lake or £/:/ heed IS 12. 17, 24. 12 III 12. 16 ; lock out for, 
provide Gn 22. 8 IS 16. 17; Pass., appear in vision Gn 12. 7, 48. 3. 

^XH : oparos, to be seen, visible Esth 2. 9. 

*xn : pass., edopdcu, attend, be in view Job 33". 21. 

nx^r; Gn 12. :, "^1? ^ x 2 5- 4°> 2 ^* 3° ? 

nxn : oloo^ :'B; ; (opacj. tjpa;, watcher, guardian IS 9. 9JCS30. 10 HCh 
16. 10. 

nx"^ ; Spacjis, 7], seeing, the act of sight Job ro* 15. 

r*X"i : opacis, r i} seeing, the act of sight, power of sight EccI 5, ;o. 

nx~l : opact?, 7), vision HCh 20. 5. 

*XT: oped*, 7}, appearance IS 16. 12. 

nxn : opaai?, 17, appearance Gn 29. 17. 

^X2r>; TrpcGopaciSy rj t appearance Jcs 44, 13. 

-7v : oca'cj, oAccj, jw m:s/tf Joel 3, 1. 

=^7"r;'jcr 29. 8 ? 

ny~i : oodtLj, look towards Prv : =;. 14. 

i^H; okuc, ^A/, spectacle Ecci 1.17; device, plan lb 2. 22. 

nv"] ■ oupttLj : [o£*po? (B)), natch Ez 34. 23. 

rw oupo? B; ? d, watcher, guardian Gn J,. 2. 

r*-H : opcas, r,, vision Ecci 1. 14, 

-V"^ : foo^aw, of the goes, u-c.'^ ar^r Gn 48. 15. 

np: toooej, d, observer, guardian, rjler Ps 23. 1. 

n>*v : tSopot, 6, observer, guardian, rider Gn 12. 15 Jj^J- 

n>p.!2 : opauc, to, that which is seen, visible object Xu :2- S; . r : 5 * ; J Lev 13. 
12 ; right, spectacle Ex 3. 3 ; device t plan Ez .12. i :. 

nx^*: ; ooc^a, ro\ nxron durin? slees, dream IS ^, i=. 

XT^ : opcuz, to, sight, spectacle Dt 4. 34. 

-*" : opcL^a, to, spectacle, vision, dream EccI 5. 6; drear: Gn j.0. 5; 
vision Job 20. 8. 

The initial 1 in rifiX")! is part of the radical, replacing the 
initial vowel in opaoi. There is no homologue to the 7TDH of 
either C7H or PIX^I, a unique and unaccountable gap : one of the 
very rare independent developments in both Arabic and Hebrew. 
Per contra, X^H — the homologue of tlofiatvw, which is causai 
only in the first aorist — Is causal throughout. oAoo* is the lisping 
pronunciation of opatu, and 21711 is a direct homologue of opa^ta, 



34 6 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

following the Greek pattern. The final ft represents the suffix 
-/xa, whereas the final in 0*711 is terminal. On the other hand, 
71X10 is an indirect homologuc of 6pap.a — as 1\212 is of -X-qfir] 
and ttXtjoiit) — following die suffix-prefix construction : the prefix 
72 represents the suffix -p.a. Similarly with 111X1 or HX! and 
*!Xr>: the final H in the former represents the suffix in opaai$, as 
indeed does the initial i"l in the latter— the noun changing 
gender in the process. Similarly, again, with TT^iperpov and 

The regular changes undergone by the Greek hoir.ologucs, 
e6cpdui and <6opo<;, to be transformed into Hebrew are as 
follows : 

T\u"\ results from the last two syllables of Zcopduj ; the first 
syllable drops out because it includes <4, while o and p undergo 
vowel/consonant metathesis, at the same time o turning into c, 
as in opatu/nXn. Thus : icopdev — opduj ->■ pocxu ->■ paaut = il^"1- 
That is why HUH is Qal. 

n!?l results from the first syllable dropping out of «cco>, 
metathesis taking place between the first o and the p whicr. 
follows it, the second o turning into c, and the final a cropping. 
Thus : eoopos" -~ opo$ — poo? -*• poes -=- poe = H1J"1. 

nlPD results from vowel-consonant metathesis taking place 
in loopos-, between e and o, and o and p; the « turning :nto c, 
and the terminal a dropping. Thus : Zoopot — o«opc> — otpoo; 

-*■ ocpooy — *■ <pcpoo = 71 i» liJ. 

5. Resemblance of derizalivts. The existence of homologous 
derivatives is an essential test to a sound verb-homolcgy, tor 
homologies of derivatives corroborate each other in common 
solidarity as members of two sound homologous families. This 
has already been amply illustrated by five large homologous 
families: llftjperpiw, X^'-i^ttA^, nXI.-opaw. X£H :6(pa-cvw, 
and n^EJ/aWAAa/. Yet diere is an extremely rare example which 
throws into relief the function of homologous derivatives as a vital 
test of sound homology, where the verbs competing for homology 
appear to have equally good claims to it. 

The two verbs concerned are KcuWo/iai and fj.v6eop.ai. Gram- 
matically, both qualify to homologize with a verb beginning 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 347 

with the MV 2. Phonetically and morphologically both qualify 
to homologize with UU1: the exchanges, k/H, 0/T1, A/73, die addi- 
tion of a terminal fa, and the dropping of the fim syllable which 
includes p arc all regular phenomena. Semantically also, both 
their compounds with die preposition irapa — rrapoxoA/o^ai and 
rrapauvdio^ai — coincide, meaning c to comfort, to console*. Ac- 
cordingly, either of them tallies with DH3 in apparently perfect 
harmony. So much so that, had their claims in other respects 
been equal, CHj would have rightly claimed them both as 
legitimate homologies. Fgi* there is nothing to prevent a word in 
one language having more than one homologue in ;he other. It 
would merely imply that, with the passage of time, similar Greek 
words meaning more or less the same thing came to be pro- 
nounced the same way. But the claims of these two verbs are not 
equal in other respects ; since, for one thing, -cpcuvvtopai has, 
whereas rrapaxaXdofiat has not, derivatives that homologize with 
derivatives of DHL Therefore, the whole family cf the former 
verb orevaiis, as follows: 

Tcjcmffcact. to comfort, to console -H] Tcs j,o. : ; Pass., -T: Jcs 

65. 13 z~:— Gn 37. 35 rr:n Gn 24. 67 Ez 5. 13. 

- ap cuw 77- r~r'$\ consoler "::: Thr 1. 2. 

--jcu'JeT-LC, r6 } consolation "i Hos 13, 14 z-r;: J« =7. ;3 i*n;ri 

Jer :5. 7. 
TrcpGuL-ffTjri/co^, 7j, or, consolatory V21"; Zach 1. 13. 
rzzpauvGiG, r;, encouragement , reassurance, consolation nrr; Ps 119. 50 

Job 5. io ^n:n Ps 94, 19 Job 15. 11,21.2. 

The Ti in CTHID is not a prefix; it represents -. 

6. Semantics. Semantics are a decisive factor in the following 
circumstances : 

A. When allied to sound, the semantic factor constitutes a pre- 
liminary guide to, and prima facie evidence of, accurate homo- 
logy. Thus kv&os is — by virtue of its meaning {hiir.:hhacked)^ as 
well as by reason of the phonetic changes experienced in Graeco- 
Hebraic homology— a sound homologue of ]Z1 (Lev 21, 20). So 
is L'So'?, for the same reasons: f p> 7p> 7^ W*> ££>, terminal 2. 
In fact, the said changes prove that vfios is a variant of Kv<f>6s. 
Similarly, vBos (hump of a camel) is proved to be a variant of 



34« XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

xvfos, and passes muster as the homologue of BV21. Is it not 
highly significant that the Latin gibbus, die Italian gobbo, and 
the French gobln resemble so closely die Hebrew ]D1 ? 

The corroborative efficacy of semantics and phonetics when 
conjoined together is exemplified to advantage by comparing 
two Greek words which sound very much alike, yet completely 
differ in meaning, together witli their respective homologues — 
one Arabic and the other Hebrew— which also sound strikingly 
alike while vastly differing in sense, namely: vrrvos, o, sleep 7]VD 

Jcr 5 1 . 39 ; slumber Till? Prv 6, i o ; and vttvov, to, lichen uJ: I . In the 
circumstances, can there be a shadow of doubt that v-i-c^Tiiy 
and Jrrvov/jc-il are absolutely genuine homologies? 

Another pair of Greek nouns — xt'pas and Kpd$ — resemble one 
another phonetically, though semantically they are wide apart. 
Each of them has the same two Hebrew (and two similar Arabic} 
homologues which sound utterly unlike each other, namely pp 
and tfx\ 

Ktpas, ro y the horn of en cmmal pp Gn 22. 13 Cj* "*~ Jos 6. ±\ as 2 
symbol of strength pp Jcr 48. 25 ; of elephants 1 t^skspp Ez 27. 15 ; 
bow pp IIS 22. 3, cf, HCh 14. 7; of musica: instrument, hem 
for blowing pp Jos 5. 5 "2~ Hos 5. 3 ; drinking ham pp IS 16. 1 ; 
arm or branch of a river 7X~1 Gn 2, 10 ; corps or wing of an army 
TXT Jud 7. 16 Job 1. 17; mountain-peak T>n Dt 34. 1 ^-lj <ji. 

Kpd? f to, gen. Kparos: Homer also has gen. and da:. Kpdaros, <pdan, 
pL nom. Kpdara . . ., but no nom. Kpdas is found- heed pp IS 2. 1 
Ps 75*5.6 Job 16. 15770 IS 1 7.54 ur'j ^Pljud4.2i,22 icf.pd X is; ; 
top Zin Gn 28. 12 Esih 5. 2 ; peak CXI Cant 4. ^j cj\ the head 
or far end 7XH Gn 47. 31 ; down from the head \ from the top ; from 
head tofoot y entirely TNT Lev 13. 12 Jes 1. 5 ^r'j. 

However, here — as elsewhere where homonyms arc involved — 
the context plays a vital part: it, and not semantics, is the de- 
cisive factor. 

Sound and sense combine to establish beyond a peradventure 
that native Hebrew words, undoubtedly borrowed by the ancient 
Greeks, are in reality veiled Greek words of pristine genuineness, 
which have returned home altered almost beyond recognition — 
e*g. dppafiiLvjpvoiQv. Indeed, the entire family of this word has 
been preserved, unimpaired and free from ambiguity. Besides, 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 349 

for good measure, the Greek custom of ratifying a pledge by 
giving die (right) hand is specifically recorded (Prv 6. i, 11. 15, 
17. i3, 22. 26). All testing and confirming die validity of die 
homologies concerned, and its consequential thesis diat Hebrew 
is Greek. 

€pvfia, 76 (ipvw B) : a breast work, also of a river or trench used as a 

military defence, stronghold (\V) nnnxjudg. 4! prw Ps 122. 7. 

€OL'fiTO9, 7j, 6v [tpvuj B; : fenced, fortified, strong by nr; or nature; ra 

tpvuvd strong positions rvsrs^.X Am 2. 2 Ps 4G. 14. 122. 7 Thr 2. 7. 

tpvui 'B*, only in Med. cptouai] thematic present jYouci: protect, 

guard Z^.V Gn 43. 9; redeem "S Jcs 38. 14. 
puctaju, Doric pirna^: treat as a /Juaior, <*:cf. dzsirair. 21 ST Prv 

I I. 15, 20. l6. 
pJc:ot% Doric pJrtor, rd ^pt : a; B* : -f^r^v, p^dge ] P 7 *?* 71 -*'' ^^ or 
j^i*^ £J fl p/^^ or compensation p-^V Gn 38. I 7 "1ST Prv 17. 18; 
£m<?n seized and held to ransom r^liTl II R 14. 14. 
appaBtLv, dpapaiv, 6, generally, pledge, earnest ""V Gn 38. 17. 

dopaSoji^trat, appaSdjii Oi'Sorai, 2117 Prv I 7. I 8. 22. CO Nch 5. 3. 

I believe m2*1i7n to be die homologue of two words, rd pvoia, 
'hostages'— like nrfirVra rdfa -Job 41. 2f — the initial fi stand- 
ing [or die article, 

B. Meaidne and moroholoev combine to explain whv sciuc 
does not necessarily vaiy widi form, diereby ;es:ine and con- 
firming d;e validity of an homology, despite die alteration in the 
form of die homologue. 

For instance, Hi^N Hcs 2. 14, ]2nX Ez 10. 34 Mich 1. 7, 

n~I Ez 16. 33, ]~I3 lb. bear die same meaning, but differ in 
form one from die other. However, this res:, when applied to 
each one of these nouns, accounts for the change in i: and con- 
firms its homology with tSw [ mostly pL, bride pri:e or wedding 
-sifts- eer.erallv rifts). Thus, die II in HIHK mav have exchanged 
nhoneticallv witli the final v\ and since Ihvcv is neuter, it is 
capable of homologizir.g widi a masculine or a feminine noun, 
or — ^ here — widi both a masculine and a feminine noun. Alter- 
natively, n2nX may be the homologue of Z8vov in the plural, i.e. 
iBva ; and the context inclines towards this interpretation. On the 
other hand, the H in ill] certainly replaces the final v. As to the 
difference between nlP.K and pfiK on one hand, and Till and 



35 o XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

]~t3 on. die other — the former two nouns arc direct homologues, 
conforming to the Greek pattern; while the Litter are indirect 
homologues, homologizing with '£t>w via the suiTix-prcfix con- 
struction. 

Similarly, HK"IQ Ex 3. 3, nX~}£ Ez :. :, -V7q Gn 20. 3: all 
three homologues of opaua in their several meanings: the first 
noun is masculine, the second feminine, and the third hetero- 
geneous. The last is a direct homoiogue, whereas the other two 
are indirect. 

Also similar are "N"l IS 16. 12, r."N"l T'X~ Ecc: 5. :o. "IS" 
Gn 20. 17 Thr .1. 3, all — in their several meanings— humoiogues 
of cpaois: the second noun is rcgulariy feminine, the otners 
are irreeularlv masculine; the last is an indirect homolccjue. 
the other two are direct. 

C. Semantics combines with etymology to instantiate recon- 
dite homologies. Two completely different exammes w:ll illustrate 
the cfricacy of diis combination. 

We have seen that Zuir.n is the homolog-e c: r^ca^V^^. 
in the Passive voice, meaning 4 to be consciea. tj be ccmiortec : 
and that this homology is vouched fcr by sever_l kmdred homo- 
logies based on common derivation. Kcv.c\er. Znim has :v. c 
homonyms and, therefore, two other heme.-; cues : vjl'cu anc or 

c:r:;'0€a>, and ^i€rivcfcy. 

vctfoj, Aeolian -'6-rui, with mhnitivc. 'J :-* r:ir^eJ, iiterd; ^:;ot-. 
:^!*;:Jt on or q/, ezr.:riz'e, .?£;* :Vi tfn^'j mr.^i. p~rpc:e -~:^ IS 15. 2-3 

=r:r.n Gn 07. 42; 
^-^o^, change cms mind or purpose I"!" Xu 23. 19; r *:*•:: 
an: IS 15. 35 =n:rr; Dt 32. 36. 

Two tests apply: first, th.e context which establishes :r.r 
hcmoloijv ^nirn ;c:j crri;ot ; LL>; secenc.v. semantics w:::cn 
corroborates and further tests tins homology jy me homology 
^r^voi<jjiU\\lT\7\, Indeed, both corroboration and testing are 
reciprocated and reciprocal. 

The other example concerns ITGnw Jer ^3. 12 which is ren- 
dcred in the Septuagint by paKrj {ra*s, tatters';. This is not a mean- 
in? which — bv a reasonable stretch of die imagination— miciu 
be suggested by die context, by a similar Arabic word, or by 
a connection between the verb 3(10 and 'rags'. However, Greek 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 35l 

homology not only confirms the said translation, but also shows 
that rfQnO derives from DS7D, affording the semantic link which 
connects the two words. Thus: 

cTTraoi, draw r |t?n Jcs 30. 14 Hag 2. 16 2KD Gn 24. 13; pull away 
27\0 IIS 17. 13; tear, rend, csp. of ravenous animals ZT\Z Jcr 15. 3; 
r |XS? Ez 36. 3 Ps 56. 2 ; snatch, tear or drag away r t no Jcr 46. 15 
2H0 lb 22. 19 qno Prv 28. 3 ; draw in, suck in y drink off, quaff (\V) 
SZD Dt 21. 20 Jcs 56. 12 Prv 23. 20 r jiC? Ps 1 19. 131 ; draw breath 
r jKT Jer 2. 24, 14. 6; enjoy r ,X? Job 7. 2; devize its origin ^XV 

Ecd I. 5. Cf ^^n^yu-^GCJ. 

c-acr^a, aros, -^o?, /Aj.' zrAtfA has been torn off 7 fragment ^ shred "HC 
Jcr 38, 11 rpTXZ Gn 30- 37; spasm, convulsion ; fit of epilepsy 
v™ IIS 1. 9. 

It is not clear whether "0 in Jer 15. 3 means 'pull away' 
or 'tear, rend* ; but the Septuagint has €1$ Sicu-aauoV, tearing in 
pieces. However, there is no doubt that 2UZ} homologizes with 
o-dto, at least in respect of the senses of 'pulling' and 'dragging*. 
Besides, the notion of bearing' and 'rending' is transferred from 
ct-u'oj to its derivative, a-dc^a, in the form of 'shred'. These two 
facts, coupled together, enable H^HO to homciogize with a-da^c. 
Moreover, the semantic link cf 'tearing 7 and Vending which 
exists between arrdcj and crrrdciia acts as a test cf the validity cf 
tins homology'. At the same time this homology, in its turn, 
constitutes corroborative evidence that Z2H0 in Jer 15. 3 actually 
means 'tear, rend' — especially as die context is by no means 
averse to that meaning (?. p. 37 i, s.v. crrrapdacaj. 

7. The Septuagint. This magnum opus of our forefathers is not 
a perfect translation of our holy writ, Amone ether shortcomings, 
it sometimes overcomes the difficulty of translating a certain 
word by circumlocution [jcs is. 23), or evades it by transliteration 
f Jud 8. 7). At other times it bypasses an obscure word, omitting 
to translate it altogether (Jer 38. 1 1). Yet again, it fails to use the 
apt word, as when E?XH in Gn 2. 10 is rendered by apxr) (used 
only by the LXX to mean 'branch of a river'), instead of by its 
homologue, Ktpas ('arm' or 'branch* of a river). Similarly, & ; KH 
in Job k 17 is rendered by **<£o^ (a 'band* of men, 'right-hand 
half of a phalanx), instead of by its homologue, *epaj ('corps of 
8192 men* or 'wing* of an army). Cf. p. 348. Occasionally there 



352 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

occur downright errors, e.g. IR 22. 17. Despite its faults, how- 
ever, the Septuagint may be used as a reliable test whereby to 
establish the accuracy of certain homologies. Nowhere is the 
utility of this admittedly fallible touchstone more evident than 
in the two following examples: 

A, There are two words which differ slightly one from the 
other in spelling as well as in vocalization, i.e. N~u?3 and ilTl-C- 
I believe them to be variants of one another, and homologucs of 
pv/as {high, greats mighty ^ a frequent epithet of gods). 

The Septuagint meaninglessly translates XT!^*7 Ps 76. 12 by 
tlu 4>o$€p<h ('to terror'), as if it were the same as X11D in Mai 1. 6. 
2. 5, the homologue of which is rpopos. However, it translates 
miQ ]1*?X Gn 12, 6 by rrjv Spvv rr.v iCrr : \ry -'the high oak\ , 
HTift "Tl^X Dt II. 30 by ttj^ Spuo; rrji Ciur ; \r : i /of the high 
oak 1 ) — as if there were only one tree — and riT.- Job 36. 22 by 
Swdtrrqs (lord) masUr, ruler y of Zeus). As to mi^H D^ZI Jug 
7. 1, the two words are transliterated togeiher FuSaaOauiupai, as 
if constituting a single word — the diphthong -i* pronounced t. 
as in modern Greek. 

It seems clear that at the time of the Sep:u:igint rni2 was 
known to mean 'high, lofty \ It also appear :::a: by that time the 
other meaning — 'sreat, miehtv 1 — and its suecia: use as an eoithe: 
of a divinity had been forgotten. For in my submission, ]!1X 
miQ means 'the Elm-Grove of the Mighty One'; similarly. 
11170 MPK. miSn nsm means 'The Hi!! Height of ihc 
Mighty One'— like [7*17X1 i1S7Zn IS 10. 5, ri7X1 11 Ex 3. :. 
CT17X 112 Ez 28. 16, and 111^11 Je< 2. 3— while 11 IE in 
Job 36. 22 is an adjective qualifying 7X. and means 'high, great. 
miehtv' ; HIE 1123 ~72 is similar to 1* "CI ~^r "2 Ps So. c. 
KTO 1 ? "*£? Y?^2 % Ps 76. :-2 means 'they w[[[ bring a sacrificial 
feast to the Mighty One*. 

That X"11D is an adjective, used as a noun eihpncaily for ihe 
divinity it qualifies, is corroborated twice over : once, contextual:;/ 
by the phenomenon of reduplication in Pi 70. :■:>; and again, in 
the two odier verses where ^ occurs — i.e. Jes 18* 7 and Ps 
68. 30 — and where the sacrificial meal, 5ciV s is offered to God, 

But for die above translation of HTIQ Gn 12. 6 Dt 11. 30 
in die Septuagint, I very much doubt whether I would have 



XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 353 

ever suspected it to be the homologue of fityas {high). It was not 
long before I realized that XTIO also was a homologue of tUyas, 
homologizing with it in respect of its meaning 'great, mighty 1 , 
as epithet of a god. This discovery — togedicr with the fact that 
Q^n^X and ni73i arc in the construct, in Dt 1 1. 30 and Jud 7. 1 
respectively — convinced me diat HHIQ homologizcs with fitya$ 
like XllTO, rather than in respect of its meaning 'high 1 , as ren- 
dered by the Septuagint. Thus the Septuagim's translation of 
H^IIQ had led me to the discovery which enabled me to correct 
the Septuagint in that very translation. 

B. Strange to say, the following example bears a striking re- 
semblance to the last one, in respect of XHlft and 11*110, each 
being supposed to bear a different meaning of their common 
homologue, fieyas. Here the Hebrew word concerned (f^ri) is 
supposed to have the same meaning as a very similar Arabic 
word ( .^j-l) ; whereas both are homologucs of a Greek word 
(kovoILuj), in respect of different meanings. 

The Septuagint rendered the passage i~!X 102 121! *fDiT\ 

in Job 4.0. I" (12) : * EaTTjGtv Gvpav cLs" Kvrrdptacov [a dk* euros'] — 

'He raised his tail like a cypress [cedar].' Ibn Ez:t: : presumably 
independently, maintains that f£iV means T01T — 'will make 
to stand 1 . In fact, lgtt.ul means 'make to stand, set up, raise'. 
The interpretation seemed reasonable to me, for the erectile tail 
of animals generally stiffens and distends upwards when they are 
angry or otherwise excited. Yet all the commentators, lexico- 
graphers, and translators have ignored the Septuagint and 
embarked on a wild goose chase. I, however, banked on it, cast 
about for a suitable homologue, and soon came upon kovoICcj, 
a verb of diverse meanings and various homologies : 

.■coL'6i\"u, lighten y make light 7" Ex 18. 22 ^^ j-^** * : 'v"m TClse T- n 

Job 40. 17; d\fia Kouortlv :naJ:e a tight leap ysp Cant 2. 8 US; 

" * ' 
lights?' ships of their cargo TpTl Jon [. 5 ; relieve Vpn 1R 12. 4 ^J-i^ ; 

cancel r* — » A- — " ; cheapen bp Gn 16, 4, 5 bpl IIS 6. 22 TpM lb 19. 44 

JJi : abate 7p r Gn 8, 3 J-^ JJ JU is^ ; assuage >J*± ; to be light 7p 
Jer 4 . 1 3 Job 7. 6. (K p. 248.) 

Therefore, the homology *f Dn/#cou^i'£<u is tested and validated 
by die Septuagint. 



354 XVI. TESTS OF ACCURACY 

8. The Supreme Test. Naturally, the object of sound homology is 
to interpret a given text accurately, so as to convey to the 
reader its true and full meaning. Therefore, the ultimate test^of 
sound homology is this; Does it render the text in hand — be it 
a passage or an episode — intelligible and clear, widiout straining 
the significance of the word or words concerned ? This is essential, 
whether the word in question is an hapax Ugomenon or occurs else- 
where also ; because any given word or text cannot be treated in 
isolation from the rest of the Bible, but must be considered in 
relation to other words or texts and should harmonize with them. 
Particularly since most words convcv mere than one meaning or 
shade of meaning. 

This test is universal, and no homology escapes die rigour of 
its application. Accordingly, it is applied in the next chapter but 
one to several homologies, by comparing them with biblical 
translations and other interpretations. 



355 
XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

LX. An examination of complete homologies shows the number and 
variety of Hebrew words which komologize with the average Greek 
homologue, and have to be considered individually with an eye to 
corroboration. 

dyaXfia, ro: (ayaAAco) glory, delight, honour V"7m ICh 1 6. 36 *>■;">$* 
Prv 27. 21 J"^- ; ornament "^q Prv 25. 12 rr?^ Hos 2. 15 -sA* o^j ; 
pleasing gift, esp. for the gods W?ri Lev 19. 24 ^n Jud 12. ! 3 
(Vx) , ? ; ?q'? Gn 5. 12 p=?3 US 23. 28 S2?3 Jud S. 5; generally, 
= avaftj/ia (i-ofi'w offering set up in a temple) 7T?ri Jud 9. 27 ; statue 
in honour of a god (pi.) =73 IIR 1 1. 18 ZT2, X=""?2 Dan 2. 3 1 fcVj 
Jud 9. 48 rtlbVs Nu 33- 41 ~~*\ sculpture; statue xbn Cant 7. 2 C?3 
IS 6. 5 Ez 16. 17; portrait, picture; generally, image =": Ps 139. 16 
£73 Gn 1. 26 Ez 23. 14 ;cf. yXvuua; v. alvl^ouat. p. I io) ; :-. p. 375 

ayyttov, -^ow, to : vessel p:x Job 41. 12 ; of metal., jar or vase for water 
u Job 32. 19PVI PS26. 6, 73. i3"'p:3Ex 25. 29XU4. 7 >. p. 159 
jbJ-j; :w<r/ for holding money in a treasury '-323 ^ x l &- 33 

cyooci, 77: (o-/ei>a») assembly ~^± Joel 1. 14 m?? Jer 9. 1 Aii», esp. 
oj' the people, opp. the Council of Chiefs =*1VT£ I ICh n. 9 E*"sq 
Jos 19. 19 ens; lb 15. 9 ""?:? Ps 68. 31 =:"■?:? Ez 47. 10 ms* 
Joel !. 14 2*"ss Esr 2. 25 nr-jS II Ch 1 1. 10 %~ Prv 24. 7, 31. 23 
cny^Jos 15. 36 1H117 lb 19. 6 *ii* ; place of assembly "icn Jos 12. 17 
msy Jud 6. n "JITS Jos 15. 54 IBS Gn 14. 2; market place "SB- 
Jcr 3:. 40 (39) Zcph i- 10 Job 5. 4; busmess of the dyopd J^-^; 
generally, provisions, rupplUs mns Ez 27. 15 T-? Gn 47. 14^^- ; 
as a mark of time a. -:\r t dovca ihc forenoon when the market piace 
was full, dyopiji TrAijSoL-oTjr, ayopVJs SiiWtj the time just after midday 
when th.ey went home from the market ^—^ ; "2*]? Ex 12. 6 enqs 

• ■ 

Ps 55. i3Job 5. 14.-1-^ v- P- 377 
ayopot, 6 : = uyopa ; used only by Euripides in lyrical poetry ; generally 

in pi. E".3T Jos 15. 9 c^ Ps 68. 31 any Esr 2. 25 onsnp Prv 

31. 23 niS37 Am 5. 21 
rl 18179 p* 318 

arStoj p. 3'8 



35 6 XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

MtSojvcuV p. 318 

cuVa, to?, to; blood dt Gn 4- 10 niK Jes 63. 2 ccn Jcr 51. 35 r-sq 
Dt 32. 33 Ps 58. 5 [cf. yypo<£\ \ in pi., streams of blood Q^T Hos 4. 2 ; of 
anything like blood, at. otc^uAtjV :jrD"i Dt 32. 14 C^g*" Gn 49. 11; 
bloodshed, murder DT Ez 22. 13 □"m lb 24. 6 pn Jcs 16, 4 sen 
Gn 6. 11 ; a kinsman's murder en Nu 35. 19 Jud 9. 24 IIS 3. 27 
Can Jud 9. 24; murder (pL) C7 Lev 17. 4 Dt 19. 10 IS 25. 26 Xah 
3- 1 ; concrete, of a person ClK Gn 1. 26, 27; ci. a^p; v. p. 379 

alpatcTo?, rj t ov\ mingled with blood, oj blood 7^v J^ ^3- l 

aipaAtos, a t ou: blood-red Z^X Gn 25. 30 Xu 19. 2 IIR 3. 22 Zach r. 3, 
6. 2 Cant 5. 10 J±K Zach 6. 3 "~-?X Gn 25. 25 IS 16. 12 
D !?1$ Lev 13. 19, 42 "sn p 5 73, g [cf. £aw?d>] 

auxacux, 17 ; u'fl// of dry stones rmVT Ex 14. 22 Ez 40. 5, 42. 20 Am 7. 7; 
of the walls of a city or fortress n^~ Lev 25. 29 Jcs 2. 15 IS 25. : 6 
Jcr 15. 20 [d. xcS/xa] 

alpaca™, -ttcu : make bloody, stain with blood 7~ 2 P* 68. 24; Pass., 
become bloody fltn Jcs 63. I ; intr. to be bloody, blood- red E~IX Thr 4. 7 
csnjob 15. 33"i^-irnJob 16. 16 inxr.r; P1V23. 31 

atparduj: to be bloodthirsty f-" Ps 71. 4 

aluarrr if tj : = A^Kcii^j (Oof* XTCnX Esr 6. 2 

aiua-ro^ir, COHtr. alparovs: = al^cTTjpof hi oo r Js:^:nea , ; blood-rec, cr ■:* 

W*>i px Zach 6. 3 7^=n Jes 63. 1 

alp4w: From «; VA- ; future i\tZ . . . the etyrr.ctcgy is doubtful, and 
aypiw . . . prubably has a different root. Active, Like with the hand, 
grasp, seize np? Lev 4. 30 Jos 9. 11 IR 14. 26 Jes h. 6 Jcr 36. 14 : 
/at* tfa-ay 1712 Xu 36. 3 Dt 4. 2 Ez 16. 27 r:p? Gn 5. 24 Job 1. 21 ; 
overpower, kill STi Ez 5. 1 1 ; generally, xin t *ji:i J'~ : ; generally, **:, 
06/aui niK Cant 5, 1 Ju ; convict; get a verdict cf conviction: get - 
conviction 113? Ps 7. 7 ; £w* V72 Job 15. 4; ^raJS with the mind, 
understand np7 Ez 3. 10 Prv 4. 10; Med. lake f^r oneself}*? Hp? Gn 
31. 32 Ex 6. 25 IS 2. 16 IIS 2. 21 I Oh 21. 23 ; Like one's spear np? 
IS 26. 11; ta.k to oneself choose 7H- Dt 7. 6 "2 IS 17. 8 "H- Ez 
20. 38 ICh 7. 40 p^r; Dt 4. 19 npb Ez 33. 2 ; Pass., to be chosen r "; 
Lev 19. 20; £r(/*r " sn - Dt I0 * ! 5 ^ 20 - 3° US 6. 21 Jcr 8. 3 
Prv 21.3; cAow* by vote, elect ~^n2 IS 8. 18 np 7 Jos 3. 1 2 ; cf. aAta*oua: 

dt(Ly p. 320 

axoupos, ov : (Koupos) childless ^pV Dt 7. 14 rnp* Gn 11. 30; cf, &T€pp6; 
(B), x*PP°*> X*P°°* : barren *~nx lb 15. 2; r. p. 380 

aKpajTTjpid^uj-^- p. 667 



XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 357 

<L\[okohcu, defective Passive, Act. supplied by alpeu*: to be taken, con- 
quered, fall into an enemy s hand, of persons and places, np71 IS 4. 
II; to be seized and taken npVl IIR 2. 9 ; to be convicted and condenvxed 
mp 1 ? Prv 24. 11 npbi Ez 33. 6 

iXp.vpllop.ai : to be made salt H7D Lev 2. 13 n*?0 Ex 30. 35 

aXxVPV^ (uttvo*) - citjStjs- (unpleasant) , ovx extuv x a P^ i noi having joy) . [Only 
Hebrew can properly explain this strange word, fully and con- 
clusively, thus: ok- is the homologue of Vx (Gn 15. 1), which 
occurs instead of a privatizum in r^'^K (Prv 12. 28), the homo- 
logue of adavaros. In fact, "7X is the homologue of ou. and both "?X 
and its variant W occur in one verse, Prv 31.4] 

d^aCai-»5«ff- fiijAcai (apple-tree, p. ^pucvtx-ij apricot, p.. yXvKcla jenneting, 
TleaaiKT) p.. citron, Mr)6nerj pi. peach, p. KvSutvia. quince). Which of 
these arc cLia£afi8«y? Arabic unerringly points to cpncot, <iua£a.- 

• - • - 

vt'S^r being the homologue of ^-^-^ or ^^-^ 
crti-cr- apzfiv. In my considered opinion, there can be no doubt 
but ■ that this word is a dialectal variant of dm^, 77: four- 
wheeled urcgon, drawn by mules, much the same as dua£i: 7\*l\< 
Dt 28. 63 7i?yj Am 2.13; later, any car or chariot, ivar-chariot ~:x 
Dan il:o ]i}TV Ps 63. iS; metaph. i*a?a a. ship "X IR 9. 26 mx 

lb Q. 27 Jon I. 3 rrS2 lb 1-5- Cf. dydwa" deafer Upd ^uagci'' ~TSJ 

IS 6. 7- 1 _i : 1 1) nb:r qualifies for homology with both dyaV.-c and 
atr-rjt^, that is, if dydwc is not — like icatrc^, chariot — a dialectal 
variant cf drnjrT}. (2} Jus: as "IS is the homologue of <vK\a, calling 
the whole by the part; so is ]S:x the homologue of dmjinj, catling 
the part by the whole 

d^cpn'a, 77: a failure, fault ^.= Nu 17. 25 Vny lb 23, 21 ; ^rrar V?? 
Lev 5. 15; guilt, sin nsx Job 20. 29 b2U Mich 2. 10 '/-S Lev 5. 21 
t^ Jos 22. 22 nn^i? IS 20. 30 *H3 Dt 31. 27 Jcs 30. 9 mi? 
Prv 1 1. 23 V22; Jes 10. t Ps 7. 17 Job 1 i. 16; i\ p. 380 

ca:.Ucr. o = duiAAa, 17: cutest for superiority bey Eccl 2. 2 1 ; .W:;.' 
'Ttr lb 4- 6; a?/:^' *7W Jer 20. 18; struggle '"32S? Eccl 6. 7 

dftot P- l63 
dt'd 0- I03 
dtrjp— pp. 285-9 

dvror evpos : EJpor, /A* E*ri U'inrf Dnj? Gn 41. 6 Jon 4. 8 
avrpov y to: poet, word, «rr Tn IS 14. 1 1 !"nyp Gn 23. q, 1 1 jli *j^-; 
of a lion, nn Nah 2. 13 psn lb 2. 12 7U371? lb 2. 13 <\j^; of 
a serpent, nn Jes 11. 3 mwp lb. ]1S0 Jer 9. 10; uui*r chamber, 

closet psc Ps 26, 8, 68. 6 HCh 36. 15 y^ ijU-j^ 



35 8 XVI!. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

anaTral: = a-mrairal (an exclamation of grief or pain) V 12£ Prv 

*3- 2 9 iji' ^^5 = a^aiTTa—at 
a-ar, arrai/: (a* = im-, cf fTr) strcn^thd. for Trar, quite alt, the uhele 

bttT\ Ex 29. 24 IS 30. 19; a-aat, cV aTraat m all things b^Z Gn 24. I ; 

everyone bin IIR 24. 16 HCh 28. 6; everything bin Jos 21. 45 IlCh 

36. t8 
d-drr}, 7}: trick, fraud, deceit, guile Vnq Job 17. 2 \~D Prv 1. 22 



. \ 



* * -1.1- 1 - 

ar: a njAxo?, " ov : poet. Adj., guileful, wily, deceptive J-^ ^1-^- .y- -j- 

d-dnj/ia, to: deceit, stratagem, beguilement ^r^Z Jcs 30. 10 *.a^- 

srsr.rn Jer 10. 15 
a-cTTjros-, ov: untrodden; not trodden down; hence, metnph., unusual -■— 
c-dVup, d, 17: (wenjp; without father, disowned by As father; of uminov.' 

father, like ck6tios [bastard) m^Z Dt 23. 3; = d-drweo? 
a-«£oy, ov. {vita) footless HCS IIS 9. 13 Jcs 35. 6 Job 29. 15; cf. d-01- 
d^eiA*}, ij: mostly in pi., boastful promises, boost:: commonly :n z'... 

threats; of threatening conditions X7S Jes 29. 14 [cf. d-<uA<w !> 

N'Vsn] niK 5 ?? Dan 12. 6 I'S^S Thr I. O [cf. -:AAd err; r:u: : :. ' ; 

c-Adoi, 7;, o^: contr. ±t.\ov$, t), ot?i% Ia:e torm d:rAd>, opp. ct-.-.ocj- 
fc-q/Wrf, and so, single ?s? Job 41. 5, r'T£3 Jcs 40. 2; simple. 
f?tez'/!, straightforward '-— ; oben, frank -siie- ; simple-minded; in baa 

sense, j/m/>k, j:/i>* *-t ! ^ ; of precious metals, unalloyed, pure r"7 

job 19. 24, 28. 6; cf. crrvpos 
cTrAdrrjy, 77: singleness; simplicity; of persons, frstJaiess, sincerity w -O l ^; 
ctrAo'w: un/b/c/, fWYSfi 53J; Pass., .'0 5* simplified Jr— 

C.TO Dp. l68-0 

drot-y, d, 77: gen. -oco> : -jL-itkoui fool or fit; without the use of one's f:::. 

lame rtCD Dt 15. 2! IIS 9. 13; :\.r. drr<r£o> 
d-r^: fasten or bind to pz"> IR 1 t. 2 Ps 102. 6 Thr 4. 4 :pc Gn 27. 37 

nsc IS 2. 36 -ISS Thr 4. 8 "^rp Gn 44. 30 Dt 6. 8 Jcr 5 1 . 63 Prv 3. 3 [ci". 

- - - »t 
5«'u», tK-] 1 fasten rZD Dan 3. 21 "pn Prv 5. 22 oii -Li i-i jo« : 

join p21 Gn 2. 24 Jos 23. 12 IIS 23. lojob 19. 20,41. 15 Ruth 2. 8 

-!2n Gn 14. 3 Ez 1. 9 ".rp Neh 3. 38 ^j; fasten oneself to nsc: 

Jcs 14. 1 ^30 Ps 83. 8; grasp; take hold of (W) T2D Jos 18. 1 Jcr 

34. n, 16 Tjan Gn48. 17 Ex 17. 12 ten Gn 39. 12 Dt 21. 19, 22. 



XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 359 

28 IS 15. 8 IR 18. 40jcr 26, 8, 34. 3,40. 10 t?DHi Xu 5. 13 Ez 21. 

29 Kj ±3 sJ^f; met a ph. take hold of cleave to p3T Dt 13. 18 IIS 20. 
2 Job 31. 7 Ruth 1. 14, 2, 23 pn Jcs 33. 15 Prv 4. 4, 11. 16; 
abs., begin, set to icork; engage in y undertake, prosecute vigorously; 
attempt (\V) ^nn Jon 1. 13; attack, impugnVZT) Dt 22. 28 Prv 30. 9 

_iiU ; handle TjuH lb 31. 19 SSn Gn 4. 21 Jer 46, 9, 50. 16 Ez 27, 29, 
38. J. Am 2. 15; touch on, treat ruperficially OSH Hab 2. 19; fasten 
ubon f attack ^0 Ez 24. 2; lay hands on ^720 Ex 29. 10 Dt 34. 9; 
have intercourse with a woman p-~* Gn 2. 24 CEH lb 30. 38 T-2 Esth 

7. 3 Xeh 5. 5 [^J ^ ^-] ^ --^ -^ ^-7^ ; *"« ^P -'*, «^, ^^ 

p-T Gn IQ- 19 Tpn Prv 5. 5 ; make use of avail oneself ojZZZ Gn 1. 28 
^j" Prv 3. 18; Act., kindle, set fire (i.e. by contact with nrc; nr.n Jes 
30, 14; kindle nrn Prv 25. 22 7& Jes 9. 1 7 Jer 51. 58 "C Xah 1. 10 
"Z Thr 2, 4. 4. r 1 ; Pass., to be set on fire mi Jer 4- 7 r~£Z lb 2. 15 
Xeh 1. 3; cook mc Gn 43. 16 Dt 28. 31 IS 8. 13 Prv 9. 2 « [cf. 

crrr^otoi'. rd: ir^orA mi" Ex 26. 4, 10 rn^ri^ lb 26. 4. 5 

drrvpos, o:-: without fire ~*<ZX Xu 19. 9 Thr 3. 16 ^SS Gn i3. 27 Job 
30. 10 ; a. xpvoiov unsmeltcd, opp, <i-t<pQov (TSV2;, ^""X Job 22. 24 

ICh 29. 4 ts:x nro Jcs 13. :^ PS45. 10 Job 20, 10 ~v:3 IR 10. 21 

r"*; Jer 6. 29 Job 19. 24 Zach 5. 7, 8;^ I [pure gold] but a. xjv- 
cdf, of nuggets, or gold dust; "S3 Job 28. 6; Btlov i. *:~:::e sulphur 

r.*^2J Gn 19. 24 ^jr- [ cl ~ o^^r] apnafa p. 242; MicW^ p. 685 
GPYaLOff, a, qv\ [dpxv I) ancient, former pwX") Dt 10. 4 Ecci. 1. II ; 
simple, silly ?X1 IIS 3. 8; n^ Subst., rd apxaloi-, of money, principal 
TX^ Lev 5. 24 Xu 5. 7 [of. cpyrj] ; capital J^ ^U ; -. p. 383 
JjY G: ^ T7 75'» T : anc i* n t history, antiquity, ancient times rvu~X"} Jes 46. 9 
cj^ t ^ : beginning, origin TXn Jud 7. 19 HZ^n Ez 36. 1 1 r~X~l Gn 1. 1 ; 
foundation TXn Ps 118. 22 -rx"l Zach 4. 7 [cf. di'Cc] r.TX^ Prv 1.7; 
with Preps, in adverbial usages, cj dpxfjsfrom the beginning .from the 
first rx"~ Jes 40. 2 1, 41. 4; err* c. the principal sum CX"- Lev 5. 24 
Xu 5. 7; end, comer of a bandage, rope, sheet, etc. ~X"l Gn 47. 31 
Esth 5. 2 ; branch of a river rXT Gn 2. 10 [cf. Ktpas) ; jiot, total ~xn 
Ex 30. 12 7X1 Dan 7. 1; authority \\*V! Esr 3. 7; command, i.e. 
io<fv of ^00^ 5NH IS M. 11 Job 1. 17; :/. p. 383 
GDxiStoxoTO^, d: chief deacon rx^ri ]H3 IIR 25. i8; cf. apxos 
dpxos, o: //a<fcr f chief VK') Xu K 4 Dt 1. 15 IIR 25, 18 Xeh II. 16 
ICh 27. 5 JWX~) I ICh 22. I ; ruler; = apx<*>v (ruler, commander; chief 



3 6o XVII- COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

king; as official title, chief magistrate, esp. at Athens) tm Jud 1 1. 
Jcs 7. 8 ICh 5. 7, 12 iip IR 5. 4 [cf. 6 Kparw, -ajp] ; r. p. 384 
d<£avt£cj p. 3 I 7 

^aiVca : 50 ; £0 away, depart X2 Jon 1.3; come H2 Gn 1 9. 5 ; arrive XZGni ■;■ 

23 Ruth 1.2; to have sexual intercourse N- Gn 38. 2 V>2 Dt 24. r 

fidofiapos, o^: barbarous^ i.e. non-Greek, foreign; barbarian; after the 

*■ * - 
Persian war, in/te/, rude ""1*3 Ps "73. 22 {Sjiji 

pTJpa- TTpofiaTa [cattle, focks, and herds) risnri Gn 1. 24 n22 Jcr 26. 18 

£«/«, Acol and Dor ^ua, to, (SaiWj : = SdiW (p!., foundation: . 

nc2 Job 9. 8 ; raised piece or /ni>u/7<r to speak from in public asserr.:;!- . 

etc. j^-i ; = 8vfjL€\Tj (prop, place of burning, hearth, but usu. oi sacr:r.c:a. 

hearths or altars) ~Z2 IR 3. 4 IIR 23. 15 ; r. p. 385 £ot* p. 662 

pooicqfia, to: *Aar a-AzcA irjW or fatted: in pi fatted beasts, cattle: cf a 

jinfffe krort HS-2 Dt 11. 15 Mich 5. 7 Ps 8. 3 ; food pr?2 Gn 15. 2 

ytul^: fill full of load C~S Xch 13. 15 trz'J lb 4. n O'SSn IR 1 :. : : 
jl* Jli jit ; freight or war** x?7A, prop, of a ship .y— ; j.'riff, »5r-# 

l^LU; y. pp. 243, 385 

yoxos, 6: skip's freight, cargo ,j*-—\ • u ^— ; burden: beast's load w — ::. 

yofidptov: Dim. of ycuoi] ytuiaua, g?OSS on y£iios: /-"'G^ ' ""i ; 

Zach 12. 3] ; ;\ p. 380 

batZu D. ?-U 

ocugCoj: overpower: of maidens, mc£* subject to a husband; .:*:r^:. 

conquer TiTil Hos 4. 5; Pass., to 6* subjected to another n"I lb ,1. ^ : 
/:r«, Wu^ Xrr Gn 34. 13 Nu 5. 13 Ez i3. 6, 22. u, 23. if: 

= Sa/xva'cj, Sdpvrjfn oai'tiLcv p. 0~ z 

ocicj, 0€ P fi, tj: «« "IN;? Jcr 23. 10; .'Araa/ "lies Ps 75. 6; collar 7^2 

Cant 4. g 
ieAroff (B), 17: writing tablet r?7 Jer 36- 23 
5<?uaj, rd: (he pus) bodily frame, usu. of man, rarely of other ar.imali: 

prop. /A* //wTif 00c v =2? Thr 4. 7 ; but also of a corpse ]«T IIR c. 3 - 

Ps 83. 1 1 CS2? Gn 50. 25 Ex 13. 19 Am 6. 10; the i^iand of Dzla 

H2*7 Ez 27. 32; otVa;-C7ji S M i.e. the vine i/rucr C*T liz 19. :o; 

Ja^arpos: a*rar 5., i.e. 6r^ CH^ Gn 23. 20 [cf. CiT? ?*2 Q Uz; 

J^pr/repos] ; as Adv., inform or fashion like r,^E~r Gn 1 . 26 Ez 1 . 5, 20 : 

v. p. 386 
5ta pp. 169, 649; SidK€vos: thin, lank y?hfi Jes 53. 5 
&!Swni: give freely ]TC IIS 24. 23 Esr l 2 ICh 29. 8 3T2Tin ICh 

29. 17; to be ready to give, ojfer nsnn Esr 2. 68 Nch 11. 2 ]r: 



XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 361 

Gn 15. 2; of the gods, grant, assign, kvSos, vIkt) T\Z7\ (-IT) Ps 60. 
13 ]rj lb 144. 10; grant permission ]TM Ex 3, 19 Xu 2!. 23; offer 
to the gods nan Dt 32. 3 Ps 29. 1-2 tij Gn 28. 20IS k 11 "inn 
Esr 3. 5 ICh 29- 9; give nsn Gn 30. 1, 47. 15 -± ]W Gn 4. 
12, 15. 2 noy Ps 84, 7 [cf. Gn 28. 4 Ex 32. 29 Dt 11. 26, 29, 
12. 15 Jos 15. 19] tj^ ij=^l jnn IR 17. 14; girt to cat or drink 
]rj Gn 25. 34 IIR 4. 44; Under an oath ]i\2 ICh 29. 24; €/i/3oAc9 
St'down, rj/n, of ships ]rj Ez 26. 9 ; hand over y deliver up "n Gn 29. 2 1 . 
47. 16 ]TZ Xu 2 1, 29 Jud 1 1. 30 ]rin Jer 32. 4; of parents, give their 
daughter to wife ]H3 Gn 16. 3, 34. 16, 41. 45 Dt 22. 10 IS 25. 44 
IIR 14. 9 TtlT-Z Gn 38. 14 IS iO. 19; appoint, establish nzn Jos :3. 4 
IIS ir. 15 pljos 9. 27 Xeh 13. 26 ICh 12. 18 (19}; in vows and 
prayers, c. ace. pers. ct inf., grant, allow, bring about that, esp. in 
prayers ]72 Jer 18. 21 Hos 9. 14; seemingly intr. T give oneself up, 
devote oneself 21inn Jud 5. 2, 9 I ICh 17. 16; v. p. 386 

diKa^cu: judge, sit in judgment flT Jes 3. 13 ppn lb 33- 22 -£w Gn :3. 
25; give judgment on, decide, determine ]Tt Jer 2!. 12 "in Job 22. 28 
ppn J« IO- 1 pp^ Prv 3. 15 C2^ IR 3. 28; decree punishment "?: 
Esth 2. 1 ^£S> Ez 7. 3: ordiiin 2^ Gn 19, 9"" Esih 2, r : condemn 
7TT G11 15. 14 ~Mi Thr 3. 54 C^r IS 3. 13; plead, llecd orS s cause, 
go :o law, defend one's right ]1"T Job 35. 14 Ecc: 6. :o r™: ?r/ 29. 
; decide between persons -^ Gn 16. 5 Ex 18.16 \ judge person's cause 
]**7 Jer 22. 16 tsr Ps 7. 9, !0. i3 (c\ p. 676} 

c<Zooi\ r6: [BiBujfjLt) gift, present ]r^ Gn 34. 12 n;rs lb 25. 6 "■; Eccl 
3. 13 — :; ^j/i of honour r.~2 IR 13. 7; ro/:« £//; or offering to a god 
7= Xu 18. it nir.a Ex 23, 33 Xu 18. 6 rr-*z Ez 40. 5 ™: Ex 
35* 2 9 "^ Ga 28. 20 Lev 7. 16 Xu 15-3; presents as retaining fees 
or bribes jn^ Prv 21.14 HITS lb 15. 27; in pL, ^oos qualities, talents 
T7*l Eccl 5. 18; hand's breadth, palm, as a measure of length " T 

Ex 28. 16 IS \i. x — ; v. p. 380 

€l\' pp. 169, 63O 

«-tV, uia, o*, (fiLTj only in !a:er Ion. Prose) — Ep, tetr. Dor. ^». (O^g- 
eVr, assim. o-(5) . . .) as a Xumeral, on* nx E: iS. 10 "rnx Zach 
14. 9 **-nx Gn 22. 13 Jes 66. 17 in Ez 33. 30 nxs Gn 17. 17 ^ 
(*n}ry Ex 26. 7 nna Prv 17. 10 ^X Jes 40. 26 Ez i- 23; in oppos., 
made emphatic by the Art., o ek, rj fila "Tnxn Gn 19. 9, 42. 27, 
3-> 33 nnxn lb 32. 9; united "inx Ex 26. 6, II ; dzro fiids: with one 
accord THX H3 Jos 9. 2; ^ lv at once nnN3 Prv 28. 18 ChDX Esr 4, 



3 6 2 XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

13 OkriD Nu 12. 4 S?riD lb 35. 22 [cf. atyvrfiov, irapa or nap ^o3o>] ; 

first inx Gn i. 5, 8. 5; one, i.e. the same "THX lb 40. 5 Eccl 2. 14; 

one opposite another iv p.kv . . . tvSe'^nx . . . *rnN Ex 25. 19; ou uu.v 

ou Be SJo noc once nor twice trnr H 1 ?] r.HS X 1 ? IIR 6. 10; r. p. 3^9 

cTaicw : poet. Verb only pres. and impf. (esc. fut. c^cu) ; deem like, /icrr. 

mtf Jes 40. 25 n*,u IIS 22. 34 nwn Jes 46. 5 Thr 2. 13 v^ 1 V 1 ^ u ; 

I Jo not deem thee /£«, i.e. taAc thee for a wise man ;~n Gn 38. 15 

Job 13. 24, 41. 24; deem, suppose nrn IIS 19. 20 Jes 53. 4 *- — » 
ilauj p. 169 
dra, tlrev: Adv., used to denote the Sccucnce of one act or s:a:c 

upon another: of Sequence in time, without any notion ci Cause, 

thin, next F~T>? Dan 2. 15, 17, 19, 25; scon, presently lb 5. 6. 8 :-' 
oc p. 1 70 
t/caaro?, 77, ov: each, opp. the whole body ^TN Gn 2. 24 Ex 1. :. 28. 2: 

Jud 16.5; strcngthd, by the addition of other Proas., *lV *. ^X ~K 

Lev 20. 2 (v. ayyp, p. 286) 
*KKtv6co\ empty out n7n Jes 14. 10 (c\. yweu/> *?"?n Ez 23. 9 "T" 

lb ^2. 26 (cf. €kx€viut£ov>: one must cmo:v, of venesection ; clear 0::: 

n"2Tn 1 1 CI: 2 0- 19 "-? Gn 24. 31 Lev 14. 30 Jes 40. 3; to be exhaiuled 

77n3 Jes 53. 5; :\:. <ara- 
O' p. I 70 

t r vOi*o$", <V-, o^; [H<^ r according to right, just. legitimate pns Lev :c.. 3~ 
Dt 16. 18 Jes 32. : .'rjf/z Kis Dan 3. 14 p*ns Jes 41.26 p"J2 lb 45, 
19 Ps 52. 5 Prv 16, 13 J-^> J-4»; €. -oAt,- a city in which justice is 
done, Plato, Miopias Major 292b pTSH "TV Jes 1. 26; of persens. 
upright, just p"-S Gn 6. 9, 18. 23 pvis IIS 8. I 7 J- Lj ^-^j; Adv. 
-*cu9 n*A/, with justice, fairly pTS Dt I. 16 p"ISZ Lev 10. 15: :\ D. 380 

igopvaaiu, At: -rrcj : i:* oar the earth from a trench "l?2 Jes 5:. : 
p?V Jes 5. 2 Jy- ; £':/ jy: of the ground, dig up, uproo: \\" "- 
Eccl ^. 2 nr Ps =2. ~; ^t?:/^ 0:;: "ip: Nu :6. :^ lob ?o. : ** 'cf 

t^ujdtv p. I 70 
€?ratv€w-\- p. MO 

€7Tl p. I 7O 

(ptiTTQj: Pass., to J(f thrown down, fall in rums -"in Jer 26. -"in? i^z 

26, 19 
€>'cu-f p. 349 

€v8v$ p. 64I 
C^fl€W+ p. 660 



XVIL COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 363 

C 7 }^ 7 ?> t\\ female rival ms IS I. 6 

Zt^dvtov^ to: a weed that grows in wheat, prob, darnel 2*smi Cn 30. 
r 4 &bfa Jes 18. 5 ETC HCh 16. 14 

rjytuiuv p. 637 

iJAtoff p. 309 

Oeaoaaij Dor 0a€Ofj.ai: gazc^ behold Tlw Job 17* J 5 *">~~- Gn 4-4 ns?r.~rn 
Jcs 41. 23 ^j ; mostly with a sense of wonder rrxrrn Gn 24. 21 
7i*r&7l Jes 41. 10; reconnoitre "1171 Xu 13. 2; contemplate T!~r Job 35. 5 
nvr IIS 22. 42; see clearly ~N3 Xu 24. 1 7 Job 7. 3 rrrr Jes 32. 3^ 

tffdf, d, lioeot t/tdi, Lacon cidi*, <~id/3, Dor also i-tv*. voc. (only late) 
t?*d* also tW - . - but classical in compel, names, Au6l0^€ 73*3 Gn 
21. 22 ; Cod, tut Deity, in general sense, both sg. and pi. /X Dt 32. 
i3 ?3,'*2', Gn 2!. 22 IIS IS 2. 2; o/tt <** :» a:;: : :cri:y 'VX IIR 2^. : =; 
^X Ex 15. 15 {;■. p. 300} 

depa-tvuj— p. 344 (c\ p. 391) 

Oeujpcaj: Pass., to be sent to consul! an oracle 1" IR :o. 15; look at, be- 
hcld ~vtr Xu 23. Job 35. 5 Cant 4. 8 f± ; -rupee: ">-? Xeh 2. 13 
JiL : ; = tTTiOeojptto (exaxitiie over again or carefully, inspect ~l-~? Xeh 2. 
13; of the mind, contemplate, consider *VT Jc-b 17. 15; observe "*.1T. 
X;i 13. 16. (Derived from Oecjpos and ?£2:u::; cf. cs^o; :\ p. 391* 

dpvuua. to: [Opu-Tuj] thai u.hich is broken of. bit ~3~:r Ex 22. 30 

dpurrrtu, later form dpvBt±>: break in pieces, break small ~p2 Gn 3. : : 
37. 33 Dt 33. 20 Hos 6. 1 

6vu6s-r pp. 297-8 

cvpa, Ion tVprj, -7: door r.7~7 Gn 19-9; freq. in pi, of double or folding 
doors ~b^ Ez 41 . 23, 24 STS IR 6. 34 S"7p lb. : rarely for -ruAat, ^-/^ 
ri7"i Dt 3. 5 n~r:; Cant 3. 9 "^ Jos 2. 5; 2; Priam's door, i.e. 
before his dwelling n~rr Ps 69. 26 TIT IR 5. :5, 3. 6 j-- ; esp. of 
kings and potentates, court rrr2 Gn 25. :6 "V r Esth 3. 2 ^"sn 
Dan 2. 49; frame of planks, raft m" IR 5. 23; generally, 
entrance, as to a grotto ""Job 3- 10 V"j7s Dan 3. 26. Indo-European 
d;:ur- y cf LatinyV^./jw, Old English duru 'door" [Here we have 
the same word, albeit differently pronounced, in Arabic (;'-), 
Aramaic (*?"!"), English (door), Greek izvpa] , Hebrew ("iT^B), 
and Latin (foras) — the Arabic and the English, the Aramaic and 
the Latin, the Greek and the Hebrew, most closely resembling 
each other. Deleted is the bogus barrier which has for so long 
segregated the Aryan from the so-called Semitic languages!] 

(*• P- 39-) 



3 6 4 XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

dwpai, o: corslet, coat of mail, scale armour pp Jcr 46. 4 m? Job 41. 
18 pm? IS 17- 5 ptf'Nch 4. 10 p? IR ac- 34 cry £j-; = 
flaipaKiov (breastwork, parapet) Kn?K Esr 5. 3 TIO Ez 46. 03 mT3 
lb. ™ Ga 49. 22 jj- [jnir/ruptoff : Syrian Dt 3. 9] 

r^a*-r p. 659; iVor p. 641 

KdBatpw p, 685 (v. p. 394) 

xaipcy, d: due measure, proportion HIDTX Lev 2. 2 JTC1 Xu 3 1 - 54 12TT 
Gn 26- 12; of Place, ri/af ^arf of the body m?t Jud 20. 16; 
generally, time, period \ chronological sequence ox events 1^* Ps 145. 7: 
in pi. ot Katpol the times riTDDT Esth 6. 1 ; Pythag- name for sever. T 

#coA«cj, -At^oj, -At^x, /oWoj: fti//, summon Kip Lev 9. : ; :j// :o or/j r.ou:e 
or to a repast XI p IR 1. Q Job 1.4; k£k\t}pIvos the guest X;ip IS 9- 13: 
wraAtf Xip Gn 12.8 IIR 5. 1 1 ; special construction, is called Kip: 
Dan IO. I -l) Jli ; = k\co> (B) 

ktctc p. 171 

«rara<€vdoj : strengthd- for k€vo<jj; make empty by depletion JVSTr; Jes 1 9. 6 ; 

make a place empty by leaving it, desert it rTZTH ICh 28. 9 n:2 Zeph 3. 15 
KtXtvdTiTTjSt d: [I believe this word to be kindred to cpx°M at ] wayferr- 

mx Jcr 14. 8 "P" US i2. 4 U>. p. 394, 
Kevo?, Ktivos, k€v€os, <wof, ^^u:o; : mostly of things. empty, cpp. 

-WW (X"-} J'^, ^" '>t)Ad*) IS io, 5 Tin Ps 109. 22 cf. Job 

r 1. 12) Dt 32. 42 Ez 32. 22 H^n Lev 2. 4, 24. 5 -"-^ Jer 52. 2 : 
OD II, 12 (cf. Oicicei-oa; 11/ mJ (auAos 1 ; ^55. I - •-* .' '-*JuG ,-. 13 

n*p T IR 14. 15; to no purpose E:n IS 10. 5, 25. 31 ov fizxovuaC cgl 

Sea KtvTJs C3n Ps 109. 3; without the fruit of toil --•"■ Gn 29. 15. 

cmi)ty-handed CHH Ex 21. 2; of place, without garrison 1-2 115 5. 8; 

without Jlesh CU2 Gn 41. 23 (e?. p. 395) 
*€v*>ua, rd: cti/>{? j£e« npn Gn 24. 23, 31 Ex 33. 21 Jud 20. 22 Jes 

5. 8. 28. 8, 49. 20 Jer 7, 32, 19. 1 1 Xch 2. 14 O*^, y^ ; Gn i3. 

2i, 29. 26, 30. 25 D: 12. 21, 21. 19 IIR 5. :: Kith 4. 14 Eir 3. 17 

^?t- o'<^; vacancy Cp- Gn 24. 23; o'tcrpa: temple lb 22. 4-5 
«pGu«uy: />oi/^r 12V Jer i3. 2 l?: Job 7. 20 c:. Gn 2. 7; ir: 

T^rrjff) 112 Ps 73, 20 ;:'. p. 3 9 3) 
tc€pas p. 348 
icnptov, to, tempos, 6: honeycomb , mostly in PL 13?2 Cant 5. 1 m^- 

IS 14. 27 US Ps 8i. 17 ^y 
*A«w (A), Ep. #cA«t'cu: /*// q/; make famous, celebrate Kip Ruth 4- 1 1 ; 

Pass., /a be famous XTip Ez 23- 23 Knp Xu 1. 16 Kip: IIS 20. 1 
*At}£oj, Ion *Atj?£cjj: make famous, celebrate in song Kip Ruth 4. 1 1 ; 



XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 365 

mention, speak of; invoke X*lp Gn 12. 8 IIR 5. 1 1 Ps 80. 19; summon 

xnp Lev 9. 1 ; call xnp Gni. 5; Pass., is called xnp] Dan 10. 1 

(jcA*(f)-i£oj (fr. k\£os) 'celebrate* and kXtj-l^co (fr. KaXtu*) 'call* 

were confused by the Greeks.) 

KV€<f>d£tu: (xvt^as) cloud over, obscure ^133 Jes 30. 20 

Kve6as: darkness of evening dusk, twilight; morning twilight ^23 Ps 139- 9 

koivos, 7], oV; common *?ft IS 21. 5; ro k. fA* j/£/*; abs. of one's own 

state J^; M* government, public authorities *yn Esth 1. 3; in bad 

sense ko*^', tj, prostitute mil Gn 34. 31 n"n Lev 21.7; of persons, 

connected by common origin, kindred ^n Ob 20; of forbidden meats, 

common, profane 771 Lev 10- 10; to *. name of tyesahe J^i 
KoAa^ui: f/f^i, chastise; punish vhn Ex 17. 13 
*oAaauoV r d: = xoAaat? (chastisement, correction, retribution) "7?.i Ps 38. 

3 jV?£ Jcr 13. 26 Prv 9. 7, 22. 10 (doubtful) 
KoAaa-nJff : ckastiser > punisher ~?H Jes 14. 12 
^0^117, 17: £#;> of the head H3^ Cant 4. 1,3; */:* £^:V "*-£ Lev 13, 47 

"1?? Dan 7. 9 ow>; meiaph.yb//^ of trees "v;: Ez 15. 2 mas 

lb 17. 22 ; of herbs "2 Ez 16. 7; luminous tail of 2 comet ri3*3 Am 

5. 3 [cf- Cuk-o/xoS"; £*- p. 399] 
Kovoi^uj p. 353 

Kpdi p. 348 

Kvp€ut, alio Kvpcu: /lit, ::ghl upon X^p Gn 42. 3S "p lb 44. 29; meet 
with TT.p Dt 25. 1 3; befall "TU Ps 5. 5 Hip Esth 4. 7 o^ ; happen 

x^p IIS 1. 6 nip Dun 10. 14 o^j 1 ^ (:\ p- 39c 

KVpiQS p. 65O; K(ju*i>duj^~ p. OO4 

Adyo*, 6, verbal noun of Atyai (B) : measure *7 Lev :_:. 10; explanation: 
statement of theory, argument, discourse; rule, principle, Uw, thesis Hp7 
Prv 4. 2; spoken opp. written word, talk ir;7 Ecci 12. 12; di'jinc 

utterance, oracle ~~7 Jes 3. 3; utterance ^^-~ : language •*-*-'; reason 
np7 Jes 29. 24 Prv 1.5 >. p. 399) 

^aaj^t'Jaj-i- p, 667 

^€>«T- PP- -95" 8 
fUra p. 171 

ptrptu* — p. 343 

jitl/fios, 6: blemish 313 Lev 24. 19; blame, reproach 3* i X3 Dan 1. 4 naiXQ 
IS 29. 3 

vaos, 6 t vaios y Aeol yauor, Spartan vapos: temple X2 Xah 3. 8 ITU Ex 
15. 13; ^ar/ q/"a temple, shrine TPMjTWl IS 19. 18, 20. 1 ; i\ p, 400 



366 XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

vain), 77: woodland vaU, dell, glen; valley 7TU IIS 7. 3 [cf. vo^s) J-'^ 

rs")2^ US 19. 19 (v. p. 400) 
va-nos, to: post-Homeric form = vutttj: grove or thicket -V Jcr 4. 29 

Vvi; also ™cw, £»//y Hi: IIS 7. 3 "IZ'J IS 26. 13 ' " 

voe'cj-f- p. 350 
vofioj, o: (vefiaj) place of pasturage HIJ IIS 7. 3; habitation .TU Jcs 35. 7 

f* 1 ^' 3- 33 J metaph., apportionment riNra Xeh 12. 44 nr: Ex 29. 26 

IS 1.5, 9. 23 Jer 13. 25 Ps 16. 5 [cf. 0611c. [A), o^pr^a] rrvz Xeh 

12. 47 (0. p. 400) 

£avdos, -q, 6f, genitive -Sou: yellow, of various shades. frcqucnUv with 
a tinge of red E~X IIR 3. 22 Cant 5. jo *"-~J\ Gn 25. 25 ':r 
Jos 2. [8 Cant 4. 3 (cf. ©oiVc^J ^J jL»\ ; brown; auburn Z',~ Gn 30. 32 
~~ lb 5. 32 1120 Can; 2. !3~!C0 [of horses] Jcr 51. 27 JiYl jlll ; in 
Epic mostly used offair. golden hair -~2 Lev 13. 30: of complexion. 
v^-x Gn 25. 25 :— rx Gn 10. 3 x:is IIS io. 6 -=rs IS iz. a 7 
ns Cant 5. 10 pTS Jud 10. 6 |TS Gn 10. 15 ~~:i lb 10. 18 r!r 
lb 5. 32 iss IR 16. 24 rvHstf IlCh 24. 26 p™ Jud 13. 24; also 
of horses, bay EV7X Zach 1. 3 JLi\- t after Homer, of a!l kinds of 
objects; of gold Z~l Ex 25. 11 ■— -^--i; rr~r? J« 2z. 23 r~r Gn 15. 
•'- -~- -; of roast ni^eon izrx ICh 16. 3; in Medic, frea of bi : - 
^-^i ^ai/tfos, paroxyione. as proper noun, a stream of :he Trend, 
so called by godi 3 by men Scamander -.'II. 20. 7^ ":\ p. ^00 

tr.paU-Lj: parch, dry up ^-r Jcr 2. 12 Hrr Job 30. 30; Pass.. :j be or 
i^j;;:^ Jry, parched "2: £ 2 21.3; r<? 6c ukhtrtd rrrsz Jcs 5.;. : 1 
[cf, ^etfta^uj] ; a>j;;i j>v -" Gn 8. 13 2*.r \[j []. 3 -; " : ; Pjss.. of a 
paralytic J-il Jj^- r. p. 402) 

frj/xis, a, oV: rfjry -^ Lev 7. 10 mX Prv 23, 27 w'o- ^U ; solid food, 

i.e. cereals Sh; Dt 33. 1 4 f^n Ps 32. 4 nc^y \u : 5. 20 w : : ^ _i-^ : 

of bodiiv condition, zuithered. lean Hli'S Je* ^ * :: u/j . U -^ - 

jj;::rtg\ hence generally, zxslere "ITC Jcs 5a. ; 1 *;^ ro f. i:r:d::\ 

m:: Lev 16. 22 r-." D; 1. 2 Jcr 49. 13 nz^rr lb 25. 1.3 £ 2 -y_ 3 

*■ • j'-j,. ^ tit* t r >* 

J^ 5 35- 7i T ° f- r °£ -orcuou //«■ prt/f of ::s bed :V;: c//v nz^n Ex 
14. 2t Jos 3. 1 7 Ez 30. 12 -~in Jer 50. 38 
fuAov, to: a-ooff cut and ready for use fi* Gn 6. 14 Ex 31. 5; firewood 
fS Nu 15. 32 IR 17. io, 1 2 Jer 7. 18; to/iwr ]*" Hag 1. S ICh 29. 
2; logs fi? Lev 1.7; piece of wood fS? Lev 14. 4 Ez 37. 16; log -^f '; 
beam *iiT; post ^jU -4jU; board (W) i?^ IR 6. ij; gallows J? 
Esth 5. 14; taAk inV^ Ex 25. 23; of live wood, tree jTK Dan 4. 8 



XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 367 

rmrx Mich 5. 13 mcfx Dt 16. 21 p Gm.n *?xs/'n?xs Job 40. 
ci [cf. axo^oy] ; of persons, blockhead "?*02 Prv 10. i 723 Eccl 2. 19 
[d. 6^v\ov; v. p. 402] 
£upi£w-r pp- 249, 636 

oSoV, 17 (otSos once in Horn., Od. 17. 196): of Place, way, road TiTX 
Job 23. 1 i THn Jes 45. 2 fBl Jer 37. 21 r.3in Jer 1 1. 13 "P Job 8. 4 
[cf. Ps 107. 1 7] "?12D Jer 18. 1 5 7^2Z? Ps 77. 20 J^r- A— ,« foaw, m<m/k/ 
of a river T" Dt 2. 37 t>-'j ; the way to truth o-^ ; ~po obou further 
on the way, forward 2*7** Jes o. 1 1 S^; profitable, uzeful S2Z Gn 37. 26 
Ps 30. 10 Job 22- 3 [ci. XPVP*] \J ora J " r ~ : . ^ 3- - 2 * IR 5- - HCh 

26. 1 1 J>=- ; mctaph., urav or manner v 1 *' a-' 1 - 5 - ; J"^^ ^7*"* Ez 43. 1 t 
*jj-* ; method, system vj^- ' ("• P- 4 02 ) 

oSowV, Ion dS^v, o: /00M p Gn 49. 12 *^-; any: kin* pointed or jA«i^, 
Zoo//:, prong p IS 2. 13; ploughshare "K Jes 2. 4; o. -erpas, />«£, 
pi'jw 27C*" p IS 14. 4 [cf. ardixf ; r. p. 405] 

otKe'cu— p. 665 

o.W, 17, 01/, Ion ouAo?: whole, entire, complete in all :ts parts 7*72 Ez 

27. 3 =77 IR 8. 61 HCh 3. 16 J-<, n-fto/*, i.e. -'^.'V r.-^ jcand C*7'.X 
Ps 73. 4 27:7 Gn 33. :3 ^'L_ -rA_; «!.':>*. utter 72 IIS 2. 9 Jer 15. 
10, 20. 7 iP"""; neu:. as Adv. d\W or rd aW js .'^ w.-iole, generally 
4<^-"h; = -£?, <t// 72 Ex r. 22 IIS 2. 9 Jes 22. 3 Jer -5. :o, 20. 7 Ps 
116. 11 72n Ex 29. 24 ACl ; f«rv 7X Gn 30. 40 72 lb., Ex i . 22 ; as 
subst., rd o.W, the wiwerse-rin Ps 49. 2 27*2 Ps 66. - 72.7 Jes 18. 3; 
rd d. o.«V all 77-n Ps 39. 6 ; Adv. d\W wholly, altogether 7*72 Ex 28. 3 I 
Lev 6. 15; freq. with a negative, ody d. or d. od ".ot at all n7*7n 
Gn aa. 7 IS 14. 45, 20. 2 r.77n Gn 18. 25 [Mark tiie different 
scales of the homologies and their corroborative value: n7*7~ } 
7*72 *±-\ 273\ ^'L -jf; 27*X, .Y; 27*2, 72. Moreover, having 
regard to 72,^ and -^-C'U.can it be said that "722 — which was 
not borrowed from Arabic — is a posi-bibiicai word?] [v. p. 405': 

drnj p. 649 
owAtj p. 314 

<3ir.W pp. 315, 34- 0- P- 4° 6 ) 

dpaw-r- Pp. 344-5 (*'- P- 4° 6 ) 

dpyt'Cw : make angry, provoke to anger, irritate S*nn Jes 43. 23-4 Mai 2.17 
OS? IS i. 6 , S2H lb i. 7 till Jes 57. 20 Am 8. 8 p Prv 16- 28 
23S IR 1. 6 22? Jes 63. 10 2*ssn Ps 78. 40 mn IS 28. 15 sn 

Job 26. 12 SPnn Jer 50. 34 Q"T"in IS I. 6 i=^-i ^-ki-1 il&i; ^rou/ 



368 XVIL COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

wgiy* b* wroth nsn Gn 45. 5 m Gn 45. 24 nnr.n IIR 19. 27 ]n 

Jcs 29. 24 OS! Ez 27. 35 cyo Xch 3. 33 PIT Ps 2. t ; abs. in part., 
in a passion 57Hi3 Jcs 57. 20 Am f!. 8 pi 3 Prv 16. 28 (v. p. 406) • 

op^off-r P- 634 

Qpi£a>: divide, separate from *712 Xu 16* 21 7^zn Gn 1. 6 Ex 2G. 33 
Lev i- 17 Nu 16- 9 *n32 Gn io»5 113 Esth 3. 8; delineate V2; Dt 
19. 14; iou/uf ^2i Jos iO. 20; part y divide C^isn Lev 11. 4 zns: Ez 
34- 12; banish one from im IlCh 26. 2! nil Ps 31. 23 ri::Jon 2. 5 
sii Gn 3, 24, 4. 14 Jud g- 41 rii Ex 12. 39 71 v; Jud 1. 33; ^a^; e<\-; 
Oy boundaries, mark out */"in Ex 19. 12, 23 ; ordain, determine, lav ^;r-: 
1TI2 Esth 2. 1 fin IR 20. 40 rnD Xu 15. 34 Xcii ;;. w ™"n Jcs 5 k 4 

opor, ro; mountain, hill 1*1 Gn 31. 25 Ex 3. 12 Jcs 13. 2. 40. 4 (\<11X 
HS 23. 33 p)1iq Jcr 17. 3 0)111 IIS 23. 11 Jl I'S Xu 23. 9 
j J» nan Jos 18. 25 ;±xi Dt 4. 43 -i:£Xi ICh 5. 58 7.1 Jcr 30. i3 : 
49. 2; canton, parish 11 Gn 10. 30, 36. 3 -1" lb 14. 6; in Egyp:, 
desert j> ±±ji ; cf. opo? : pillar 1iD IR 7. 2; bcur.djj-* \:\ p. ^10) 

ootr, o: serpent n!7£K Jcs 30. 6 SDS lb 14. 2Q "1T£:> lb 1 i. 3; rpi*a- 
p7jwos* o. o xaA**o£ dedicated at Delphi Xu 2:. 4-0 IIR 18. a. I; 
was pronounced and peril, written" o-o:> 7^*-" Gn 49. 17 [cf. 

/7a;ar, o, Ep. flatvuji': P. lean or Paeon, the physician of [he gods 1" 

Jes 26- 4 Ps 63. 5 rr Ex 15. 2; title of Apollo laxr us epith.. ; 

also of other gods; of Zeus at Rhodes; phys:::a::. healer :iu Xu :o. 

29 ^r-rr^; saviour i deliverer -21 Dt 33. 3 fci" JicV 
rrcpa p. 171 
—apauuOeofiai-tr p. 347 
rracrrar-r p- 309 
WAttj, 77: jma// /i^/;: shield 01 leather without a r:r:. eriginal'v Thraciai: 

C7r IIR 1 1. 10 -V. p. 4:0- 
-«pi p. 1 72 
rrrpa, Ion rr^prj t ?; : lej:he*n pouch, zcalle: *12 D: 23. 25 IS 17. 40 Xl,ir. 

Ex 28. 32 *7j1 Gn 27. 3 
»*<^ pp. 251, 637 
rrtW^t-f p. 343 

tTOKt^tU-p p. 636 

rroXcfittu: to be at war or make war 2112 IIR 3. 23 DnVl Ex 14. 25 
Vj^; with one cnVj I ICh 13. \i; fight, do battle CTTfl IR 22. 31 ; 
later c. ace* m^A* ircr upon on*7 Ps 35. 1 



XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 3^0 

TToXtfii^oj, also irToXcfilttti, poet, form of iroAc/ic'w: ivage war, fight 
21H3 IIR 3. 23 DnVi Ex 14. 25 7nD3 Gn 30. 8; trans., war or fight 
with nn7: IICIi 13. 12 (tto'A^os-, p. 97) 
:7o.W f Ep.also7rrdAi f ,ij: n/j HT3 Dan 0. a [cf. jS/h'c] nna IR20. 14 
"PS Jcs 1. 26 ^7D Nch 3. 9 Tp Jes 16. 7 nnp lb 1. 26 [cf. woAiSiov] 
rnp Prv 1 1 . 1 1 ivtb Gn 22. 1 7 Jij *-^j *jy *j>;- a*,^ = a*pd7roAi? 
xy?d II Ch 32. 5 vhz IIS 22. 2 "?? lb 3. 27 ^- (*U iTj) [in 
Jerusalem] *Ji; oats city, country TUTIZ Esr 2. 1 -^ ; country, as 
dependent on and called after its city TIT'S Dan 3. 2 ; esp. 0V1slar.es 
peopled by men *ji'~^ ; community or body oj c:t:ztr*s *~t ; stale -^ -> J ; 
assembly of citizens IST Prv 31.23 (secondary- to a-yopa.) ; ~o\iv -a.l&iv 
a game resembling backgammon -djlo (:•. p. 411. 
rroAiTJjf, ttoAJs, rroens p. 3 10 
-00 p. 1/2 
rrpd? pp. 172-3 
TrTT^o's-, tj, oV, Dor -ravosifijiz*, winged; -. oou ]-"£ D: 32. 33 p" lb. 

tr:ri Jcs 13. 22 
ttvAtj, 17: prop, one icing of a pair of double gales: mostly in pi., ffl.'w 0: 
a ionn (whereas Bvpa = house-door) ")Sr Jer 1. 15; pi. of several 
gates ~!*~ Prv 1. 21; -vAct AtSao the »c:« J'" :.^ netherworld. 
pcriphr. for hell 7Xr "-ITT Jcs 33. 10; r^:?::^ :'.«:* j s zounlr; through 
mountain:, pass; these passes were sometimes really barred bv gates 
"iyr Xah 3- 13; -u'Aai rc3ccpiO€» the S.vai.'j cf Gibraltar (Cadizl 
isr lb 2. 7 [cf. -isr/TrdAir] 

payar-r p. °47 

P* x ^", /Joj^i'Cw, /Ja«x«'C w: -'-- ^^^/i .'/« #:"«, esp. in sacrifices T^' 
Ex 13. 13 

pew, Ep. p*Zu,:Jlow, run, stream, g-ush 211 Ps 78. 20 '?- Am 5. 24 "- 
Thr 3. 40 "iru Jes 2. 2 7!: Jer 18. 14 TP Lev 15. 3 S^ ^j v;J 
J'-; metaph. of things. rsi/i 77: Jcs 45. 8; esp. of 3. fioiv of words 
7T: Dt 32. 2 rpl? lb. ; ro o* in a tumble-doiim ccrdi::jn, collapse 7t: Jud 
5. 5; leak [>] ^j ^- J'*- L-]; very rarely trans., letfiow, pour 
sn: Job 30.^27 11? IIS 14. 14 mi Ps 90. 5 7t: Job 36. 28 *ps Dt 
33. 28 v~> Job 36. 28; land runs milk and honey -IT Ex 3. 8 

pTJyvvpi or -l'w, later pTjacw: Thc word is hardl >' ^^ bv corrcct 
Ati. Prose-writers, cxc. in Pass.— break asunder, rend, shatter ma 
IR 15. 13 ynp IS 15. 28 IR 1 1. 31 an Lev 20. 2 sin Ps2. 9T 2 " 1 
Jes 42. 3; later, esp. rend garments, in sign of grief snp Gn 37. 29, 



37 o XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

34 Ex 28. 32 IS 4- 12, 15. 27 IIS 13. 19, 31 IR ix. 3° J er 36*23 
Eccl 3. 7; break a line of battle or a body of men f^D IIS 5. 20 
fl*n Ex 15. 6; break through pa Ps 80. 13 V? JTSp Jer 22. 4; 
Pass., break, break asurJer fnn Lev 22. 22 7~2 UCh 32. 5 IT^pj 
IR 13. 5; of a stone scored with lettering, i.e. inscribed ppT\ Jes 
22. 16, 30- 8 Ez 4. 1, 23, 14 [spurious; cL ^epeaao;] ; intr., like 
Pass., break or burst forth 7^D Gn" 38. 29 

p^a, Aeol fot'Ca, poet. ptfiV, r root si: Job 14. 3 rm Ex 30. 23 :nr 
Mai 3. 1 g f±*> ^^ J^-; mostly in pL roc:: "±P Ps 80. 12 rxn 

Cant 4. 14 srra Jer 17. 8; iA* roofj or foundaticn; of the earth ^p" 
Am 9. 3 2HS7 Job 36. 30; that from which zn\th:::g springs as from a 
root 2?TS Jcs 40. 24 ~H7 Prv 12* 12 Job :c. 20: foundation -X~) P5 

I 18. 22 H^KT Zach j.. 7 ^H^ Job 13. 27, 2O. 9; r^o; or stock from 
which a family springs -^ Jud 5. 14 Jes 14. 29-30; race, family >" 
Jes 11. 1 wh^ lb 14. 20 Hos 9. 16; bast, f sedation *P^p IR 6. 

15; 6aj* of a vertical pillar "H" Ex 25. 3; r. p. 4:4; 

rcrupor, o, Dor Ttrvpos: Satyr ^VV Lev 17. 7 ~r Zach 13. 4 ^~- 
IIR23. 8 

o<3a<>, to: reverential awe, which prevents one frcm doing something 
disgraceful; also awe with a notion of uonder; generally, reverence, 
worship, honour i\Z* Xu 4. 3 , 3. 24; c. g::n. rbjecti, Jto> a *'£-;, 
reverence for him n:xrs IS :. 3 IIS 5. :o jcs 47. 4 Am 3. 13, 9. = ; 
after Horn., the object of reverential awe, hciir.es:, majesty; object -y 
awestruck wonder "S Jes 13. 19 Jer 3. 19 Ez 20. 6 :\ p. 414} 

G€3ouat: feel awe or fear before God, feel shame: a:~:er Horn., c. ace. 
pcrs., revere, worship; generally, pay honour cr *espt:t io\ Act. ctftu 
is post Horn., used only in pres. and impf.. :l or ship, honour 7 mostly 
of the gods X2S Nu 4. 23; of suppliant XIIS Ex 38. 8 IS 2. 22; 
ctSofiaL as Pass., to be reverenced 2±: Ps S2. : T ::z. 89 

riuc } cidfxa: sign, mark, token ^ : ; _ - *-**^rr "^J— *— tt, : r.gnjrom heaver, 

gtt*/!, portent >j~:; constellation, mos:ly :n pi. .7*j:r*:/;» gou ; :« XZ'J 
Gn 2. 1 Dt 4. 19 Zeph 1. 5 "X23 Jer 2. :o, 10. :6 Hos 12. 6 
Am 3. 13, 5. 16 C*~r Gn 1. 1,2. 1 «. : — ^-j^- 
arjfialyuj: give the signal of attack, etc. X33 Xu 3:. 7; cf. arpartvu* 
axurdXr], rj: staj, cudgel, club C2^ Jes 14. 2Q, 23. 27 [cf. atcrJTTTpov] ; 
at Sparta, staff or aa.'0/i used as a cypher for writing dispatches, 
a strip of leather being rolled slantwise round it, on which the 
dispatch was written lengthwise, so that when unrolled they were 
unintelligible: commanders abroad had a staff of like thickness, 



XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 37' 

round which they rolled these strips and so were able to read the 
dispatches — hence cr/cvraAij came to mean a Spartan dispatch Bntf 
Jud 5. 14; strickle for levelling grain, piled up in a measure D-- 1 
Jes 23. 27; strip or rod of metal or ivory 0Z7 IIS 18. 14 Ps 2. 9 
satr [Cwt?] Jos 23. 13; scourge, whip non Prv 14. 3 023 Jes 1 1. 4 
013 Xah 3- 2 Prv 26. 3 J=»j— ; sucker from a stem "ion Jes 1 1. 1 

<nrapayp.a, to: piece torn off, shred, fragment '"IT: Gn 15. 17 -y^ a v — *^i 
4-Tj; mangled corpse T^ Gn 49. 9 mSIO lb 31. 39 ~£2 Xah 3. 3 
p~n3 lb 3. 1 ; collect, in sg. = Aarvmj (/A* cA//>j of stone in heivmg) 
= GKvpos [chippings of stone, used as road-metal} TT.'l Ez 41. 12-15 

(ttmq'wu. Atl -rrw: tor. it/k/ IT! Ps 136. I 3 C-.2 Lev m.o. 2 1. iop~!2 
Gn 27. .10 -_-i Jp «j; esp. of dogs, carnivorous animals, and the 
like *"•:: Hab 3. 17 r ,~sr Dt 33. 20 p~!2 Ps 7. 3; w</ a^u/^r it: IR 
3. 25 IIR 6. 4 Ps 136. 13 ?~i£ Thr 5. 8 J J {:-. p. 417} 

c— acj— p- 351 

arfiVoi, to: j narrow, close or confixed space "13 Ps 4. 2 ms lb 25. 17; 
generally, stress, distress -.3 Job 15. 24 ms Gn 42. 21 ; tigering *V3 
Jes 2 1 . 3 

cr-re'AAcj— p. 338 

cro'i'i-f o: ;. ; :.:r* /wi«/, as of a rock ]T' IS 14. 4 Job 39. 28; of the 
boar's .'^.c p IR 10. 10; prongs p IS 2. 13 

cit/kXIvlj: lie together bit Dt 28. 30; Pass., 7:r: Jes 13. 16 "*r Jer 3. 
2; /;*;;«; similarly '"?:" Gn 48. 14; .'« «■///* ^""'— : ->- ?- 4 l8 ' 

avv p. I 73 

a X l^: spin, cleave, sever ; AV} ro: Jes 33. 23 p~? lb 33. 20 pr-3 Jer 2. 
20 i*cr Lev 1 1. 7 >cr lb :. 17 ! "j~? IS 15. 33; divide into nun Jud 
7. 16; shatter 7~: IIR 25. to 7"? Xah 1. 6 7.?: Dt 12. 3 7~: Jud 6. 
28 7"n Lev 1 1. 35 -~: jer 1. 10 Ps 9. 7 -r: Jer 3:. 40 -39' ; cut cut 
?r.l Jer 22. 24 pru Ez 23. 34 rnjcr 24. 6 -" Ez 19. 12; generally, 
pert, separate, divide risn Job 40. 30 nsnj IIR 2. 8 Ez 37. 22 Dan 
[ 1. 4 pr- Jud 20. 32 pr? Jos 8. 16 Jer 6. 29 p\"" Jos S. 6 Jer 12. 3 
prs:~ Jud 20. 31 CT.; IR 14. 15 sru Dan i i. 4 V~t IS 24. 8; Pass., 
of feet divided into toes ricr Dt 14. 7 {v. pp. 254, 421) 
a X o\j t rj: leisure, rest, ease, quiet T\t?t Ez 1 6. 49 Prv 17. 1 ^jr—; 
!<rt«i«* DTii' Prv 19. 15 T\t?S2 lb 31. 27 m'?U lb I. 32 -u^; Mc/ 
:/i a-AjVA /*:"jur* :V employed; talk nV?DD Eccl to. 1 ; esp. learned dis- 
cussion, disputation, lecture (pi.) nV730 Eccl 2. 3 bit Prv 23. 9 mVtf 
Jer 22. 21 {v. p. 422) 



37 2 XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

t«A<u>: (reXos) fulfil, accomplish, execute, perform 7YT2 Esr i . I ; bring to 

fulfilment or perfection tf?D Esth 7. 7 ^Vu Ez 27. 4; 6rm£ /o an end, 

finish, end Tib? IR 6. 38 Jcs 33. 1 Dan ir. 36 nbv Ps [0-2.-5; 

somcts. intr. like the Pass., come to an end biH IS 9. 7 D^r? Gn 15. 

16 can Gn 47. 15 Lev 25. 29 IR 6. 22; /ay out, spend Tlhv IR 10. 

16, 17 (v. p. 422) 

Ti'&jfu: «r, £uf, />/a« mn Jcs 11. 8 pa Gn 41. 48 Ex 35. 34 Jos 
22. 25 IR 7. 39 c* Gn 21. 14, 24. 2 IR 10. 9 r.*£ Gn 41. 33, 
46. 4 Ps 8. 7, 84. 4, 140. 6 Job 30. 1 >?- Ex 10. 19 Prv 6. :, 

17. 1 8, 22. 26 Job 17. 3 ]~r. IRC. 19^* ~>j ; Suf 1';:, />u/ :'«/<> ps 
Gn 35. 4 Prv 19. 24 ps: Jes 2. 10 pi Lev 19. :o HCh 5. 10 His D: 
28.8 Ps 133. 3 mi? Gn 31.34, 43- 22jer 40. 10 srrn Esr 5.8 r.T Ex 
10. 1 Ps£3. 7; pit/ i: in his hands p.2 Gn 27. 17 Jud 7. 16 -IS IR 
20. 6 ; of women, to A^r*: a child put under her girdle, i.e. to conceive 
CIS Esr 10. 44; put or plant it in his hear: p- IR 10. 24 Ecci 7. 2 

017 Dt 11. 18 Jes 47. 7, 57. 11 Cam 8. 6 Dan 1. 8 :rtr Jes 44. 19 
rrv Ps 1 3. 3 Prv 26. 24 ; lay up ViN Gn 2 7. 36 [cf. C'-naaupl^] ; treasure 
12N IIR20. 17 Am3. !0 [cf. d-qaavp^cLj] ; «crin rninti, think of doing 
a thing pi Eccl 7. 2 Sir Ex 9. 21 IS 25. 25 IIS 13. 33, in. 20 Jcs 
47- 7, 57- 11 Job 34. 14 Dan 1. 8 s.*r Jes 44. :o ~'S> Ex 7. 23 IS 
4.. 20 Prv 24. 32, 27. 23; deposit "SI Jer 15. :o: o £/ei» the mortgager 
"\2 KZ1 Jes 24. 2 12 rrr: Dt 24. 1 1 ; o ceue-.-as the mortgagee ~r: Ex 22. 
24 nrin HR 4. 1 Jes 24. 2; pay down, pa; p- Gn 23. 13; put coil-. 
in writing pJ Lev 19. 28; bear arms KS1 Jcs 22. 6; fight n*T Ps 3. 7 ; 
lay in grave, bury, frequently with words added, ev rd<poioi, <rV rcoa 
p^ Ez 3 1 . 14 SSin Gn 50. 26 ps Ex 2. 12 y± j-^» ; /jy ^/or? people 
as common property p: Dt 1 . 2 1 , 2. 36 ; assign, award il'J Gn 4. 25 
Ex 21. 22; _gt':r a child a name al on/r own discretion 217 Jud 8. 3: 
Dan 1. 7 Neh 9. 7; of a people, state, or legislature, gii-e oneself a 
law, majk a law pu Lev 26. 46 Ps 99. 7 p: Esth 9. 14 p:ri lb 3. 14 
~1S Dt 33. 4 -it? Gn 47. 26 Ex 15. 25 Esr 4. 2 : ~S~n lb. ; agree upon 
nri Ps 2 1 . 12 p: Mich 3. 5 "IS Jos 7. : : Jud 2. 20 ; establish, institute 
ms Jcs 45. 1 2 ; order, ordain, bring to pass ."SI ICh 2 1 . 1 o Vs; I IS 24. 12 
Thr3.28p.lIIR iS. i 4 m^Gn5o!2 IS 33. 1 4 sir Gn 47. 20 Ex 8. 3 

_jj; put in a certain state or condition, followed by an attributive 
Substantive, make one something, with the predicate in apposition ; 
appoint (VV) *7V1 Jes 40. 15 pi Nu 21. 29 IR 10. 27, 14. 7 Ez 3. 
8, 9 Thr i. 13 niS IIS 6. 21 [vpo- : appoint] Sit* Gn 46. 3 Ex 2. 14, 
4. u, 14. 21 IR io. 9 Jes 27. 9, 41. 18, 50. 7 Hos 2. 5 Zeph 2. 13 



XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 373 

Ps 105. 21 Cant 1. 6 □tpnn Dan 2. 5 m? Jer 22. 6 Hos 2. 5 Ps 83. 

12, 14, 88.9; make somebody one's wife IO] Ruth 1. 4; hold, reckon 

or regard as ms IS 20. 29 (Sia-: make a covenant with one Ps 1 1 1 . 9) ; 

make, cause, bring to pass }7U IR 17. 14; make oneself a. road, open 

a way C17 IIR 11. 16 Ez 21. 24 (0. p. 423) 
-pcxii}, 17: (rpctbcj) nourishment, food; that which provides sustenance- mSID 

Nah 2. 13; mo^ o////Jr, education mmn Nu 32. 14; nurture, rearing, 

frcq. in pi. OTllDD Thr 2. 20 
rpo66v 1 to: \Tpt<f><jj) that which nourishes ^Iw Nah 2. 13 Mai 3. 10 
Tpv^tpov, t6 : (Opvrrrw) dainty softness rpo Ez 17.9 
rpvpos, r6: : dpv7Trtti) that which is broken off, morsel, lump =pr Nu 23. 24 

inrip pp. 173-4 
urro p. 1 74 

O<io? p. 337 

Oa<ji?-j- p. 664 

p€paj p. 638 

6dtw-r- pp- 317-18 

00^07, d: \6f3op.a.t) panic, Jeer "THD Job 22. 10: fear, terror "T"S Ex 15. 
16; ax<r, reverence THD Jes 2. 10 Ps 36. 2 

oof3oy, r>, cv. pure, bright, radiant ""2 Job 37. 21 : as proper noun. 
&o:3ot, 6, Phoebus, i.e. :he Bright or P^rr r alone as pr. n. V.rz Nu 
22. 5 "!-Z lb 24. 3; an old eoithet of Apollo. 0. .^-d.Uojv, rarely 
inverted A. <S>. 11SS **?!•= lb 25. 3 ; "Tn2 Gn 3 : . 42, 53 TSS Nu 23. 28 

OOLTa^cj— p. 3' 8 

9cuj p. 2GO 

xapaaout, A:t -ttcj : furnish with notches, or teeth, like a saw; Pass., 
serrated, jagged, rugged "pin Jes 41. 15^ j^- ; c-' :n to furrows -"!rt 

Ps 129. 3 ^ J^; jrrs.'w -riirn Job 2. 8 s:n Ex 21. 6 ^ u -^ ; 

whet, stimulate .iij*- ; Pass. : wounded pin Lev 22. 22; smite y> ; 
j. 'amp, - r <r2: ""n Jer 32. 44 j^^- ; engrave, carve ??~ Ez 4. 1 , w -2-u ; 
inscribe -ol ,_-!* ; ari.V J=i ; jfo/cA, </rau/ ^; Pass. T of lines drawn 
with antimony pipn lb 23. 14 SHp Jer 4. 30; of letters engraved 
srnn lb 17. i nnn Ex 32. 16. (Perhaps a Semitic loan-word, cf. 
Hebr. haras 'engrave'; or cog. with Lith. iefti 'rake, scrape') 
^TjAtvoj = ayyoff (r«j*/ to hold liquids, e.g. wine ,l 72 Lev 1 i. 34 [cf. 
oirAov] ; ittcJfc*/, pai7 "^"T Jes 40. 15) {v. p. 426) 



374 XVII. COMPLETE HOMOLOGIES 

xoipas, a'So?, 17: rock 5?3 Nu 20. 8 Jcr 5. 3. 23. 29 [cf. fl-cVpa] ~ns Dt 
32. 13 J>*-*\ x- ^fA/a the Dcli.in rock, i.e. the rocky isle of Delos 

rms ir 1 1 . 26 mis jud 7.22 yy\$ IR 7. 46; sow Tin Lev t u 7 

JCS 66- 17 PS BO. I4 j±y± [Cf. /CUTTpO?, TClTjOptS ts] 

Xfidui (B) : a*<2rn or direct by oracle N^p Jon 1.2; Pass,, to be declared, 
proclaimed by an oracle X"ip IR 21. 12 ; consult a god or oracle Nip Nu 
24. 1 ; inquire at the oracle Vn? lb 27. 21 ZTH IIR 1.2; tan-ox VttT 
Ex 3. 22; = xpiifa (r. p. 426) 

X/)7J£oj: ii'fl/i/, /rfr/;, Aar* *«d 0/ "!Cn Dt 2. 7 Xch 0. 2 1 ; desire, long for. 
craze r^D P5 84. 3 flSI Jcs 42. 1 ; arA or desire that one should do 
a thing; clxpjjZci if one will, if one choose: 7" *^ -°, 40 [cf. 6oiZ'~] 
Dan 1 1. 36 

XpTJua^ro; (xpdouai) 7i«rf "liens Jud 18. :o *jj^; hence in pi., goods, 
property, treasure SS? Mich 4. 13 ^Z Job 22. 24 "" Ps 95. 4 Zl\T t 
Nu 23, 22; money ^- IS 3. 3 (5jL=-*; pr;ry 1H2 Gn 34. 12 Ex 22. ro 
*vna Prv 17. 16 1-Z Nu 20. 19 jju-; merchandise ^ZZ Xch 13. : 6 
*uiusj ; property, substance «ol1— ; 71 xpijua; what? ^- Gn 15. 2; ^^v? 
r!53 Job 7. 19 nsb Gn 12. 18 ^STS Gn 37. 26 ^ ; used in peri- 
phrases to express something strange or exiraordinary of i;< kind 
mpo IS 6, [ci" k-Jjuq] ; j dVa/, a 'ne.ip r*Z* m J Ruth 3. 7; alio ^: 
Dersons, v. dnXnclv wcrr.znkind ^ -^ : yjc-j B x A* orjt'/t- "7^ Lz 

12, 24 zep Jer 14. 14 rso" Jon 3. 2 i: J :\ p. 426 s 
XtjXcvijj: to be or become lame, halt, limp n7n IR 15, 23 *7S Gn 32. 32 : 
Pass., to be or become .'j;?:*: to be maimed cz imcer^ect nx^n: Mich ±. - 

*ii;^7j, 17: ///V TZ: IR iq. 10; departed spirit, ghost CS2 lb 17. 21 ; the 
immaterial and immortal soul ":: Gn :. 30, 35. i3, 44. 30 ,JL : ; 
6vxai abs. = dvdparTTQt ^S3 Ex 1. 5 Lev 7, 18 Jos 10. 28 r;~r; 
Dt20. 1 6 — i- : : being, creature T22 Gn 1. 20, 12. 5; selj'ZZl Am 2. if 
Thr 3. 51 ,^r^: mind, heart T2J IS 2. 35 "7 lb 25. 3 (cf. ccocV : 

butterfly, moth ZZ Jes =; 1 . 3 3? 27 lb =0, c, -*— «— ^ ,'cf. cr-^v 
rrupayaTT/s'] ; Horn, usage gives little supper: to the derivation 
from ipvx<*> 'blow, breathe'; Homeric J. is rather warm blood than 
breath Dc 12. 23 Prv 1. 18 (:\ p. 427! 



375 
XVIII. COMPARISONS 

LXL Comparison between homologies and authoritative interpretations 
establishes the validity and virtues of the former, while exposing the 
flaws and failures of the latter. 

Some of the homologies set out in the previous chapter will he 
examined and explained here with reference to the Septuagint, 
the Authorized Version, the New English Bible, and or one of the 
dictionaries which embody the distillation of modern research, 
namely: A Hebrew and English Lexicon, edited by Professors Francis 
Brown, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs — as revised by 
Professor G. R, Driver who played a major role in the translation 
of the N.E.B. — in order to demonstrate at one and the same time 
the validity of my theory and the limited reliability of the biblical 
translations and authoritative commentaries. 

In their Preface to the Lexicon, the editors sta:ed: 

In tiie matter of etymologies they (die editors', have endeavoured 
to carry out the method of sound philology, making :: their aim to 
exclude arbitrary and fanciful conjectures, and in caies of un- 
certainty to afford the student the means of judging of the materials 
on which a decision depends . . . It has been the purpose to re- 
cognize good textual emendations, but not 10 swell :he list by con- 
jectures which appeared to lack a sound basis. 

However, it will be my bounden duty to the truth, as I see it, 
to take them and their authorities to task precisely for their 
arbitrary and fanciful conjectures and far from good textual emendations, 
among other errors, Bv3\orrdrai (a variation cf 'Qu^pc-drat] is 
not too strong an epithet for them. As to Professor G. R, Driver's 
hope — expressed in his Note to the reprint of the Lexicon — that 
its readers would send him 'corrections and improvements for 
future editions', I made available to him the substance of this 
book on 29 December i960. 

dyaXpa — Tli is neuter Greek noun embraces in its various mean- 
ings abstract 'glory' and concrete 'statue', 'gift* and 'ornament 1 , 
'sculpture 5 and 'picture*. This quirk of language is a fact of 
Greek life which must be accepted without question. Then, quite 
understandably, this fact results in different Arabic and Hebrew 



37 6 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

words being synonymous with that Greek noun, and individually 
homologizing with it according to rule: some in one of its mean- 
ings, others widi another. This explains why ^7H and iV^n, A^7] 
and ^^H, TllriTX and Ulft 1 ?^— and to a lesser extent J}L. and 
D^X Q^? anc * ^71 — b ear a c ^ osc resemblance one to the other, 
but not J^.j and jlL, KB*7X and ^il, or ubl and bbTlp. AH 
these masculine and feminine nouns are — semantically no less 
than phonetically — identical with one neuter Greek word, though 
not with one anodier. That Is conclusively proved by means c: 
tried rules of Graeco-Hebrcw homology, confirming the :r:;c 
saying that things arc not always what they seem. 

7*?H is a noun, and part of die crowd's response: 'And all 
the people said: "Amen!" and "Glory to the Lord 1 '/ Either 
some of them shouted 'Amen 1 and others 'Glory to die Lord' 
simultaneously, or all shouted both in succession. 

Tiie first-fruits of a tree were dedicated as 2**71*711, 'pleasing 
gifts' to God. Similarly, "777} and '7iy?'?7\'*2 were men who had 
been, notionaliy p.: least, dedicated to the Deity by, and cr 
granted by the Deity to, their parents ;'cf. IS i. i i). Again, the 
citizens of Shechem fathered in their eraoes and pressed wine: 
then they made n ? 7"7n, votive offerings, which they brought :n:c 
die temple of their gcd, and proceeded to make merry. 

Just as the refining pot is used for testing silver, and the crucible 
for testing gold, so is a man tested by the kind of 77!"i*2, gift cr 
offering, he makes (ci~ Gn 4. 3-5 Lev 5, 7, 12. 8). 

Here are four relevant entries in the Lexicon : 

*[^V?r»] n. [m.] . . . only pi. r^ri rejoicing, praise: 1. TT±:* 
:tVv7m Jn 9. 27 i.e. a vintage-rejoicing, merry-making, connected 
with thanksgiving . . . 2. of praise to '\ 'rs r*7? Lev 19. 24 (Code c: 
Holiness) holiness of praise , i.e. a consecrated thing in token of thanks- 
giving for fruit, offered in 4th year . . .' 

T 7 ?^ 7 ?] n. [m.] praise; — only in V?bqa ^zb ZTX1. : Prv 27. 21 the 
refining pot for silver, and the furnace for gold, and a man according 
to his praise, i.e, prob. ace. to the praise of him by others, which tests 
him ; so Franz Delitzsch, H. L. Strack, aL ; perh. however so let a man 
be to the mouth of his praise, i,e. that praises him 7 — testing the praise to 
determine its worth, . , . other views are : according to the measure of his 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 377 

boasting . . . , i.e. is judged according to his success or failure in that of 
which he boasts ; . . . according to the thing of which he boasts.' Twist 
and turn, writhe and slither, ending up in gibberish. 

tl ^n n. pr. m. [he hath praised . . .).* 
it? *? l ? I ?n ? ? n. pr. m. (praise of Cod ..♦),' 

All these fantastic comments, which arc added in order to fit 
spurious meanings to various contexts, illustrate the lengths to 
which elaborate perversion can go. 

dvood — H. 1), *i 5 . ^ respectivelv exchange with y in rnHO, 

according to established rules of homology*. So do m, C, U, Iv ^, 
i, ,w, ii, ^, respectively exchange with die spiritus lenis in 

-.in.*, liMJfc, i^-*, j^^: ^ ^.-, J^— , ^—^ -^- >, ^, respec- 
tively exchange dialectally withy in D^TIX^Sn. Z iDH, m"iD17. 
In the course of mv rcneated attemots to find the correct 
homologuc for *7jo, fiooxos (R), I naturally came across the phrase 
Z".-l : "7>i> which added to my difficulty. Not so Z^IIj, for it 
crew my attention to two unusual facts, as possible clues in my 
investigations: one, that certain towns had alternative names; 
the odier, that tiie names of some towns were in ihe dual or in 
the olurah As usual. I consulted die Lexicon — amon? other 
authorities — and found the following: 

S.v. ~T^?5: 'n. pr. loc, [two hills?) . . / 

S.v. Vis: \ . . C"3? % T~ ^ 63. 31 «/:•« of pecplts. i.e. peoples 

like calves, so most ; perh. rd. '2S7 ^y; . . .' 
S.v. "IVis, 1V1^ : l n. pr. loc. Zoar (understood as :rsig^ifccnce } en 

G:i 19. 20} ; . . / 
S.v. C^!T r.np : 4 n. pr. loc. . . . [city of forts!; ; . . / 
S.v. ^W : 'gate . . . particular gates of Jerusalem . . . E*:*7n T 

Zcph 1. 10 . . . c*CiCn 'r Jc 31. 40 . . . gai£ = space inside 

gate, as public meeting-place, market . . . Pr 24. 7 . , . Jb 5. 4 . . . 

Pr 31. 23, 31, etc ' 

S.v. -:T*7; '■ ■ . 3^**^ ICh 4. 31 Zecu/wi/i, the LXX of Lucian 

laaptfi; = jnnis (q-v.) Jos 19. 6, and perhaps E*n?7 . . . 15. 32 . . .' 
S.v. ]rrri5 : \ . . Jos 19, 6 (the LXX ol dypol aimSi*, ?rdg. ]JrTO) . . . 

v. nn.' 



37 8 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

No attempt is made to explain the alternative name to 717S 
(1772 Gn 14. 2) or to DnS/S? (]m7C?) or those to D^S; 1 iV7p 
(7173 imp Jos 15. 60 and 717172 lb 15. 9 or D^i? mp 
Esr 2. 25), especially as there is some phonetic similarity be- 
tween 1772 on one side, and 7172 and 717172 on the other; and 
a vast semantic difference between D'Hir and D'HU. At the 
same time, it is difficult to understand what could be meant by 
W72V ^'7U2, an entirely novel expression suggested by die Lexicon. 
Xor is there much to choose between the rendering of 7717 
2^17 "'71173 □* , "l"nX by the A.V. ''the multitude of the bulls. 
with the calves of the people') and by tiic N.E.B. {'that herd cf 
bulls, the bull-calf warriors of the nations'). According to the 
Lexicon, Q'H'^X 11717 s.v. I. 7717) means a 'pack of animals 'fig. 
of nobles)'. 

I rejected these elaborate inanities, and put aside the sugges- 
tion that the name 717IS was related to 717S2 {pucpos) — the 
living example of Littlehampton notwithstanding. Once I ascer- 
tained that 717~ homoioinzcd with Jvoc<i. I was not slow :r. 
realizing that D"H17T did not indicate a two-gate city, but one 
ruled by two assemblies, a people's assembly and a Coimc:: c: 
Chiefs. Similarly, 2~"*717 -Jos 15. 36;— 7*71* being a variar.: 
of nil? (edvos, company, boa'y of men) which is the synonym o: 
7"!2 'gvvoBos) in Ps tit. i, and of 777 '6i-Atj'} in Prv 5. :a- 
I already knew that 717" meant dypios 'wild, savage) in the phrase 
717" 171722 Jer 26. 18, 'wild animals'; and, by analogy, con- 
cluded that 717* 1 homologized with dyood, and that E"717 w?_s 
short for □ , 7!7\ Then, in a flash, I solved the puzzle which had 
seemed insoluble: 1772, 7172, and 77172 were homologies c: 
zcvXr^- 2*7017 "7:172 2*7*2X 7717 means "a sroup of leaders 
in oeooles' assemblies'; 2*77!S is related to 717*£ and not to 
77S [duals) ; and CT2717 is, like ]"17c7 and 2"77S, the direct 
homologue of dyopclv — a far cry from 2717, die homologue c: 
€<r^€pos: evening Gn 1. 5, darkness Prv 7. q, the ivest ^J-. Owing 
to the conjunction of "71 "pi?, however, I readily concede the 
possibility that DV?127 "pi7 has likewise a pastoral and not a 
political import (Ez 47. 10). 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 379 

]m~)E7 is included in a list of towns recorded in Joshua, which 
is duplicated in I Chronicles with certain variations. For in- 
stance: n'^S in Jos 19. 3, bm"2 in 19. 4, and ]miE? in 19. 6, . 
respectively appear as ni?2 in ICh 4. 29, *7}yir:3 in 4. 30, and 
D'~}iJ^ in 4. 31. It has apparently escaped notice that die in- 
ternal gutturals— X, n, V— were consistently dropped in the 
earlier list, most probably due to popular pronunciation. The n 
in ]iTnr stands for the diphthong at in dyopa?.-. 

In the result — seeing that 1117 is the homologuc of tdvos 
''number of people living together, company, both of men), and that one 
of the four homologies of T*3X is dy6> : lerMr, chief IS 21. 8}— 
the true translation of die phrase XTTXj "712J3 3*T3X HIS ;s : 
'a company of leaders in the councils/assemblies of the nations.' 
Clearly, at the time of the Israelite invasion Canaan was 
strewn with republican city-states— no 'city of forests' among 
them— modelled on the Greek pattern, whose founders spoke 
different dialects of a language closely resembling Greek — i.e. 
Continental Greek— of which Arabic and Hebrew arc examples. 
The last democratic city was Shcchem, whose ™l"3. ; 7roAfTGi 
were betrayed to and annihilated by Abimeiekh. 

c: us— The 1 in 31 exchanges with the spiritus asper, as in {-pas ' 
r.3'31. and as it does with the spiritus Ur.is in l-c? 131 (Gn 37. 
■a, aa. :8 Dt 4. 12), 1131 (Ps 110. 4 Ecrl 3. 2'. 131 Jer 5. 13; 
so does 3 in ou<£aAo ? H133 {Jud 9. 37}. As to the 1 in fSn, it is 
not— as has hitherto been taken for granted— the definite article, 
but the initial letter of the radical. This is doubly corroborated : 
once, by the similar phrase, ~33 0pK(Gna7. 15, :5) ; and again, 
bv the fact that "it?— the subject of the next verb in the verse — 
and 331. the subject of the next verb but one. are indefinite: 

v j i :^i\ , ij il7J ,\--i\ <-^A- 

% f3n, 031 and T-71~\ homologize with ataaro^— the genitive 
ofct>a— as do 133 (Ex 29. 13), 133 (Gn 49. 6;, 1133 (Ps 16. 9, 

30- 13, 57- 9' Io8 - -> J 49- 5)» with 1 7 77aTOf ' the g enicive otTJ-ap. 
They corroborate each other phonetically, and are confirmed 
by flQn (Jes 63. 1), the homologue of al/mro*!?, bloodstained. 

That 0311 is actually a synonym of 3^31 derives support 
from die fact diat, whereas one version of the Bible has Oftf! in 



3 8o XVIII. COMPARISONS 

Ez 9. g, another has D^ftl, That it is also synonymous with 
yon — in fact, a variant of it — finds support in the fact that CEPI, 
too, is coupled with 127; indeed, no less than five times: Jcr 
6, 7, 20. 8 Ez 45, 9 Am 3. 10 Hal) 1. 3. 

The Lexicon adopts the general belief diat Y?2 — ^ 1C w °rd 
stripped of the initial H, of course — derives from % f2£E and means 
'squeezer, i.e. extortioner, oppressor'. But, to harmonize with 
this personal-agent noun, the Lexicon refers to an authority who 
opines that ~W ought to read "ITO. The X.E.B., on the other 
hand, translates *(127\ by 'extortion 1 , in harmony with die ab- 
stract noun 1$ (d/nravrj). However, both are ::; error. 

d*<ovpo$: Homologies like dxoupos-'lp'S ' JL^, €^opvaaujj m ^ip'U 

^JLt, and €ViyouvtV/"Tn3/jL« — composed as they are of analysable 
Greek compounds which can be broken down into their con- 
stituent prepositions, other affixes, and nouns or verbs, on one 
hand; and apparently simple Arabic and/or Hebrew words, on 
the other — prove that Arabic and Hebrew are modelled en Greek, 
and not vice versa. 

The Lexicon derives "lp2> from the radical **! p L\ of "doubtful 
meaning 1 ; and states that "1717 Ps : n. c/ :s ti:e construct c: 
HHp27; but I think that nipl? is the homolceue o: oZkovcc; 
[mistress of the house, housekeeper; used in praise of a geed wife;. 

Moreover, according to the Lexicon. "~V;IT means 'stripped, 

specif, childless', and derives from ""H3J. a verb which means 
'strip oneself. Hence, 

'Qal imperative nnr Is 32. m . . . Poal Perfect 3 pi, r/rr^x v,yv 
Is 23. 13 they hare laid bare {the foundations of"; her palaces, i.e. destroyed 
them; so Piloel Infinitive absolute and Hithoaicel Imperfect ^ 
feminine singular "JV^V" %H¥ Je 5:. ;3 rr .'j:j ut:e?!v bare, c:. 
rr; Pici 1/ 

In fact, the second 17 m ""127*117 and ""117*1 17 m stands for the * 
in their homologue tcadaiptu*, whereas "1*1127 homologizes with 
xadatptuj as if it were spelt Ka8atpuj. The homologue of n*117 is 
epvpiQaj, a cognate of C^y V/r^oy. 

afiaprta — Where 'failure* and 'fault 1 end, and 'error' begins, 
and when any of them borders on 'guilt' or 'sin 5 , the context is 
not always helpful ; so that surmise takes over from judgement in 



xvnr. comparisons 3 8t 

die determination of some of these homologies. But mark the 
elimination of a syllabic and the change in gender from rflTlQ 
to "10, and the further shortening to "Hft and *1DX, while the 
spiritus aspcr changes to Icnis in "lftX — a phonetic phenomenon 
not unknown in Greek, e.g. rjucpa, Doric aue'pa. Moreover, 
reference to Greek shows that there is no metathesis between ^^TD 
and 7.9*7. 

T 

m2y/duaor/a is similar to r^2lfj.erd [in the midst of among, 
between Prv 8. 2), and May^r^ Mdosl]7\2 pX 'iht magnet Jos 
15. 6) — u dialcctally turning into 2, and y into n. as in dyarrdaj 1 
Z2i"iX. Relevant examples are: 3acaviop6$, o, torture 7\072 Job 9. 
23 ]H2 Ez ci. 18. Also fecrci-Oi, 17, generally, .V:,\ :-r/ of genuine- 
ness nOQ Dt 4. 34 ; inquiry 03 torture HOE Job 9. 23 c:~ Ez 2 r . 1 8) ; 
toudistone, on which pure gold leaves a yellow streak ]V\2 pK 
Jes 28. 16 (cL Zach 13. 9,.. Another example is £dA:uo> = ao'AiSor, 
o, Epic form of fto'Au^Sof, o, lead ^12 Ez 22. :3; plumbago, used 
as a test of gold ^~I2 Zach 4. 10. Note, too, that SoXuBSo* is a 
variant of ^dAuo5o>. Lastly, udpuapoi = Latin merger and English 

According to the Lex::or. y 71*2 is akin :o *A:, "^ zvhisber. 
backbite, jJbL* perfidy, fraud' \ whereas 7E37 is 2k::: :o 'Ar. . ^ 
labour, maki. It states thai 7L*2 in Lev 5. 15 mear-s 'unfaithful, 
treacherous act'; and that 721/ in Xu 23. 2! and Job 11. 16 
means 'trouble (parallel with sorrou:) : one's own suffering', where- 
as in Ps 7. 17 it means 'trouble, mischief as cone to others', 
'labour' in Eccl 2. 21, 'toil, labour' in Eccl ±. 5 and 6. 7. In die 
N.E.B., however, 7S72 is rendered by 'offence' in Lev 5. 15, and 
by 'grievous fault' in Lev 5. 21 ; while 7.2L* is rendered by 
'mischief* in Nu 23. 21 and bv 'trouble' in Ps 7. •- cf. d^Wa?). 

Again, the Lexicon states that HC/D in Job 0. 23 derives from 
Z0T2 and means 'despair .lit. melting, failure) ; — only in nOG7 
H/*?" 1 Q^^pijob 9. 23'. Vet diis exclusive meaning seems to have 
been forgotten by the learned editors when dealing with HOQ in 
Dt 4. 34, where it is said to derive from J1DJ and means: 'test, 
trial, proving; construct HOQ Job 9. 23*. .As to ]n2, it means 
'trial' in Ez 21. 18, while ]n2 ]2X in Jes 28. 16 means 'a tested, 
tried stone , i.e. approved for use as a foundation-stone'. However, 



382 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

the N.E.B. translates HOD in Job 9. 23 by 'plight', and in Dt 4. 34 
by 'challenge'; and ]U2 in Ez 21. 18 by 'lest', and in Jcs 28. 16 
by 'granite'. A confusing variety of imaginary explanations, 
leaving the inquirer in a state of bewilderment. 

apiOfieuj— Hill, HaH, and ju corroborate e;ich other; so do 
Tpn and "Hny, & and x interchanging dialectally. The Lexicon 
has : 

s.v. II. mn: 'rejoice . . .jussive "rr-'^N jb 3. 6 lei ii not rejoice 
among (3) the days of the year, i.e. not take its place joyfully among 
them (fig. of day of Job's birth)' ; s.v. ri-J~ : \b. cir.-.dc ... 2. appar. 
denom. from "3n) & 55. 24 Z~"Z" TV x'*? shall t.ct h-l~e their Jjvs, i.e. 
enjoy even half of the normal number'; s.v. ~p~ : "vb. set 1:1 mouon. 
star: . . . only Qal Imperfect 3 m. s. *iv* rr~z- "pm S7 Pre 12. 27 
sleekness (i.e. a slack or slothful man) doth not star: its gemt' ; under ~" : 
*vb. cut, sharpen, decide ... 3. decide . . . participle passive ="J*.-.." 
r2" Jb 14. 5 his days are determined, fixed' '; under "pr : 'vb. arrange 
or set in order ... 2. a. compare (as a result of arranging in order, . . . 
b. intrans. be comparable . . . cum suffix of thing compared Jb 28. 17. 10/ 

All tliis is utter rubbish; but the Lexicon excels itself in the 
above quotation from die entry under n'Sn. For :n orccr to 
achieve its perverse objective, not only dots :: ioi'ow a tortuous 
process, but it also makes 7\"Sn do double-duty Ujy 'halving' as 
well as 'enjoying'. 

op-o£ai — According to the Lexicon, r p~ ::: IIS 23. 9 means 
'reorocch — prop, say sharp things against — tezr.:' . v The N.E.B. artu- 
trarily adopts here the different version set out in ICh n. 13.' 
tTK7 nDin] Tin*:^ means l a maidsen-cr.: acquired for c mar. 
'viz. as his concubine* Lev ».g. 20'. -The N.E.B. translates 'has 
been assigned'. In fact, it is passive of clp^ "In. and means 
'chosen'.) =™| 1^7 means 'break the neck of an animal . . . Inzpj. 3 rr.s. 
"p^T Hos 10. 2 fig. of breaking down altars". The N.E.B. trans- 
lates' 'hack down'.) S2~) means Mie stretched cu: : lie down : Aram, 
form of V3~! . . . Ar. L", abide , dwell) . . - for copulation (woman 
with beast) nn'X HL'^TP Lev 20. ib, but read "PX i^widi sutax 
of beast)'. The N.E.B. translates 'to have intercourse with it'. 
As a matter of fact, the suggestion that the reading should be 
altered is, as usual, presumptuous; for here, as in 18. 23, the 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 383 

verb is transitive and the text speaks of die woman ravishing the 
animal. This is realistic, because the initiative and the induce- 
ment originate in her, and she controls the operation throughout, 
nnn, r ni7, and ^^.corroborate each other. Strangely enough, 
^J ji has been overlooked by the authorities in their approach to 
the interpretation of the two similar Hebrew verbs. The fact is, 
they have not faced up to die existence of so many homonyms in 
the language. Rather than reconcile themselves to die reason- 
able possibility of a given word having a homonym — or yet 
another homonym — they distorted its meaning, in a vain attempt 
to (\i a square peg into a round hole. Hence <vxl: monstrosities 
as equating the 'breaking of an animal's neck' with the "breaking 
down of altars'. 

ap^afoi — The Lexicon refers to 273 0*X"1 twice, without ex- 
plaining the expression: once, s.w 2*7D : l 2*?2 . . . applied, fig., 
to men, in contempt . . . still more emphatically . . . 2$ 9. 8' ; and 
again, s.v. C?K") : *U7X"1 . . . 'mad, of animal . . . dog -2 5 3. U\ But 
the N\E.B. ? unaccountably it seems, renders -73 ~X~) by 
'baboon*. 

The Lexicon states: '"7X^2 Lev 5. 24 in its sum. i.e. in full, 

i 

so Xu 5. 7/ Strangely enough, no reference is made :o JL* ^-Ij, 
which indicates the specific sum both uXH and dpxetov refer to. 
(Cf dpxi-) The important tiling to bear in mind is that, accord- 
ing to the Lexicon, £ ? XH means 'head* in all texts : it has secondary 
meanings, but no homonyms, Tims it means 'head' in Gn 2. 10, 
but there 'head' means "river-heads' ; it eauallv means 'head 1 in 
IS 11. ii, but there 'head' = 'division of army. comparr; 7 bcnd\ I, 
however, hold that ~X1 has several well-founded and distinct 
homoioeues. 

dpxrj — Grammatically, *rX*12 in Lev 5. 24 Is nor the same as 
irKI!] in Lev 13. 44: in the former the 2 is the homologue of 
u-d, whereas in the latter the 2 is the homologue of lv or i-l. 
As a rule, tiie homologue of a.^6 is die prefix E, - and ^ inter- 
changing dialectallv; but 2 represents d-6 in at least diree other 
verses: IIS 22. 16, Ps to. 1, Job 36. 15. In fact, ?s 18. 16 repro- 
duces IIS 22. 16 with one variation: rHI/10 instead of Diyi3 ; 
and both axe correct ; in one the - changes into 2, in the other 
into 2. 



384 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

It is the LXX which translates D^7X~) in Gn i. 10 and IS 1 1. 
ii by apx^'i but die true homologue of 2? JO in both verses ;s 
Kepas. 

The homology niTIX/opx 1 ? is corroborated by the reference 

in die following verse to the inhabitants of Arabia, and in the 
next verse but three to its archers. Now nn~iS\ in Gn 37. 25 most 
probably means 'caravan' and is die likely homoioguc of opxe-c-nv 
(adv., in a row, one after another, man by man) which aptly describes 
the Ishmaelite cameleers trudging in single file bv their laden 
mounts. Now 'caravan' is in Arabic oJ'JJ, the homologue o: 

Kt6aXri (Aj/iiof men, right hand half 'of a phalanx}. In olden tirr.es 
caravans were often escorted by a body of troops (cf. Esr 8. 22 , 
and might therefore have been identified with and by then- 
protective guards. Hence, it is arguable that PirnX in ihis mean- 
ing is also the homologue of ap^j- The Lexicon^ however, derives 
nmK from mS (Job 34. 8), the homologue of epxouai \wc;. : ^ . 
In fact, KeXtudos — which, I submit, is kindred to *pvouc: and 
eAQcTv (k exchanging with the spiritus ienis according ro rule, 
while A and d dialcctally exchange v.:::: p and x respectively 
— means 'road, path' (PHX Jud 5. 6 Jes 30. ::}; and *-*/-.£v- 
dtlovrts is explained as meaning Jccvci—f^ trzielUrs . \ et uiere 
is no noun derived from epxouai, or from a collateral, to hemc- 
Io^ize with HrnX. On the whole, there-ore, I do not fee! en- 
thusiastic over the relationship HrHX ^cAfvfcici-rfc, any more 
than over HiilK 'caravan) being the homologue of <i/>\-?> In 
such circumstances it is advisable to keeo an ooen nunc, cendine 
further inquiries. Vide KeXevd^-n]^: n-a-.j-irer.'. 

apxos — Strangely enough, the Lexicon dees not refer to ETTX"! 
in IlCh 22. 1, v.-hiie the X.E.B. translates i: by "cider sons'. There 
is in IlCh 21. :7 a semblance of an excuse :o-: this blunder; and 
if I thought that — in view of this verse — it was to be inferred 
that the historian had written DTiwXlM VTiX~"?D, and die 
scribe had omitted TTiX, I would have concluded that □" 1 -'iwK"i 
was homologous with dpxaios {former). But neither of the said 
inferences is warranted by history as expressly recorded. For ac- 
cording to IlCh 21.17 c ^ e raiders took captive all Jehoram's sons, 
except the youngest {Jehoahaz/Ahaziah — mark, incidentally, the 
prefix-suffix phenomenon at work) ; whereas IlCh 22. 1 informs 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 385 

us that they killed DTIWXirT^D. In fact, IIR 10. 13-14 relate 
how Ahaziah's forty-two brothers (so have the original and the 
A.V., bat the N.E.B. arbitrarily mistranslates 'kinsmen') — who 
must have been ransomed from their captors — were butchered at 
Jehu's behest. On the other hand, two clues point to the killing 
of the leaders of Judah by the raiders : First, because of their dis- 
appearance from the scene, Ahaziah was proclaimed king by the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem. Secondly, for the same reason, his 
counsellors were his mother and the members of Ahab's dynasty 
(IICIi 22. 3-4). Thus, history and philology help each other ; while 
the N.E.B. falsifies one and perverts the other. The homology 
apX°s .Til"!, although phonetically passable and semantically 
plausible, is actually a spurious homology. 

pfj^a. — I think this word was borrowed from n?3ri2, pro- 
nounced twice 7\722. The genuine homologue of H/Onil is 
36ckt.lki, while the homonym of 71K2 (IR 3. 4, 11. 7) has for 
homologues the truly Greek words, Bf.uc, 3dij.a and Buju.6; 
which derive from £a:Vuj. The phrase "i3r 7112 'Jer 26. 18' 
means 'wild animals*. Another homologue of Bfuc. '3c:Vu, ;s 

z: (Ez 16. 31, 30;. 

yeulZoj— Strong corroboration is to be found in the following 
homologies: nO^Ij? yi^o^a. {load Zach 12. 3;, C^y/y€u:ardj 

(ladenjcs 46. 1). 

As usual, the Lexicon finds fault with the scribes, suggesting that 
WZ72V (Neh 4. 11) should probably read -"v^u, although the 
suggestion runs contrary- to the context. For Nehemiah states 
thai half his men worked, while the other half stood guard 
variously armed ; and that even the builders at the city-wall^ and 
the porter-loaders had weapons. Evidently, the editors of the 
Lexicon had a mania for 'correcting 1 the text— mania corrigend:, to 
coin a phrase parallel to the bad surgeon's mania secandi. 

Mark that yep-ZZw, since it ends in -cw, is capable of having 
both simple and compound homologues: CG27, 1QV. O^ 1 " 1 - 
However, the context of 0"Di;n seems to favour die compound 
Karaye/iiCw as its homologue, for it means 'load heavily'. Mark 
also that jx interchanges widi ^ in ^ {v. p. 243). 



«43*C77 



386 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

The following analysis illustrates a frequent phenomenon 
in Graeco-Hcbraic-Arabic homology. 

D'TDUn and ^^ bciont: to different scales 'VUSH and 'oS' 



o 



and have different final letters. , L^. and ^ belong to the 
same scale and have one common consonant, but they begin 
with different gutturals and terminate with different linguals. 

Ll^ and ^? belong to different scales and differ in all their 
letters. Each one of these six verbs differs appreciably from 

;skJl. Nevertheless, mv theory shows that all seven are cognates, 
deriving their genetic relationship from a common Greek 
homoiogue with several meanings {v. p. 360 . 

&€pa$ — The U in u-£L" is prosthetic, and the I£ stands for 3, as 
in Seiprj, tj : neck "SKI? Jer 28. 10; throat ^X"iS Ps 75. 6; collar 
]*ni^ Cant 4. 9. The - in ]E"I, as in p"n^ ? is terminal. *? in 
EiT? interchanges dialectallv with S. 

Hftl may well be the homoiogue of Souo> or Stupa m ?2 " ~T 
^ 5 ir 5* l 7)> th* nether world. U^U , too, has a rival candidate 10 
homology with it, nameiv, cr<£txa. So strong ^re its claims, that 
it is right to accept it is a co-suitor with c/^c;. In fact, Homer 
always uses 8€fia* for the living body and ctZuz for the dead body. 
But it looks as though ^721 was specialized among the Hebrews 
to indicate a corpse. 

As the student might by now anticipate, die last sentence in 

the Lexicons entry s.v. u*T reads: ^21^ Ez 19. 10 prob. text- 
error cf Variorum Bible; A. B. Davidson prop. H^l? in her 
height." The mischief of such systematic fault-finding whenever 
a difficulty arises is that it inhibits, if it does not altogether block 
research where it is most needed. So that a budding investigator 
is discouraged by his mentors from making every effort to rind 
out what the word, as it stands, means. He is fobbed oif with 
substitutes the real validity of which is their emanation from the 
whim of pundits {v. p. 360). 

]T\1 is a homoiogue of both Sc'Scupi and ridvfu. The initial ] is 
the MV 1 It drops regularly from the imperative because it is 
not an integral letter of the radical, and is alio omitted from the 
infinitive flf) (Gn 4. 12) and quite exceptionally from the past 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 387 

Pinn (IIS 22. 41). The second n in the infinitive is only account- 
able by the presence of two 5s in one homologuc, and that of r 
and 6 in die other. The elimination of the final ] in DD shows * 
that it is merely a terminal letter, but it turns up exceptionally 
in die infinitive ]T\T\ (IR 17. 14) and ]rijV7 fib 6. 19). 

PHilX is the plural of 7IDH in precisely die same way that the 
plural of a neuter noun is formed in Greek; but ill] is a variant 
of]!}, the final] turning into 71" as it docs in nilX (Prv 27. 20} , 
the variant of]T"7DX .'lb 15. 11). 

The scholars arc uncertain about the derivation of How ^J'[ ■ 
I diffidently suggest that it is the European Greek rendering 
of pDX, just as dpoajitLv is of ]lD~iy. However, the structure 
of lir-.K susrtrcsts that sometimes die homolccrv.e of Si'Sumt was 
TTiK (with prosthetic X, like its fcllow-homologuc, ^il), ~t 

1 - T * 

others ]H2 — as DI^ and D-ii are the twin homoiogues of lott^l 
— which would explain why die Septuagim give Xdiveip (Esr 
8. 17; and Xadwip. To 8. 20) for CnrU and lT:\~U respec- 
livclv. It would be rash to dismiss such exceptions as mistakes 
or freaks. 

ADDarentlv the ancient Hebrews occasiomd'.v dropped the 
sound of/, as do the Cockneys and die Americans, e.g. tTclpos 
IZm 'Cant 1. 7; and eVcipa/rnDn ;Mai 2. :a . The D a'.so 
drops out of nZH/w to form i"uE. Is it possible thai, in die same 
wav, n drops out of "pE to form ]72? It might have been ab- 
sorbed bv the shcddnh in .-_*. However, nl\2 iias another homo- 
logue, <lfj.apfj.tiTj (^fi'poucj (A)) — 17 clfjapur.-r, 'sc Liofpa) destiny. 

Hich up among the intriguing texts stands out the first hah of 
die verse Ez 20. 9: ~\™nD ]iV 1*?Dp "n^l. To begin with, 
the LXX omits it altogether; then, the commentators and lexico- 
graphers vie with one another in their guesses as to us precise 
meaning. According to some, it refers to a kind of catapult, others 
think it refers to a battering-ram. The A.Y. renders : 'And he 
shall set engines of war against diy walls' ; whereas the N.E.B. lias : 
'He will launch his battering-ram on your walls.' As to the Lexicon, 
it states that "T1D means 'stroke' — as die verbal noun of II. PIFIQ 
{strike), a weakened variant of "fJIQ 'smite through, wound 
severely, shatter* — and **7Dp 'something in front, spec, an 
attacking-engine ... Ez 26. 9 V?Dp T ""PUp the stroke of his 



3 88 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

attacking-engine ... 2. construct Dy _i 7Df> (kobol) 2 K 15. 10, 
explained formerly as before the people, i.e. publicly (cL Biblical 
Aramaic ^5p. before) ; but the Aram, is surprising, and Dltfl 
needed: rd. Dy I 73' , !!l in. IbUam, with LXX of Lucian . . .' 

In tliis, as in other difficulties, the resolving efficacy of my 
theory is manifest. What is more, besides providing an accurate 
explanation of the text in hand, I think it improves our under- 
standing of two Greek words, i.e. €u5oAtJ and euSoXos. 

^~D is a variant of Hb (Job 21. 24) or its construct, and its 
hornologue is /xueAo? [marrow, brain) ; "?3p is the homologue oi 
KcdaXr) (head), the Macedonian of which is <t3\-n or ic«/?uAij. Ac- 
cordingly, the prophet predicts that Nebuchadnezzar will ram 
Tvre's walls so much and with such force thai die head of his 
battering-ram will wear out, so that the battering will continue 
with the brain or inner part of the head. So the passage would 
read: &u>o€i rov rijs KeoaA^r ^.veXov avrov o- aluo-aiais gov. ;Ci. 
€fi3oXwv Soots ramming in naval tactics, Diodorus Siculus 13. 10/ 

Now epfioXq has several meanings, one of them being 'batter- 
ing-ram' or 'the head of a battering-ram". It is supposed to derive 
from €u3oX\uj ; but in my submission, whatever may be die wore 
from which ifi2o\r. is derived in its other meanings, it lias no 
etymological link with eu3aAA«u as regards the above meanine. 
Similarly, one of the meanings of fufoAo* is "the brazen bea.<. 
ram' of a ship. epSoXos, too, is supposed to be derived from 
€p3d\?uu ; but here again, I suggest that as far as the above mean- 
ing is concerned, its derivation is totally different. 

It seems that the Phoenicians used to call the animal-head at 
the prow of their ships "72 p or "73p from *«ooAt}] ; but the 
sailors probably pronounced the p like X. as it is done to this day 
on the south-eastern shores- of the Mediterranean; so that these 
two words were oroncunced 72X or 7Zt\ and m72X or ri72X. 
In due course, the Greeks borrowed' them, as they did ]12"1i\ 
inserting a p to facilitate pronunciation. Hence, c^oAos* and 
€fj3oX-q. This must have taken place in pre-Homeric times, when 
Greek and Phoenician approximated each other even as do 
nowadays the Celtic dialects spoken on both sides of the English 
Channel. Is it a mere coincidence that Polybius uses the expres- 
sion cfi/foAd? BoOvat — for the ramming of one ship by another — 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 389 

which is practically identical with I^Hp (TID) JIT, die expression 
used by Ezckiel for charging a city-wall with a battering-ram? 

biipov has several meanings which vary greatly one from die 
other; indeed, as much as 'present* docs from 'hand's breadth'. 

Yet its resoective homolo^ues arc ^J: and ^_; — the internal a> 

changing into <_j, as it does into 2 in H2"!], on account of the 
oj in StScu^i. What better proof that these two Arabic words are 
oerfect homologies of SJ/oov? 

£ L *V — ~X homologizcs with *V, "7HX and "InX widi eft?, "7H 
widi €i\~, and HXft widi ^<'a. It seems that the Continental Greeks 
used fiia in a specialized way, to mean l one hundred*. This is 
slightly corroborated by the fact that in vernacular Arabic jJL, 
{hundred) is pronounced like ulij. 

T\ZU is not a simple word : it is composed of ei$ 2nd re (and) ; 

so thar niTO~^nE?S7 (Ex 26. 7) or ^VV~*r\~V (Nu 29- 20; 
means "one-and ten\ as distinct resoectivelv from H~3J *THK (Dt 
1. 2} and mt71? HHK 'Jos 15. 51}, the homologue of which is 
Z'AcKa. Accordingly, Hir* ^HK (Ez 30. 20) is, bu: "iT'Twi; 
'Dt :. ■v is not, a homolos"ue of evSe'x-c to > Eleventh . 

The spiritus asper is cialectally replaced by a; but in HilTi i: 
is replaced by D, which exchanges dialectically with c. The 
same process operates in *7\j, *?Ij?D> fi^?/^ — an ^ nUyFl. 

The initial letter in THX!! stands for a-6 — as in flHl/12 
(IIS 22. i6;, VaU2 (Job 36. 15), XT} 1 ?! (lb.) — and not for € Vt, 
as in rn~2 Ex 9, 3; or for tt, as in pni2 (Ps :o. 1) rrdppap. 

Obviously, the expression DXriD VDD in Nu 6. 9 and Jes 29. 5 
indicates emphasis by tautology. 

ZvBikqs — Note that Arabic has preserved the Arcadian pronun- 
ciation in IjJl^> and JjJL^. 

The Lexicon states that p^-i means just, righteous', and p~T-£ 
tightness, righteousness' ; then these meanings are varied, sup- 
posedly to suit die context. Thus, p**"T2J in Jes 41. 26 means 

* right y correct 1 ] while pUJ in Ps 52. 5 and Prv 16, 13 means 
'righiness in speech', in Lev 19. 15 and Dt 1. 16 it conveys 

* righteousness i in government 1 . 



3QO XVIII. COMPARISONS 

The entry s.v. p~\± ends as follows: 

* ... 6. righteousness us vindicated, justification in controversy with 
enemies and troubles, Ciiivcrcnce, victory, prospcriiy: a, . . . ci. of Cyrus. 
^VY? ^N^i?! 'S Is 4!. 2 -[who) in victory calUih him at every slip 
(T. K. Cheyne, Isaiah, Paul Haupi's Sacred Books of the O.T. en 
whose steps attends victory, so A. Dillmann, B. Duhm?.' As to XTti, [he 
comment is characteristic: 4 usu. (malicious' purpose', being akin 
to m^S; 'preferably, it should read N'mTX.' 

t?€oV — interchanges dialectaliy with Z in 72 '^D s . and is 
dropped in 71X, 7^X ? and 7X, where the 7 is terminal — as i; is in 
7j'^D). 5 changes into :£ and C7, e.cr. foVco 71T, OtnlZuj \2ZZ\ 
?rvcu:|-'j, t/€pa—-n . ^ :^, tf:>/i 1 *^, tfL-c:> ui^. 1 in t^Ci anc 
atcr; exchanges with - and *\ y e.g. uwici riZ272, oiV"7*X; cr 
changes dialectaliy to 7. 

The homologue of 72*2) is llfioiQtos* a compound resembling 

According to the Lexicon. 7Vj£ means 'rock. chiT; it dcr!\-ci 
from Aramaic N7r2 : ::::[ . and has no homonyms. But it shcuii 
read r 0S in Ps Si. :;; while it indicates a *!ook-ouf in Nu 
23. 9, and a ; i;omc of goats' in IS 24. 3. ^ mm S is fig, of God as 
support and defence of his people; ye: the erudite editors do 
not seem to find it incongruous that heathen gods should also : .e 
referred to as rock in Dt 32. 31 ; 37. 2*2^2; 7*^ ITiiT IV2 "I 
■'Jes 26. 4) is rendered by 'for :ti Yah there is a rock of acres' — 
instead of 'healer Zeus is the everlasting Gud' — but no explana- 
tion is vouchsafed for pia ; n 12T i"TZ Ps c3. 5', except that it is 
suggested that mIIT in Jes 26. 4 'mav be a mistake for 122\ ci. 
Ps 63, 5'. It is therefore not surprising that ^X*7^ \u 3. 3; is 
translated 'my reck is £l" — instead of \my Gc<i is 'H\:o^ or 'Goc< 
gv.l — and ^IZ^^VS lb 1. 6; *my rock :s J>7.\;j'ubv\ instead of \mv 
God or creator is Zeus'. Lastly, CTTU in Jes 45. 10 are 'idoish 
In the N.E.B., however, 71]£ Is rendered by 'rock* throughout 
and 122' FT2 is translated in a footnore: *In the Lord is his 
name' — instead of 'Flaidv is his name*. Ptuan or Paeon, the 
physician of the gods, title of Apollo, Zeus and other gods. 
Obviously, v and H interchange, since T\ is a guttural ; and the 
first syllable is dropped in IT* (Ex 15. 2) because it includes -. 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 39' 

Cr. Gn 20. 17 Ex 15. 26 Nu 12. 13 Dt 32. 39, 33. 3 IS 6. 3 IIR 
2.21,22,20. 5,8 Jcs6. 10, 19. 22, 30. 26, 57. 18, i9Jcr 3. 22, 
17. 14, 30. 17, 33. 6 Ez 47. 8, 9, 11, 13 Hos 6. 1, 7. 1, ir. 3, 14-5 
Mai 3. 20 Ps 6. 3, 30. 3, 41. 5, 60. 4, 103. 3, 107. 20, 147. 3, Job 
5. 18, HCh 7. 14, 30. 20— in all of which God's healing power 
is referred to. 

Tncre is an incredible touch of irony compounded with a 
comedv of errors about the presumptuous correction of "11 S into 
"o: The fruits of mv research constitute an interminable in- 
dictment against countless scholars of all nationalities and races 
down the azes, who have had as many opportunities of making 
my discoveries as it contains valid counts. Yet none seized a single 
opportunity. For there exist many, many words in Arabic and 
Hebrew— the onlv two so-called Semitic languages I know — not 
to sceak of others, which closely resemble their respective Greek 
homologies, but their similarity has nevertheless escaped these 
eaiaxies of truly learned men. One instance to hand is Tl^Vnp/ot' 
Iktjpg*, Latin ctra, for good measure). For "DS in Ps 81. 17 is 
wron-!v rendered by -crpa. in the LXX, and wrongly thought to 
be "iV '6-6i) by the Lexicon ; while r flS in its turn is wrongly 
rendered in the LXX by Krjpiovl [V. p. 363.; 

dcoa-tC-t*— I have included XS"1 (IR :8. 30: although it is 
in the 73-*2. because the compound ixdepa-evuj, wnich nomo- 
loeizes with it, is a strengthened form of depa-evuj. 

li. is strongiy corroborative, and has rightly been invoked by 
ihc Lexicon and heeded by the N.E.B. {v. p. 344). 

When scholars doubt whether Hebrew is really Greek, let them 
ponder the homologues ofdcpavevw — that K£"l, its homologue by 
dropping the ^-syllable, should happen to convey such varied 
meanings as 'to serve the gods, reconcile, treat medically, culti- 
vate, mend, or repair' — and consult the Lexicon and the N.E.B. 
Let them carefully consider die homologues of other Greek words 
dealt with herein, and compare them also with the relevant 
entries in the Lexicon and translations in the N.E.B. It would not 
be long before they distinguished the genuine from die spurious. 

0«a»p«i>— As might be expected, the Lexicon confuses and distorts 
the meanings of these different verbs. Thus : 

'I. [117] vb. peril, travel, journey . . . ]5?3 I*? 7 ? 5 ? ^?1 Is 57- 9 and 



392 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

thou (the apostate faction) didst journey to (the god) \hlck with (thine) 

oil, i.e. bring, offer it (T. K. Cheync, K. Marti read -30ni ) * 

'rnrcn n.f. gift, present (?) (from above root = thing broughw, 
offered? very dubious) ; — 'n IS 9. 7 (meaning inferred from context).' 

*II. [nw] vb. behold, regard (esp. Jb) ;— Qal Imp/. 3 ms. ™ 
Je 5. 26 . . . 3. watch stealthily, lie in wait, n^7X TJY*- 1 ?? "!?}? Ho 13. 7 
(subj. "*; J. Meinhold, K. Marti fp^X; Greek Version of the LXX, 
Syriac Version, Vulgate, J. Wcllhausen, VV. Xowack, al. -JTOX), Je 5. 26 
(subj. wicked). — Jb 33. 27 v. T7.' 

In my submission, the homologue of *V.~ in Jcs 57. 9 is XP^- 
and that of Ti£?K (a noun) in Hos 13. 7 is Aoyo>-; while "1*3" 
in Jer 5. 26 is also a noun and a variant of "TOX. On the other 
hand, miS?!") is in no way related to T!~; its perfect suffix-prefix 
homologue being Socis. 

But it is typical of the perverseness of the Lexicon that the 
meaning inferred from the context — though questioned by the 
Lexicon — should be absolutely correct, whereas the derivation 
which sprang from the head of its erudite editors should turn 
out to be entirely whimsical. What seems to be equally remark- 
able and no less perverse is die fact that — although the context 
indicates that "Ti~X in Ps 17. 11 bears one of the meanings of 
Adxoi-, i.e. 'the men that form the ambush' ; and cannot possibly 
mean 'step', or 'going' — the Lexicon persists, as above (:■. also 
pp. 363, 403). 

dvpa. — S exchanges ciaiectally with *T and D, and .2. It also 
exchanges with -?, e.g. dipa7rvrjjT\\\^y , c?pat'cy/~12~, t?eao^cu;ril*~. 

Only by reference to Greek can }jbp be justified as a variant 
of £*/:*, for 8 exchanges widi both ^ and p, e.g. Sr.oavplCui:'/±i\ 
"TiX'mS, 0€pu> ; Tip. Besides, 8 exchanges diaiectaily with x , 
and x exchanges with p. e.g. x«'cu/nXp. Here we meet again with 
the Lexicons mania corrigendi, since it states: 'II. [^"?j?J n.[m.] 
curtain, hanging ... IK 6. 34b read CV7?-* Furthermore, the 
Lexicon has : 

'TV?! n.f. . . . door (. . . Assyrian daltu(m) . . . from root bt", As. 
edilu, to bolt, bar) . . . partic. doors of house of ^ . . . temple ... so of 
Ezek.'s temple, Ez 41. 23, 24 . . . gates of city Dt 3. 5 ... in other 
senses (mostly fig.) . . . aperture of womb Jb 3. to.' 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 393 

*I. "V2"! n.m. (cf. Ar, ^-> io^i, ^J />arr behind) hindmost chamber, 
innermost room of the temple of Solomon = tnrrpn U~rp A0/7 of holies, 
most hoh place, the place of the ark and the cherubic images, the throne- 
room of Yahwch iK 6. 5 . . - Prob. rd. Ta'* 2 K 10. 25 also, for 
Massoretic Text "V5? ; so Klostcrmann after LXX of Lucian (P. dc 
LaeardcV (It is translated oracle in AV RV after Aquila Symmachus 
XpTjuantrrnptoy, Vulgate oraadum, on the incorrect theory that it was 
derived from ">?! speak.)* 

T^yr] n,f. encampment, battlement {h, idea of surrounding, en- 
closure: Svr. . . . sheepfold, c-avX^). . , . I. encampment, csp. of circular 
encampment of nomad tribes, mentioned with ~^~ Gn 25. 16; . . . 
encampment (poet.) = habitation d> 69. 26 ... 2. in mctaph. "CD '5 
Ct 3. Q a battlement of silver . . .* [v. p. 363). 

$£pa* — *V\*£ and n^V occur in die same verse, and appear to 
refer to the same thing. This is probably because they are the 
homolosrues of dajpaKiov which is in the neuter, or because the 
former is the homoloeue of ddjpa^ and the latter oi ScjoaKiov. 

. w and ] — 10 corroborate each other, just as "V~ and Kj"1^K 
corroborate JTTtf and ]Vn~. Corroboration is also ro be found 
in the homology D^np/VftfcjpaKta^eVot, cuirassiers 'IS 29. 2); as 
distinct from n^3H0 Wpaw orrv/>awo> (Jos 13.3;. I: is interest- 
ing to point out in passing that, apart from the prosthetic X, TiE? 
and KI^N resemble H1727 and nXJlti (J ob 4 2 - T 3-- 

Is it not of fundamental significance that besides jVTJ, the 
other names given to Mount Hermon by different local inhabi- 
tants all maintain die Greek connection? Thus: yi^^iji'Epuaiov, 
piCtT 'x'*6v€o$, "l^/xto^co?. Hermes was a favourite gcd with the 
Phoenicians, and was titled p^il *TJ2 (Jud 3. 3; ; hence also 

™~ IIS n. 11). 

The LxxicDn states that P"j2 means 'armour', and :s a parallel 
form of p*HC which derives from n~)27 — a root of dubious mean- 
ing. mS, however, derives differently, and means 'perhaps 
lance, javelin . . . yet the Greek version of the LXX [has] dwpaxa, 
the Vulgate thorax, i.e. ]YH?-' No doubt, the learned editors 
thought their explanation was an improvement, oblivious of the 
fact that H has merely replaced ]— as it does in pTX (Jud 

1. 31) .ju», piax (Prv 15. n)/ninx (ib 27. 2o)/^T. 



394 XVIII- COMPARISONS 

According to the Lexicon, neither TID nor HTD has any 
homonym, and both arc derived from 

'~PD (. . . cC. Ar. j 1 ^ go or hover about, approach. **+* limit y border \* * 

'liO . . . row ... I- row, course of building-stones, in temple and m 
Solomon's house 1^6.36,7. 12 ; forming enclosures in corner of cour: 

Ez 46. 23a/ 

*[nyo] nS. encampment, battlement (fi\ idea of rjrrounding t 
enclosure; Syriac . . _ sheep/old, oxc^W). ... 3. row of stones, only pi. 
r.n^ Ez 46. 23, virtually pi. of mo 1, q.w' 

As usual, all this is utterly unrealistic and artificial. Admittedly, 
TiB (not HTD) is related to jji, but neither has anything to do 
with jU? anywhere, or for diat matter with a course of building- 
stones. Fancy such a row forming an enclosure, or suggesting 
an encampment, a battlement, or even a sheepfold. This is r.c: 
the language of architecture or poetry, but the product of wild, 
if not actually sick fantasy. (I 7 , p. 364.) 

teadaipej — ^J^ also means 'to circumcise 1 , but the LXX uses 
77€piKa9atpu> exclusively in connection with trees (although in the 
New Testament xadaipuj is used for 'pruning' — John 15, 2 : 

kg: rrepiKadcDLeiTt rnv aKadapaiav airroC" o Kaprrcs cvtzv ":- 
err] itrrat vySv drrepiKddapro^ (Lev ig. 23,- 

Otherwise rrtpiriuviu is used for 'circumcise', d-xtplru-nrcs icr 
'uncircumcised 1 , and dxpoSvaria for 'foreskin'. 

The Lexicon renders 711/ by 'count as foreskin, i.e. as u:> 
circumcised*, and states of D^riSy /IS? - 'ng- of incapacity :c 
socak' (s.v. 7"1U), and 'unskilled in speech' (s.v, HSr). But 
I think the homoloeue of 7"1I7 is xelpaj, and that of rp~ll* 'aJ S 
is .<ovpd t while that of *7*117 must be c*ovpos\ The key-words 
are Kovpd {the! xk:;h is cut ojf 7 cut-ojf end) and its homologuc 

-J-i-, because they indicate that K€tp<& (cy/ ojf one's hair) and 
dxovpos [unshaven]* — derived from ^oupa, as distinct from dxovpot: 
(kouqqs) "lpS7 — have respectively developed in Hebrew the 
secondary meanings: 'cut off the prepuce 5 , 'uncircurncised* 
h. p. 685). 

KeXevd-qTTjs — This word is derived from KtXevOos which is 
supposed to be a radical word, but I believe both words to be 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 395 

cognates of koAglv, iXdeiv, and ^pxcfiat — on the basis that the 
spiritus Icnis exchanges with *, as it docs with p in tLuiofiaijlMp ; 
while and A dialcctally exchange with x an <4 P respectively. It 
is pertinent to note diat, in the vernacular spoken in the terri- 
tories bordering the south-eastern Mediterranean, <J is pro- 
nounced I ; e.g. JU is pronounced jL(Cf. ^K/^D Gn 30. 40/oAoj.) 

The familv of kcvos is one of the most interesting in Gracco- 
Hebraic homology, because — inUr alia — it discloses the un- 
suspected origin, and provides the characteristic meanings, of 
eighteen words, that is, seven nouns, six adjectives, and five 
verbs. 

Thus, TV7U — as a direct homologue of /cero*— is an adjective 
used as a substantive. 'Whether leavened or unleavened bread or 
cake, it was so called because of its hollowness. In fact, the hollow 
loaf is common in Egypt to this day. 

^7^, however, is a verbal adjective, also spelt T17S ; and 
7^7-^ DH7 means "hollow bread'. But /*?n is a verbal adjective 
used as a substantive, the flute or pipe being a hollowed instru- 
ment. This suggests that auAos* was borrowed from 7"7H ; the 
fact that irravXea} and 77H (IR i. 40} are homologues neither 
strengthens nor weakens the suggestion. 

Actually, a reed was called Hip, because of its hollow stem; 
just as a pen was called ^JJ, because it was made from a section of 
reed, KaAauoy. 

As a specialized cavity in the wall of a house, ]17n — like 71n — 
has the secondary meaning of window. But the real words for 
'window*, though uncommon, are the two homologues of 0upiY, 
namely: 11D (IR 7. 4) and "ViS (Gn 6. 16). 

Anodier adjective used as substantive is 77H, an empty corpse, 
the bodv having been drained of its blood bv starvation or bv the 
sword. Strong corroboration for this interpretation is to be found 
in the meaning of tKKevujTeoy : 'one must empty, of venesection*. 

Primarily, Dlpfr means 'empty space', and hence it has come 
to mean * place*. A similar observation may be made about 
'room 1 ; it means 'space that is or might be occupied by some- 
thing\ and 'part of a house enclosed by walls or partitions, floor, 
and ceiling 1 . As a matter of fact, the phrase TH~7 QlpftD (HCh 
3. 1) is ambiguous and susceptible of two equally reasonable 



396 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

interpretation that is: either 'in the room of David 1 , seeing 
that Solomon built the Temple instead of his father; or 'in the 
place of David 1 , the site chosen by him, (Cf. oik-t^ic) 

CIH is the third word in these scries to have acquired a second-* 
ary meaning, 'gratis' [Jcs 52. 3). This is quire exceptional; be- 
cause the independent acquisition of a secondary meaning by 
a Hebrew word, which is not to be found in its Greek homologue, 
is very- rare indeed. 

7H2 presents a real and insurmountable difficulty. It certainly 

means 'defile' in Ez 22, 16, but the ohrase 7" *2 "J/77£ 7N 

(Ez 25, 3} closely resembles DiTSHp^ *7nr lb 7. 24; ; arc 

the contexts of both these passages reasonably admit of 77m 
meaning kwolj, jojAiSooj, or oAAt/^i. icqXtBouj cannot be eliminated 
from the competition for homology, on the ground that, since 
the shrines of other gods are inherently profane, they cannot he 
denied. For the same prophet, addressing the idolatrous kins 
of Tyre, says : ^p~"7pE 717711 (lb 28. 18 '., which undoubtedly 
means: 'Vou have desecrated your sanctuaries'. The problem is 
not eased by the fact that — apart from 77" «- — Wlj, which is 
irrelevant — 77" has for homologues compounds cf the three 

omer verbs, thus: ciaK€v6aj Ez 28. 9 , Kara<^Xii6tj 'Gn _ig. ± 
Lev 21. 12), d-- y 5:-, ^oXXvui (Ps 74. 7"". 

7*I!i is also a source oi uncertainty because, while it is no: 
possible to reject the meaning traditionally ascribed to it, the 
two contexts in which the word occurs make i: eifneuk to accec: 
that meaning without reservation. Thus, there may have been 
a pipe through which water reached Jerusalem, and which it 
was vital for David to seize, in order to comcc; the surrender of 
the Jebusite stronghold. On the other hand, one side of the 
citadel may have been so inaccessible that :: was felt safe by tec 
confident defenders to leave it unguarded ^cf. IIS 5. 6". Hence 
the prize promised to the daring warrior who would scale the 
escarpment and reach the unguarded spot. Again, the mighty 
roar of tempestuous seas suggest the discharge of gigantic pipes. 
Similarly, when deep calls to deep the void spaces above resound 
with a tumultuous din. 

Fortunately, such dilemmas are rare in Graeco-Hebraic homo- 
logy. .As a rule, the context is helpful. Thus, it is remarkable 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 397 

that just as k€v6$ means 'empty', as opposed to TrAe'toy, mOl^ in 
Gn 41. 23 should have been contrasted with nK*7Q in the pre- 
vious verse — D")3^ being the homologuc of tetvos and X77D that 
of -AtW (u. p. 364). 

Here arc, for comparison, the relevant entries in the Lexicon, 
without comment : 

'I. ni] vb. reject, spurn (Arab. t-JJ repelled, to be preferred to As. 
zir.u, to be angry ...)... Qa! . . . reject, Israel rejects good Hos 8.3... 
dsewh. God rejects people ... La 3. 31 ... altar La 2. 7. Hiph. . . . 
'late) reject ( = earlier Qai), Jeroboam rejects the Levites ""7 ]"S 
HCh 11. 14; Ahaz the sacred vessels HCh 29. 19; '" rejects Solomon 
ICh 28. 9.' 

'II. [nil] stink, emit stench (cf. Ar. ™j become rancid, o: oil. etc. . . .) ; 
— only Hiph. Pf 3 mpl. r.rin; ^1)^} rivers stink Is 19. 6 . . .' 

'I. nVn vb. be weak, sick . . . Pu. Pf. be made weaJ;, 2 ms. ~ ?n 
Is I-i. 10.' 

4 I. V?n vb. bore, pierce (Ar. Ji perforate, pierce through, transfix, 
Eth. . . . (hollow) reed; Aram, ""pq Ao//oty o«/, K"*~~ 5:?«r; . . . adj. 

koilau: . . . cave . . - jA«rM, etc } . . . Pi. Pi. pi. . . - T7"r ~'- :: £z 28 " 9 

i/i .'A* A2-"!£ 0/" .'/J<r o/iiTJ wounding thee . . . Pu. P.'. -" """- pierces oy tr.e 
sword Ez 32. 26 . . . Po'a! ?:. -rVTD? V?nS li 53- -pierced, wounded 
because cf our transgressions. 1 

'I. '"777; n.m. pierced ... Is 22. 2 . . . pierced, fatally wounded . . . Jc 
51. 52 .7. j/ain Xu 19. 18 . . . m ^n La 4. 9; . . .' 
■-713 n.f. a kind of cake (prob. as perforated . . .).' 
yr?n n.m. . . . and f . . . . window . . . of the gates of Ezek.'s temple 
Ez 40. 16, 22, 25, 25, 29, 33, 36, of the temple itself Ez 4:. 16, i5.' 
'II. [V"7n] vb. denom. play the pipe.' 

'III. [V*?n] vb. pollute, defile, profane; Hiph. also begin (lit. untie, 
loosen, open, v. Arab.) (Ar. *~ wntie, undo, become free, lawful, free from 
obligation or tie; IV. make lawful; X. esteem lawful or free, profane, de- 
secrate, violate; . . .) Niph. . - - Pass., be polluted, defiled, of holy places Ez 
7. 24, 25. 3 ... Pi. ■ - - I- defile, pollute: a. sexually, Gn 49. 4 . . .' 

'CSn subst., used chiefly in the accus. as adv. (cf. Assyrian anndma, in 
vein . . . from ]n, with aff. C,., which is sometimes found in substan- 
tives proper, as D^O, and pr. names, but is more partic. used with 
substs. applied adverbially, as C$i\ qjfsx, Dan, =pn_ . . . } — lit. out of 
favour ; i.e. a. gratis, gratuitously, for nothing ... Gn 29. 1 5 ... Is 52. 3 to be 
sold (fig-)/or nought verse 5 ; Ex 2 1 . 2, 1 1 Qjn K^ to go out (from slavery) 



398 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

freely, for nothing . . . Je 22. 13 . . . h.for no purpose, in vain . . . Ez 6. 10. 
c. gratuitously, wiUiout cause, undeservedly, csp. of groundless hostility or 
attack IS 19. 5 cm rrnri 1 ? to slay David without cause, 25. 31 ... Ej ij. 

*[3?3] vb. hollow out (cf. Assyrian imbubu, flute . . . hence also Ar. 

vj^ 1 knots in rttd^part ofrccd between knots, reed: . . .) Qai Pt. pass, 2*21 
- . Jc 52. 21 . . .' 

'HID vb. turn (. . . Ar. ,^i pass away, banLh . . . Assyrian pdnu* face 
...)... Pi. . . . turn away, put out of the way, c. ace. pcrs. Zp 3. 15 . . . 
hence make clear, c. ace. ~ m 27j, i.e. clear away ihir.gs scattered abou:, 
make orderly . . . Gn 24. 31 ; empty it Lv 14. 30; fig., c. ace. *]~vr 
maJ:e clear, free from obstacles, Is 40. 3 . . . Mai 3. 1 ; ace. oir, clear 
awa y (ground) before it, Le. to plant it <i So. 10 .[ng. / 

l [:iS] vb. dry up, harden (ci\ Aram. X^r.U . . . s:qt:+) ; Qa! A'. >-:, 
ipl. rriB35 Gn 41. 23 (Eiohist; of cars of grain/ 

'TUS n.m. pipe, spout, conduit . . . abs. TUS2 rr ? IIS 5. 3 
{i.e., si vera L, of Jerusalem, but very dubious . - / ; p^ 'A*hh suir.x 
T"] 12 ? ^ip ^ 42. 8 :he sound of thy -'water-] :?cui: :;g., of sluices cf 
heaven opened, cf nz^x, :7s. 1 

l=: P-?» C ?7 - - • standing-place, place; . . . narJir^-place ... Ex ^3. 
21 . . . 3. place = a. city Gn ! 3. 24, 26 ... D: 2: . :^ ...;'- Xe 2. :j, 
passable) place] . . . of places, spots, or: the L»-<:y: leproui ipo: J K 
5. : 1 ... 5. a. space, rsonz, Gn 24. 23, 25, 3: ... L 5. cf 23. 3. Je 7. 
32, 19. II . . . ; THN 'Z.Z Est 4. 1 4 from another auarter, source. 7 Decu.iar 
uses are : a. V '2 ]r: Jud 20. 36 £i;r /'/sr* \ ic:ci ground *.- .'2 . . .' 

K€pau€v$ — This is the only instance of two verba! nouns derived 
from die same verb, one with the MY 1 and the other without. 

A similar phenomenon of utmost philological significance 
occurs in Greek, where rSuao? = \-rovL±c<. ;-;5vl:o9 is supposed 
to be varia lectio for rcino* In IL 2. 2 and Od. a. ~c; 12 "' T 
through false division in the Homeric ;ex:. Moreover, i: is 
derived by Aristarchus from nj-SiTtj. But since vdvpot is related 
to rjSofxai., is it not possible that the initial ;■ in i-^Sviio-? is the 
counterpart of the MY }? 

S.v. "1X3, the Lexicon has : 'I. ["ISI] vb. watch, guard, keep . . . 
of God Q"|\*n "IJJj Jb 7. 20 (thou) watcher of men (iron.). 1 And 
s.v. V. TIS: 'I. "IIS . . . rock, cliff. . . fig. of God (33 t.) as sup- 
port and defence of his people . . . " , 32 ; ? 'X 4 73. 26 . . .' The N.E.B. 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 399 

translates the former phrase: 'thou watcher of the hearts of 
men? 1 — explaining in a footnote : 'of the hearts: soSepL; Heb.om* 
It renders the latter: 'God is my possession' (r. p. 364). 

Kourj — k interchanges with T, as in Kot^/PiPiT, #co/i u^HQT, 
KaipoV/jn^T; and with -£, as in ^aya^/pH^, KeAcScaj/7*?:!, k/ojv/ 
]V!£. Incidentally, note that T and !£ interchange in p^T/pU S, as 
do '* and ^ in ^jj//~>j \S rat V- «J (^ ^ ie aspirate of 77) and /x 
exchange dialcctally, die "1 is terminal, and 3 and 1; interchange 
as gutturals (v. p. 365;. 

It is most significant that Latin coma I'from kout.) means, inter 
a/w, the wool of sheep : poetical in Cicero, de Xatura Deorum 3. 21. 68. 

Kvptaj — mi and <j\^ support each other. As to Kip, Hip and 
♦ L*, remember tliat IT and p are interchangeable in G*!77-i and 
D"i77p IR 6. 34 {u. p. 4:6",. The latter part of Ps 5. 5 is rendered 
in the A.V. thus: 'neither shall evil dwell widi thee 1 ; and in the 
N.E.B. 'evil can be no guest of thine* — regardless of the fact that 
T!I [to sojourn) is intransitive — unlike its homelcsrue, cZkclj, which 
is both transitive and intransitive. 

The Lexicon committed a grosser blunder by deriving PP»p 
{Dt 23. 11) from r\ mm \p t <vp€CD i and equating it with 'chance, 
accident*. In fact, it is the undoubted homoiogue of €Kpoy and 
Zxpoot {outflow, issue) , po?] [flowing of sap) and/or poot [flux, dis- 
charge of morbid humours ) ; and is akin to mi? 2 {Lev 20, 18}, 
the homoiogue oi ptuui [humour or discharge from the body, flux, 
rheum). 

As to rnp?3 (EccI 2. 14*, meaning 'accident, chance, fortune 1 , 

its homoiogue is xupuc [thai which one meets with or flnds n derived 
irom KL-pcj, Kvp£Lo. But HHpE (IS 6, 9; has Dcssibly another 
homoiogue, XPVh a /^sed in periphrases to express something 
strange or extraordinary of its kind); u. p. 365, 

A0707 — 17 and jJc corroborate each other, as do IIT7 and 
-aj^J, Now Adyoy also means : 'thinking, reasoning, reflection, delibera- 
tion. Broadly speaking, this would be consistent with 'study', the 
traditional translation of IT17; and fLeXenj, the rendering in die 
LXX. However, I have preferred 'talk*, in deference to ^^J ; but 



4 oo XVIII. COMPARISONS 

since the context is neutral, one would not feci justified in being 
dogmatic (a. p. 365}. 

* 

va £$ — Bearing in mind that a and r interchange dialcctaliy, 
mark the complete identity of DV1 with vaio$, and of HTQ with 
both vavos and varos. Neidier word is in the plural, the place 
referred to being die temple near which Samuel resided (IS 9. 
10-19). According to die Lexicon, TiVl is a proper name of place 
in Ramah, where prophets lived, and Jill is 

'abode of shepherd, or Hocks, poet, habitation; ... 1. 2. abode, c: 
sheep 2S 7. 8 ... of people under fig. of sheep Je 23. 3, 49. 20 . . . b. 
abode of shepherds Je 33. ia ... a. habitation, usu. of country, or oi 
domains in the country- (chiefly poet.), Jb 5. 3, G. 6 . . . of" in Canaan 
aS 15.25...' 

This confusion is cisnellcd bv reference to the homoiogues 01 

1/0.777}, VO.TTOS and t'OUOi [u. pp. S^O - ^-' 

vof±6s — It is characteristic of the language that many a Greek 
word bears a variety ofmcanings. and icuc$ is such a word ; because 
it derives from i'<uu> which means., mainly: distribute, duseli grey, 
b-jssess. For the saute reason, the second syllable of rcuc> :s net 
a suffix and the u is par: of the radical. Accordingly, i"!Xl\2. ill-. 
and ITIO arc not examples of the aufiix-prcRx phenomenon : the 
initial 72 is not a prefix but part of the radical. This is confirmee 
bv the hornolotr*' j^--Wuoj (allot, beslaiv. vouchsafe), and we are 

faced with a metathesis — or tiic change of:- into D. and of /x into 1 
a occasionally changes into 2 ; here it changes into 1. Cl. 
V2V~r\2 (IIS 1 1. 3; and SJIETrD (ICh3.5\ :]"7i2 (IIR 20. 12' 
and "q~na (Jes 39. v ; nl2i\ (IIR 5. 12; is read H32X. It is also 
relevant to point out that u and - interchange dialectaliy and :n 
Graeco-Hebrew homology, e.g. *T2 Gn 30. 30 '_^-6n jthsr., 
at what time). Indeed, ~D~y in IIR 19. 26 is spelt HETT in 
Jes 37. 27 {v. p. 3G6;. 

£avd6s — In UDE7K the order of the components off is reversed — 
ok instead of ko — and the a changes into ~. 2HT, 27]±, \\2T£, 

and , aj homolcgize with the genitive £avdov — the 2 and the 

v_j exchanging wid\ v. 

Mark the corroborative similarities between 2TM and 2Ti"^, 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 401 

Din and nn, an and nnn, nnx and rmas.nns and IE-?, 

SOT and ]"I3QC7, "120 and T720, "IQO and ^J, H2r! and ^1, 
"I327K and ^1, DIX and ^t^l. 

ICO and 1*720 homologizc also with r#caua:-5pos, which leads 
me to believe that it is a variant of frvdos. This belief is streng- 
thened bv the fact that in vernacular Arabic J bcet' is jjJ^-l, 
probably on account of its colour. 

I think the first S"X in Gn 25. 30 is a noun, homologue of 
tieoua tjood) ; and the second is an adjective, a variant of X-Vi 
meaning 'red 1 . So thai, literally, Esau begged Jacob to let h;m 
taste oHhe red meal lie had cooked. He did not emphasize the 
redness of the concoction by repeating the adjective, but mereiy 
used an ingratiating pun. The Pi attaches to both n. and adj. 

According to the Lexicon, l C\U adj. darkened, dark brown or 
black, only of colour cf sheep', is not a cognate of "SH which 
derives from 'QDil vb. be or become warm'. Moreover, it states 
that "123, a cognate of "1202, means 'bristling, rough;— 
'0 pT J e ' o 1 - ?l~crz<::-* locust, perh. with, allusion 10 horn-like 
sheaths enclosing wings of t*hc pupa'. As to "i .20, it is l n.m. 
blossom of grr.pe \ Tiie suggestion of an 'allusion to horn- 
like sheaths enclosing wings of the pupa', perhaps goes slightly 
beyond the Lexicon's "usual flights of fancy. Vet it is as nothing 
comnared with its treatment of DTK, whereby it perverts the 
reading of the text in order to invent a word which it claims to be 
akin to an Arabic noun ; with the net result of creating a fantastic 
and farcical situation. Here are the relevant extracts from the 
two entries concerned : 

■--X adi. red . . . cf. ^s subs:, red, redness on garment Is 63. 2 ; ="Xr; = 
:h: rid' 'i.iiils Gn 25. 3c, 30, but rd. -">^~ - ■ -' 
■ITS r.. r r.:. ■ name of a ccr.cimeni ;Ar. >!-;.. / '>>v G:: 25. 30, 30 ' 

So at the end of this highly suspect acrobatic operation, we are 
presented with an exhausted Esau, just back from die field, not 
begging for some of an appetizing, ready meal, but for a condi- 
ment ^mentioned twice;*. What is he supposed to do with it? 
Add it to food which he would have to prepare? Bunkum 1 

Nor has "120 the remotest relation to "1202, the probable 
homologue of imoupiov— Dim. of cmoupoj: wooden peg, pin— by 
the prefix-suffix metathesis (\/0, tt/2) {v. p. 366}. 



4 oa XVIII. COMPARISONS 

fypalvm— The 2 in DIP! and DTil exchanges with i, as it 
docs in p3"IS7/puaiov and pj^S/^Atos. (F p. 366.) 

Mark die similarity between Hli/O, "IS*?, and "InS?, wherein 
die sibilants— like die gutturals — interchange. On the other hand, 
the similarity between 312? and ,J£J is not obvious, owing to the 
intervention of the MV j; cf. Proposition 44, pp. 100-1 .^ 

According to die Lexicon "1170 means 'storm, rage' and '""i^C 
Is 54. 11 storm-tossed (fig. of Jerusalem)'. Moreover, 1L*E means 
'bristle, with horror", and "In -17 'be black ... of skin Jb 30. 30'. 

£t\ ov — As I sec it, the m^X/f^W, the planting of which was 
prohibited, was a sacred tree venerated in its own right. On the 
other hand, m^,'^ (IlCh 33. 3]— a variant of which, is 
rnritfi? (Jud 10. 6} — was a statue dedicated to and 'or represent- 
ing the planet Venus, d rd> Aopooira; [a^rrp], T-.macus Locrus 
97a. It was worshipped as ETC^n TC712 Jer 44. 17} and an 
associate of *?SJ2, the two essentially Canaanite 'i.e. Phoenician: 

deities. 

It is most interesting that Hesychius lias -IcK^pd ffc'od? ~ rtl- 
Kaaravloiv) and aa K pa Spv* dxaprro^.— boil: of which homolcgize 
with n"127X— which might indicate the kind of tree die n~:rX 

was. 

According to die Lexicon ]7V7$ is 'table; oroperiy . . . st.ir. ct 

leather mat spread on ground' from *Ar. -_'_ strip of hide, ii >_ 
piece of hide stripped of; Aram. !T?~ . . . •— - °jf garment' . 

In fact, die homologate of rp~ is creWu, send; while that ef 
Aram, nbti and Ar. ^i_: is droar&Uw, dof. V. p. 360.; 

oSo'i— The spiritus asper changes diaiectaiiv into c'.^ as c 

does into 3\_j and 7 J. rr into p. and mini o- into p "I. It is re- 
placed by the spiritus icnis or 2 or T, e.g. o^j. HD'X, o.^.m-'K, 
J r r7r7j/nDD" > X J alpecj ^"2, dpacu/TlS. The initial vowel turns into 
*• and 1, e.g. op5oj,"iCT l Siop&WlSHN Jes 45. 2, dpdw.MN-il 
IIR 11. 1, and the so-called 1p2«7^ 'I which exchanges with die 
augment. S changes into S and W, e.g. SMa.'NQX/TINOS/'pXES, 
SwafSpW. The terminal 7/J is evident in some homologues. 
Lastly, since o turns far more frequently into plllS/ than into 
pnn— e.g. the homologues of verbal adjectives — ^IDS?, which 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 403 

is supposed to be a copyist's error, lias a better claim to regularity 
than T2l7 and . \ 

V ,,L_I requires a special and separate treatment, because it 
honioIogi2cs with die Greek word in the genitive — 600O. In it 
the f is prosthetic or instead of o, the spiritus asper is replaced 
dialectally by ^ and S by J, while- u changes into ^ — as in 

Kvdo$;~n2D. \ j is quite different: in it die initial vowel turns 

into i 6 into , * — as in Trnddoj/riOD — and the final o- into p 
which changes to J, or the J is terminal. We have seen that an 
initial o turns into "; there is at least one instance in whicii 
an internal o undergoes the same metamorphosis, oAod>/]r"7^ 
(IR9. 8 IIGh 7.21). 

Mark that lTT fi^m [Gn 34. 21) is homologous with both 
cvpvdyvia and eupvodeia. CS7UD T2 (Job 8. 4; is corroborated by 
'2 ^~i~IE ;'Ps 107. 17V This is yet anotherinstance of interpreting 
the Bible by the Bible, 

According to the Lexicon, none of die homologues of 606s has 
any homonym. Thus : 

'["-rx, ^-X] . . . step, going 'cf. Ar./],/, E:h. . - .f:o:s!t'p) only sf. 

-rx Jb 23. it Pr 14, 15; ™* ^17-5; *1~^. * 4°- 5^ 75- -; ^"^ 
ti i • :c V"X a 17. 71. all ocet. & ft?- of mode of life, e:c. f"~xl mi. 
Jb 31. 7 step, going, s:irr:c usage, H^N Jb 3-7; "~v? V ! 7- I! -' 
•[-!":-,] vb. swell/ ?\ hor.our, adorn (. . . Ar. ;~ be of no ccccur.i; 

t - « J 

but also/<r3:*j*' {vinum' 5: j-^' injlatus, lumens .Venter V: — Qal . . . Psr- 
.':'j;5:V Passive ^~r; Is 63. 1. oh r^nr: Is 45. 2 c<:ss. "^h Greek 
Version of the LKX o?v ...}: 1. rurell, only pc pass. pi. Is 45. 2 (si vera 
I/- in neuter sense, of h::Is, spelling places, snails of land -'made !eve: 
be lore Cvrus .* 

T" nTm.l the outside, s:s., erp. in ph, spec, a street, never with 
suffix in s?.. with n_ he, rrsrr^ nsn, pi. niirn, ris" ... 2. Of a definite 
locality, viz. a. that which is outside the houses of a town, i.e. a street 

. Jc 37. 2 1 rrxn y^n the Bakers' street . . .* 

4 "P . . . hand. . . . d. special phrases: . . . simply lift (KT2) the hand 
[= vz'TVi . . . '-^T 1 XTIclsewh. (of men) in prayers 28. 2 ; cf. 68. 32, and 
rnn nV? *"P 77. 3 ... 2. Fig. = strength, power:— CU? s:"T Cm2 n;n xb 
Jos 8. 20 fJehovist-Elohist) there was not in them strength tojlee; W?n xV 
ETVP *Tn~TiX - 7D <£ 76. 6 no/r* of the men of might have found their hands, 
i.e. their powers arc paralyzed in death . . . of dominion of king 2*V7jh 



4X>4 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

2 rr 2S 8. 3 rd. prob. as synonymous iCh 18. 3 ? it? ^an 1 ? fo 
establish his dominion at; ... 3. Fig. = side : a. of way :]*n 12 iS 4. 13 
Qr (Kl T i but rd. prob. istr, i;b . . .). b. of gaie~.??:r*0¥3 «S-4- 

18 (text dub ). c. of stream or wady pir ?ru T"^ Dt 2. 37. Esp. 

dual : d. of land, uyv luqi px Gn 34. 2 1 (Priests' Code or Narrative) 
the land is wide of {on) both hands, i.e. in both directions, Ju 18. 10 Is 22. 
18 iCh 4. 40 ; of city Ne 7. 4 ; of sea if, 104. 25 ; of streams 2:1; "qi 
Is 33. 21 ... e. side — place, properly place at one side *pn? 7|? TCJ}T\ T^. 
~:n5? Dt 23. 13; VT~r.SC "~X Jc 6. 3 each (in) his place; so ~X""?r 
IT'Vs Nu 2. 17 ... a. "V is used in various special senses: — a. sign, 
monument iS 15. 12 28 18. 18 Is 56. 5 Ez 21. 24 . . . b. pari, fractional 
part or share: of seed Gn 47. 24 (Jehovist) ; share in King 2S 19. 44 ; 
of fighting men 2K 11. 7; of people Nc 11. 1 . . . c. time, repetition 

Gn 43. 34 (Jchovist), Dn 1. 20 5. "V with prep "V" ="77". 

Crrs Jb 8. 4 and he delivered them into the power of their transgression, gave 
them over to it ; . . .' 

In my submission the homologue of T in Gn 34. 21 and 
Ju 18. 10 is ayvta as '.veil as o'Soy ; in IS 4. 13, 18 IIS 8. 3, 18. 18 
Ez 21. 24 ICh 18. 3, it is dyvievz [ therefore ~p is correct'; ir. 
Ps 77. 3 ai/yrj; in Jos 8. 20 Ps 76. 6 yvlov; in IS 4. 13 ciVw ; :r. 
Gn 43. 34 IIS 19. 44 IIR :i. 7 Ne n. 1 Acyo>. However, V— 
the homologue oi rrayU- — which occurs twice in Prv 6. 5, is net 
referred to in the Lexicon; but die N.E.B. follows the Septuagir.t 
in translating the first by 'toils' (£po ycy*; ; then it unaccountably 
proceeds to translate w^p" 1 TQ by 'the grasp of the fowler \ 
although the LXX consistently renders oc rrcyiSos (ormttir.g 
BiKTViorov). [V. pp. 618-19.) 

X"p 7 n.[m.] front, east, aforetime; — abs. "p Dt 33. 27 — , -~? 7 
Ju 8. 10 ... 1. ioc. 2. front, '?? Is 9. 1 ! from the font 'i.e. East), infrcr.: 
(opp. "linKD), 'p; *V.-X 139. 5 behind and before; "^".J* 'p Jb 23. 8 
I go forward (opp. "V-HX . b. £<wf: 'p"""-" Gn :o. 30 (J) mount oj the 
East; 'p'":? = dwellers in the E., tribes E. or NE. of Canaan G:: 
29. 1 (E), Ju 6. 3, 33, 7- 12, 3. 10 iK 5. 10 Is 11. 14 Jo 49. 28 Ez 25. 
4, 10 Jb 1. 3; ? "TC Nu 23. 7 . . .'p fix Gn 25. 6 (J) . . . > 'p= ™ 
the E. of Gn 3. 24 ... 2. temp., ancient time, aforetime: a. 'p ^TJO 
Dt 33. 15 ancient mts., cf. 'p ^ v. 27, ?-*??- Is 19. M , 'P'X? X"2 
i/r 68. 34. b. 'p "3 % ? 44. 2 in ancient d<r;s; cf. 'p "a-?? y>«~ 0/ oW 
Is 23. 7 . . .' 

D"Tp has three homologues, i.e. gjctiV, Lv. East Gn 3. 24, 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 405 

12. 8; vaXm: Adv., long ago Dt 33. 27 Jes 23. 7; ZicvBrp: 
Scythian Gn 25. 6, 29. 1 Nu 23. 7. (V. p. 367.) 

6801k — The rendering here of U70H ]27 by dSoi)? -irpas was 
probably a literal translation by the LXX, for in Job 39. 28 the 
rendering is ^0^9 [prominence) irirpas. Similarly, FIX is rendered 
by oSouV in the LXX, and only in IS '13. 21 ; for in Jes 2. 4 the 
reading is dporpov (plough). However, I maintain that the true 
homologue of ]c? both in IS 14-4 and in Job 39. 28 is gt6w£, and 
that the true homologue of DX is ix^rX^. {V. p. 307.) 

The lexicon derives jvl? from ]Vj — 'whet, sharpen' — and states 
that ]Iy is its Picl. Accordingly: ^IJ? EFlIZEn Dt 6. 7 ic * 
teach the words incisively, Germ, "einscharfen". - . / Further- 
more: Tiril? n.f, sharp (cutting) word, taunt; — Dt 28- 37 . . / 

In my submission, however, ]E? is not related to JIE7, the 

homologue of which is #77^, ddya> 7 drfydvtu. On the other hand, 

nrrZ? is the homologue of vpvos, while that of ]V5 is i£vp.v£tu. 

_ * > 

oAoy — The word rP^H may be analysed with reference to 

lis homologous phrase, oAo? ov 7 in two ways: oAor"", ou H7 — 
similar ;o V ; and 0A0? 7*7n, ou'il — similar to *X 'Prv 31. 4). 

According to the Lexicon, n^ln is a substantive derived from 
77H, 'pollute, defile, profane'. It is 'used as exclam. lit. ad 
profanuml i.e. far be it Tor {sic) me, thee, etc.)!' This is one of 
coundess examples which prove that, without Greek moorings, 

biblical commentators are helolesslv cast adrift at the mercv of 

i. * * 

phonetics, and in constant danger of capsizing. 

The Lexicon states that 71X derives from the radical 71X, 7**X — 
'he in front of precede 1 — then it goes on: 'I. [71X] m[m.] body, 
belly; with suffix G7iX (in contempt) 6 73. 4 (lit. their front, 
prominent pcrt)\ It also states elsewhere: 'X*"12 adj. fa: — 
ih 73* 4 . . ' According to it, therefore, Ps 73. 4 refers to pot- 
bellied men; whereas the A.V. has: 'dieir strength is firm', and 
die X.E.B. : 'they are sleek and sound in limb\ 

In my submission, none of them Is right, and the conflict be- 
tween them is largely subjective, ultimately resulting from in- 
dividual hunches. The value of my theory is that it reduces 
guesswork to a minimum, if it does not altogether eliminate it. 
Incidentally, X"H3 is the homologue of f$apv$* 



4 o6 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

anXov — Mark the close similarity between "Gl and ji, ~IT2 

and jc^ 7 H2D and TU^, *?bi? and ^DU- Each member of every 
pair corroborates the other. Moreover, die homology- d-A?Vcn 
TI^D is corroborated by the associated homologies ^'DJKoupot 
and ^ni3/Koup7jr«. Kindred homologies are: diXotjU^OD (Jud 

3- 19), oxoAj/n^n? (iis 23. n)/rrn (ib 23, 13), ^>a^xn 

(Job K 17). They corroborate each other as presenting together 
an impressive catalogue of military formations — similar to other 
comprehensive nomenclatures — all consistent with the identitv 
of one language with die odicr. (V. pp. 263-.;, 367.; 

opdur— The 1 in (T7D) nnX"ll (IIR n. r, like the X in "VX 
(Jes 60. 1), replaces the o in opdeu. This is supposed to be a 
scribe's lapsus, but is actually an archaic relic of transcendental 
significance. Its tell-tale value cannot be exaggerated. It con- 
stitutes one of several vestigial links — ]IX*7r (Job 21. 25 is 
another — which testify to the identity o[ Hebrew with Greek. 
We ought to be most grateful to the successive generations c: 
scrupulous scribes who piously preserved *uch priceless philo- 
logical relics, instead of presumptuously accusing them -:f 
negligence. Cf. nTI2 Jud iS. 30. nw^ aci^j. 

oAccu is nearer £ ?7\ than o'pacj, and is relevant to the horr.clcry 

opytLoj — This is an example of a verb with the suffix -ccj having 
both simple and compound homologues. It is also one of the 
words the homologues of which appear to undergo metathesis, bu: 
in fact might not. Thus, in the homology ooyi'uu/E?Jn the initial 
vowel drops out; whereas in the homology dpy/£a>>HI, :; :s 
possible that the spirirus lenis turns into 1 (e.g. yiap lap, 7Y*.- 
xdvo$ l Fi\x<ivQ$i V\cG\$'7'X7*) y and the y drops; yet metathesis 
cannot be ruled out. opyt^aj = doyaiVej. [I . p. 250.) 

The Lexicon states: '[SHJ] vb. drive out, cast out . . . Niph. Pj\ 
-H13 . . . be driven, tossed, as die Nile Am 8. 8 ; of the sea Is 57. 20/ 
But 'to drive out* is not the same as 'to drive 1 , neither can it by 
any stretch of sane imagination be assimilated to being tossed. 
There is a limit to playing about with words, distorting or ex- 
tending dieir meanings to accommodate this and that context. 
Besides, because two words are spelt the same, it does not neces- 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 407 

sarily follow that they arc identical in origin or meaning. This 
is no less true in Hebrew than it is in English or French. How- 
ever, the N.E.B. renders: 'seethe like the Nile', and 'a troubled, 
sea', respectively. Naturally, neither the Lexicon nor the N.E.B. 
appears to perceive that 2TU in the said texts is a variant of 
Efrl, a verb subjected by the Lexicon to similar treatment: 

'[trj] vb. be in tumult or commotion (Ar. ^j maJ:e a vehement 
noise; Biblical Aramaic, Aramaic OVi . . . be disturbed, in tumult (Tar- 
gum Imp. often for ns?, as <i 46. 6, nK7 Is 17. 12 f . ; . . . for ]*.-- 
ibid.] ; but Syriac usu. perceive ...) ;— Qal Pf. 3 pi- w 2. t '-] why 
do the nations throng tumultuous h?* 

Here again 'throng' is slipped in by a side wind supposed to 
blow from Targum and Aramaic. As to biblical Aramaic wil, 
its homologue is crrtpx^, -rid that of ^s~iij Dan 6. 7) «-:- 
a—€p\a>, 'hasten . 

To continue the series to its perverse end, and show up this 

philological fraud : 

'[m] n.[m.] throng;— tn? r^ljl ^55. 15 used to walk in the 
ihror.s a. "~n 42. 5, also to CTS7X TV-).' And '[~7P] n.f. throng; 
. . . J 64. 3 . . .' 

So the Lexicon starts with a verb which it says means 'to be :r. 
tumult or commotion', and refers in support to similar verbs :r. 
kindred languages which convey the concept of vehement noise, 
disturbance, and tumult. Then the verb 'to throng' replaces the 
verb 'to be in tumult', and the idea of tumult takes an adverbial 
function and is tacked on to the new verb :'throng tumul- 
tuouslvn, so that it merely indicates the manner of thronging. 
Fir.allv, the usurpation is complete : all thought of tumult or 
commotion is jettisoned from the mind, in a rebellious cathars:s ; 
tir.d the two derivative nouns of different gender emerge as 
meaning 'throng'. It simply will not do. 

Compare the above travesty of the truth with the truth as it 
appears in the light of my theory: opy%ui is a verb with several 
meanings and a few homologues, as aforesaid. In one of the 
meanings — 'grow angry, be wroth* — one of the homologues is 
27T1 ; while in another meaning, 'in a passion', one of the homo- 
logues is chil Similarly, x^P^ has several meanings and a 
number of homologues. In the meaning 'separate' or 'exclude', 



4 o6 XVIII. COMPARISON'S 

one of the homologues is ETA (Jon 2. 5). Obviously, this ST 
has no etymological connection with the identical word in Isaiah 
and Amos. Again, opyf\, a derivative of opyifa, means 'anger, 
wrath, passion' ; and has several homologies, one of them bc:hg 
E?n which couples with the last meaning. 7vDT\, however, has 
no etymological connection with ©1") ; its homologue is ipyaar^- 
piov, 'gang'. As to the homology VllTjii-io-epxtv, the first syl- 
labic of the simple verb is dropped because it includes the double 
consonant cm, whereas x is treated by poets as a double consonant : 
one exchanging with I, as in x^p'C"'/^"^ anc * ^Vx^P^} tr - e 
other with 27, as in ^'cu (Ep- x €l£xJ » l ater ^-P- X^'"*)/^^ ar,< ^ 
X/sa^.'^KS. Therefore — without inventing, distorting, or ever, ex- 
tending or straining any meaning — these five words are explained 
aereeably to their respective contexts, against an unquestionable 
Greek background. Incidentally, we learn that worship in the 
Temple was — on occasion, at any rate— touched with fervour, 
perhaps with Bacchic enthusiasm. 

;;")* involves three homonyms in the Lexicon, as follows: 



u* 



'I. ";") vb. disturb '. . . perh. transp. from Ar. ^; disturb . . .) \—Q:l\ 
. . . Jb 26. 12 . . . Hiph. denom. from -11 r:zke a tivir.kling . . .' 

From this first homonym derives: 

; rn n.rn. moment {. . . Targum N>yn £c 9. 12: prob. properly a 
rr.scerr.er.t, i.e. tifinkliig, of the eye; cf. rr.orr.ent-an:, i.e. movmentxnz' . . . 

r: - ! Nu 16. 21— . . .; Is 54. 7 . . .' 

'II. rp, vb. be at rest, repose (prob. = Ar. «- reram, prop, ^.'ltt: :j 
rest, after wanderings, etc.; ; — Niph. /ms. 2 fs. je 47. 6 (of sword, be 
gathered into thy scabbard, rail "yrjri r<r P 0isr > and bc sliil - Hi F"- a - 
trans. £i« r«f to;— Inf. construct Je 31. 2 'rprV ^i?rt I will go to 
P :c him (Isr.) r«f, 50. 34 H"™ V"")? ]V?7 i- • • read prob. 'Z. ; 
Is 51. j. i**px -'"" VX7 "rstra"! usu. I will cz*asc my judgment 
'reiieion) to repose as, etc. (i.e. I will establish it; cf. ="7 42. 4' ; but 
metaph. strange . . .' 

'ITT *;n vb. harden 'Eth. . . . coagulate, congeal: poss. development 

of root £J, v. II. 'I) ;-QaI. pf in Jb 7. 5 CX=H IT* nis my skin 
Aanku, and (then) runs again (II. CS3), of the ulcers in elephantiasis.' 

To begin with, on whose authority is it stated that «^.j 
properly means "return to rest, after wanderings, etc.'? Then, 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 409 

putting my theory aside, and assuming that metathesis operates 
as between UJH and ^j, how far-fetched arc ^j and ^^ and 

how utterly misleading die reference to either of them. How docs 
yn come to be related to 'twinkle* ? A man must be borne on 
a fantastic flight of fancy to suggest that any verb meaning 'to 
harden* could have possibly developed from ^, or that judg- 
ment' could be stretched to equate 'religion'. Having regard 
to the context, he must have been used exclusively to double- 
think to imagine that STnn in Jcr 50. 34 means 'to give rest 1 . 
Indeed, a metaphor must be extra super-strange if the Lexicon 
admits it to be strange — mark you, its own metaphor! In short, 
all this is a clownish dream in wild cloud-cuckooland. 

Incidentally, the homologue of 171*1 is pdya = 0x1177: the time; 
while !7^Hm has two homonyms homologizing with -rapaipvx^' 
cool Jes 34. 14; metaph.. console Jer 31. 2 \\); and acrrpd—cu } 
o~rpd—cu:jlash y illuminate, lighten Jes 51. 4. The first syllable of 
this homology is omitted because it includes the double con- 
sonant err, and 7T changes dialectally into y- — e.g. o^o'auu/rttXi, 

When no homonyms are suspected, naturally commentators 
will confuse diem and attempt to reconcile the meaning of one 
homon%Tn with the context of another — a process which usually 
involves pathetic mental acrobatics, and is abundantly illus- 
trated on practically every oa^e of the Lexicon. The entrv about 
l!J"i is no exception. 

L -^ root of foil., prob. onomatop. ; . . . prop- more violently as 
orig. meaning, but ref to thunderous sound everywhere, exc. Ez 27. 35 
where text dub., v. infr. ; cf. Aram. E?*l, "VI ri. thunder, 2?"] vb. 
thunder; e<o. Aoh. Ithpa. utter (loud) complaints; . . . n. thunder, . . . vb. 
thunder, lament 9 cf New Hebrew -VI Hiph. thunder. Hithp. complain; 
£:h. . . . n. thunder, As. rimu, id.; Ar. <*±j vex, dislike, etc.}. 3 

b [-V*j] v b. denom. thunder ; — Qal make the sound of thunder , thunder . . . 
-"2 VtV^ Ez 27. 35 is dub. : faces tremble (. . . arc convulsed), or M<ry 
tremble (cf . . . AV RV cr* troubled) in face, lacks etym. support . . . the 
LXX, Syriac Version, C H. Cornill DT3P ^? v Hiph. . . . thunder, 
cause thunder . . . PlOJnn IS 1. 6 is appar. Inf. construct suf . . . but 
not understood by the LXX and dub.: AV RV to make her fret, cf 
Aram, utter (loud) complaints . . . perhaps corrupt H. P. Smith.' 



4io XVIII. COMPARISONS 

Referring to the interpretation of the phrase in Ez 27. 35, 
the Lexicon states that it lacks etymological support. Quite apart 
from my theory which renders the whole lexicon obsolete, this 
comment can. in mv submission, be reasonably made on many 
interpretations put forward by the Lexicon. However, by what 
right is the word 'loud* slipped in parenthetically? It props up 
the analogy with Aramaic, and is therefore deceptive. Again, the 
Lexicon adduces ^j as etymological material helping to under- 
stand GS7T. This attempt is worse than useless for two reasons: 
firstly, because it is valueless and misleading in this particular 
case; secondly, it deceives the student into believing that such 
far-fetched evidence is relevant, so that lie mi^ht be tempted to 
accept such a perverse process as a valid standard of research. 

The irony of it is that here, as often elsewhere, Arabic fails to 
come to the assistance of Hebrew, because the Arabic homologue 
of the Greek word concerned differs from the Hebrew one. Thus 

the Lexicon ignores ju m the Arabic for thunder, presumably be- 
cause it includes a consonant which is not found in GUT Vet ju« 
is a direct and better homologue of Bpovrv than CLH. In fact. 
Arabic can be positively misleading, because ^, has two homo- 
logies : Spourduj and Spouecj. Thus, the Lexicon adduces ^. 
ihurJir 'said of sky), VIII tremble, quiver\ in the entry s.v. "TV"] ; 
hu:^. ' to thunder has no etymological or emotional afnnitv with 
j^r "to shudder, shiver', notwithstanding the identity of SDe;!:r.? 
between them. Therefore, it is quite wrong to adduce j^* :n its 
meaning c to thunder') as having any ailihation with ~I7~1 which 
means 'to tremble* exclusively, just as it is absolutely right to 
adduce js-j in its meaning 'to shudder'. And what is one to sav 
about the perversion of u*ID 1£!>1 into ZJT2D UTt"* ?! \]\ p. 36". 

czoi — . J* corroborates "11:2, and the second "1 :n "1~in reoiaces 
the terminal a. It cannot be too stronclv emphasized that onlv 
Greek accounts for the presence of the second "1, and that "1"1m 
is a more complete homologue than TH. The Lexicon states tiia: 
Hit is the root of *in, and adds that its meaning is dubious. 

TreArrj — The Lexicon wonders whether D"7S? means 'shield*, and 
quotes authorities who opine that it means 'quiver' and 'arms, 
equipment'. The N.E.B. translates it sometimes by 'shield* 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 411 

(IIR 1 k to Ez 27. 1 1 Cant 4. 4), at others by 'quiver' (IIS 8- 7 
Jer 51, 11 ICh 18. 7), and once by 'buckler* (HCh 23. 9). In 
the AA\, however, the rendering is uniformly 'shield', the chal- 
lenging phrase D^07^n 1X7D (Jer 51. 11) being translated 
'gather the shields', although under no circumstances could the 
verb X7Q conceivably mean 'gather*. Such perversion of lan- 
guage and violation of reason arc the penalty of misunderstanding 
the original text. Obviously, riiey do not help soive the difficulty 
oresented bv U^obzn 1X7Q ,D^nn TDm. For it resembles 
two other phrases, i.e. - * i.um iDijoN-: , \\ t- \\\/ j-j - ' 
;Jes 49. 2), and ilTul ^D~X~nX X7E "1SX :'Ps 127/5) ; and 
nD2?X (9t)k-q> &VY 7 }) ^ as hitherto been the universally acknow- 
ledged word for quiver. Yet this word too presents a similar diffi- 
culty in two verses, i.e. Jes 22. 6 and Job 39- 23. The verb X~2 — 
which occurs in the former — :s used in connection with r\TS IS 17. 
7 ICh 12. 24 (25) I ICh 14-7; while H21 — which occurs in the 
latter — seems to surest a shield rather than a Quiver , since it is the 
homologue of fip£poj\ citing, clash, ring. In fact, I hold that HSTX 
also means 'shield*, it being the homologue of cc-iV; for it seems 
that the shield did duty for a quiver also, housir.g arrows on the 
inside of it. Jes 49. 2 seems to lend support to this explanation. 

T7oAi? — rr exchanges dialectally with {p) 2, >, V; p, <J, and 
V; ^; so does $ with [d) i*. — changes into 2, e.g. -a.\ato9;Ti7!2. 

-apbiaLo$;'~^)2, rr6a^T:u2. To this day the Sephardim pro- 
nounce y ng ; yet it is difficult to assert that - exchanges with S7, 
because it is possible that the ~ drops and that 1> exchanges with 
the vowel that follows the -. A exchanges diaiecraily with (5) ~T 
and V "1 , ; so does a wich 'S'i ±. Moreover, o exchanges in- 
directlv with "?], since it exchanges dialectally with h and 6 t and 
either of them dialectally changes with x- 'J- - ract > l ^ c second 
person suffix 7j stands for ou.) Alternatively, the suffix -1? ex- 
changes with H, and this interchanges with ^\ as gutturals. The 2 
in 71T7T2, like the j in -u^, is terminal, followed by the 
feminine suffix H. Therefore, all the Hebrew and Arabic words 
reproduce their common Greek homologue in full — except, per- 
haps, TU which possibly drops the tt; but the genuine homo- 
logue of "T*S7 and Tp is yfj. 



4I3 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

It is rather significant that j9/>/a is Thracian for -oA^ ; because, 
bearing in mind the consonant/vowel metathesis (pijip), the 
identity of fipla with 7\~V2 becomes self-evident. In fact, this « 
one of more than one hundred atavistic Greek words that can 
only be explained through Hebrew or Arabic. This reflects the 
regular intercourse between Asiatic and European Greeks before 
and after the destruction of Troy. [V. p. 369.} 

pit* — ^jj corroborates 0"1T, as ^5^ does I7~)I and "11-. 
1Z, TA, "lHi, and 'T\l exhibit the MV 2— as D~!T docs the 
terminal Q, 37 "U the terminal V, and TH the terminal "1. - in 
SH:, "712, and IIU; T in D1T and 7U; 37 in =pj7 and *j37"l ; 

T in t5^, r- in ^L, ^ in JJ: S j in vjj> tr in <- ,; -~ and lT m ^T- 
and "!>:— one and all stand for the sbiritus aster. D in ^117 and 
^""l, ^_i in ^s\ and ^J in ^ib, stand for the thematic cu, p 
changes dialectally into *? in *733 and *7!2, and into J in <JL_ 
and _ib. In ^371 and ^j, there is metathesis benveen the 

soiritus asoer and p fcf. pronouncing 'where" r.iLin" . 

Here are nine Hebrew and eight Arabic verbs, pronounced 
more or less differently one from the other, each of which ;s 
nevertheless a tested variant of pe'ej. However, since SJ~u :n 
Job 30. 27 is in the Plel, its homologue is Kar^ppiw\ fiou: dou:n\ 
stream, rash down. 

This is what the Lexicon says about some of these verbs : 

r""U has no homonym and means 'diminish, restrain, withdraw . . . 
Pi. Imp/. »nr Jb 36. 27 withdraw = draw up c. ace. EVp^E-pi cf. 
A. Dillmann (on other hand, Franz Deiiizsch a ciii drew down, lei 
d:wn : : 

77: has no homonym and means 'roll, roll away . . . Niph. . - . 
ZZZ*2 Z~"2D bv Am v --i It** judgment roll along f:ow down; as L-.e 

WCieTS. 

7T: means 'flow, trickle, drop, distil (poet." . . . Ar. J> descend 
(milk into udder, but also in gen.) . . ./au- } subj. water ... of mts. 
(i.e. their torrents) Ju 5. 5/ 

p p? means 'drip, drop (cf. Ar. <Jji- ladle out water with the hand (as 
with ladle), cf. Phoenician nany portico (whence rain drips) . . - 
cfl also Ar. ^ upper-room . . .} ;— Qal Imp/. 3 mpL ^0 131V2 VBS Di 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 413 

33. 28 his heavens drop dew ; fig., of speech, intrans., ^np>V "tCODfpsr 32, 2 
Ut my teaching drop like the rain (sec parallel Vnax ^33 V?n).— CL ^V 

^n means 'trickle, drip, synon. of 1 ?!], II. r py (cf Ar. ^-j JIozv 
(of blood), bleed (of the nose)); Qal Imp/. 3 mpl. *25TV, of clouds 
jb 36. 28/ 

To expose the errors of the Lexicon, it is necessary to appreciate 
two opposites: 

( 1 ) That there exist two entirely different verbs which are pro- 
nounced and spelt identically, that is: U"U, the homologue 
of p£oj; and S7~U, the homologue of both alpiuj {take away) 
and dyypt£ety (subtract, deduct) — 27*11 being a Continental 
variant of alp€tj J and cyypctcu' having been atavistically 
borrowed from 1711. 

(2) That ^37*1 is not a mere synonym of *772 and ^117, any more 

than ]2X727 is a mere rrrcaniTO of ]2Jw. The former three 
words are the same verb which happens to be pronounced 
and spelt differently, just as the latter two words are the 

same adjective which, haooens to be pronounced and spelt 
differently. 

Once this is appreciated, it is not difficult to realize that *7?] 
has nothing to do with J -J, or to recognize the old trick in 
operation once more: twisting 'roll away' to mean 'flow down'. 
On the contrary, it is difficult to overlook the dragging of J -J 
into the explanation, because it means 'descend* exclusively; 
so that the example of the milk descending into ike udder is as 
misleading as it is selective. Again, faced with the difficulty 
cf 'flowing 1 (or is it 'descending;; mountains, the Lexicon ascribes 
ihcjloiving 10 their torrents. Yet in thus doing violence to the text, 
it unwittingly robs it of the implied wonder; for there is hardly 
a miracle in torrents flowing on account of the Lord. Those 
responsible for the N.E.B. resolved the difficulty bv altering the 
text altogether to read : "Mountains shook in fear before die 
Lord/ As a matter of fact, the AA\ had fared much better than 
both the Lexicon and the X.E.B. ; for it has: 'The mountains 
melted from before the Lord/ It was not a bad guess, but the 
merit of Greek is that it dispenses with guessing. (F. p. 369.) 



414 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

Even if nD"iy were not the homologuc of 6po6os or -podvpov 
and tzpqttvXqv — dvpa (Ovpjj) and jtvXtj being the same word, dif- 
ferently pronounced and differently applied — die suggestion that 
'portico' is called DD"iy, because rain drips from it, is pathetic. 
However, to render absurdity even more absurd, we arc referred 
to <i^i (uTTtptuov) as meaning 'upper-room', with the implication 
that it is so called because rain is liable to leak through its roof! 

p7£a — Note that die spiritus aspcr is dJalcctally replaced by £ — 
e.g. pooovlfipohov — and that Arabic has preserved the firs: vowel 
of the Greek word in its original pronunciation. 

The Lexicon states: that in Ex 25. 31 7JT means 'base (loins; cf 
candlestick'; that in Ps 80. 12 TSp means 'boughs, branches' — 
confusing it with "VSp;o£off, e.g. Job 29. 19; that '^p~~y means 
'P.oor', 'floor of temple rK 6. 15 . . . D'H i/p~i7 Am 9. 3 the f.ocr, 
bottom of the sec? ; that in Ex 30. 23 and Cant a. 14 r -v\~l means 
'chief choicest, best' ; that in Ps n 3. 22 m-D TX~1 means l !oi> c r 
(the; corner, i.e. most conspicuous stone 'fig./ ; and, in a separate 
entry: 'TOX"1 n.f. top; aopos. 'in T3NH Zc a. - i.e. the tonrr.es: 
stone'; that £T£? means *root ... 3. too'., fig. = lowest stratum, 
ct mt. Job 28. 9, of sea 36. 30 = bottom text strange and cu::. : 

B. Duhm onn ^rx";, with nx in v s ; ; of fee:, *7ri -;■-;■•;• 13. 

27, i.e. soles . . . {elsewhere r j3), K. Budde place of trcaciint:, 

footholds; B. Duhm {arbitrarily} 'rTf, dele: % 7rV Curxuiiy 

enough, the LXX translates H^Xl by <\rpovoula. [ini:eri:zr.;e, 

possession, property) — apparently confusing it with !Tr"V -cpc.bcc^ 

Dc 2. 12) ; and the N.E.B. meekly follows the LXX. V, p. 370. 

nX2S (IS 1. 3; may be (or also be" the homologue c: 
cerrTot ((Jt'^o^ia:) or ere iacrroV [aeBdCoaa. cj^ust. . f". d. 370. 

In contrast with the above simple, clear, direct exposition 
involving four homologues — creScw, otSouai, cri}p,a, and avptlcv 
— the following fictitious and confused explanations occur in the 
Lexicon : 

'[X2S] vb. wage war, serve (Sabcan K22 u-cge war ivith, also r~ 
army, campaign . . . As. sdbu, man, soldier; . . . Ar. uS conceal oneself, 
hence lie in wait; this is phonetically suitable, but better in :nng. 
would be Ui go or come forth (against one), etc. . . . S. Frankel :j - 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 4'5 

compare ^f* young man . . . I . urage war, fight, c. *?> against, Xu 31 . 7 . . . 
2. serve at sacred lent, Lcvitcs c. ace. X22 Ku 4. 23, 8. 24 (l») ; women 
Ex 38. C, 8 (P) IS 2. 22 . . .' (Of. ^7^os). 

'X2S n.m. 2 Cli 2O, 9 {Poss. f. "is 40. 2 Dn 8. 12 . . .) army, war, 
warfare ... pi. r.lK3S Xu 20. 9 [for 1. 9] + 278 limes; . . . 1. army, 
host: a. organized for war ju 8. 6 . . . 'S(n)Vy over the host (as captain) 
Xu 10. ii, 15+10 times Xu to (P) . . . b. host (organized body) of 
anecls 'd. Luke 2. 13), ~rrr. NHS (>3) all the host of heaven iK 22. 
10" • • "~~~ NaS Is 24. 21 host of the high (angel-princes; contrasted 
wiih earthly monarchs) . . . c. of sun, moon and stars . . . -NZtS ?- 
Xch 9. 6 . CXZ'J Is _:o. 2G ... d. of the entire creation. wXZ'J *?Z 
Gn 2. 1. 1. ... 3- service: a. of Lcvitcs in sacred places Xu 4. 3 . . . 
i. r.lNSS. in name of" as God of war, prob. rirst in time of warlike 
David some connect with sacred ark, but ark older;., explained 
Vxi^ .-.'.riss ""Vx r.:xr-j rr.rr IS 17. 45 '" Sebaoth Cod of the battle 
array of Israel (the though: of angels and stars as army of God is later ) ; 
a. earliest form c. art. : r'.srsr; T-t? '" Am 3. 13, 6. 14, 0. 5 ;'~^X om. 
bv error, cf.J. Wellhauscr.. , Hos 12. 6 . . .' (Cf. K=S'<rrpc:-:rf . 

So to crown the revealing researches and complete the scho- 
larlv speculations to perfection, the inevitable copyist's mis- 
take is* discovered: Tl'TS is missing from Am 9. 5. And once 
more the errant copyis: emerges as the ignoraiu's scapegoat, the 
cover for the fraud and or the palladium of the presumptuous. 

oxm-aA^— Note that Jud 5. 14 discloses a common custom 
between die Hebrews and the Greeks {cL the Spartan epistle, 

pp. 1-2 sup.';. 

The v changes into Z, silent "1, and pronounced _». There is at 
least one other example of - and *l interchanging: S722~ri2 
GL"7XT2 (IIS 11. 3 and bSTWril UTS' 7:2 TCh 3. 5). 
Incidentally, note the prenx-sufnx phenomenon at work in 
E;T : 7vv*?X" , 217 — "72 £ being the homologue of ya/iTJr^. 

In die proverb HlKl "ICH 7HX "33 (Prv 14. 3}, "IDH means 
'scourge, whip'. Analogous phrases are: ^HIKi 2 "in (Dt 33. 29), 

nntfp era? (jcr 9- 2., n:*~7 cmc? fn ( Ib 9- 7), ^ ^vi 

(Jes 1 1 . 4), mn 3in2 'D (lb 49. 2), -D -»0X3 O-nnn (Hos 6. 

5 ), nin 3in 03127*71 ;Ps 57- 5). Q™ 1 ? - nn:} llssl ( Ib 6 4- 4), 
27m iQD ons; 1 ? mc? (ib 140. 4), *ann p©:? die;'2 (job 5. 21). 



4 i6 XVIir. COMPARISON'S 

DOE? must be read DDE? for six reasons, that is to say : (i) the 
object concerned is to be in 'your side*', and therefore should 
naturally be in the plural ; (2) this is immediately followed by 
another object in the plural, which is to be stuck in 'your cycr' ; 
(3) die expression Q^ran tTUS 1 ?! DD^TSn DOE^I closely 
resembles DD'l^n OrriVl U^TJj2 &D&? (Nu 33. 55), where 
the object to pierce the sides, as well as that to pierce the eyes, 
is in the plural; (4) D closely resembles 72 and D, so that the 
final 72 might well be mistaken for DorC written for 72 ; (5) the 
omission of plural ** is not fatal to the suggestion — in fact, it is 
absent from QP3S71 in Nu 33. 55 ; and (6) die LXX translates 
DDE? by i^W? (naih). 

The Lexicon lumps up togcdier "C-Z-ckvtcLXti with C2E' 
aKr^npov^ and arbitrarily declares that D""!!"!^ (Esdi 4. 11) — the 
homologue ofpa^Sos — is an extension of C2!Z7. As usual, when 
semantic difficulties arise, blame is almost automatically at- 
tached to the dead, defenceless copyists. Thus lTm'/E? is preferred 
to D"DD r ^ in IIS 18. 14, under the lame excuse that the LXX 
has $(\r) (j3e'Aos, missile, esp. arrow, dart). Needless to add that 
D2£7 and DW are differently derived in the Lexicon, and both- 
given fanciful origins. As to "IDi"!, it means 'branch or twig, 

rod — metaphorically', and is to be compared with \k=L lash 
with the tail, move spear up and down, shake, quiver (said of spear}, 
etc' A more ridiculous comparison can hardly be imagined. 
Had the erudite editors pursued their search for die truth., they 

* 

would have discovered that ,'^-l is 'branch or twig'. 

And yet, it is on the false foundation of such pseudo-scholar- 
ship, mere semblance of science, diat a sham 'Semitic' folly was 
erected. It is on such nonsense that generations of students have 
been fed, until they took that folly to be a veritable fortress and 
looked upon it with awestruck wonder. Indeed, it is only alter 
a great deal of systematic questioning and independent research 
that I dared lay siege to it and subjected it to Aryan bombard- 
ment. (V. p. 370.) 

It is to be observed that D and T) are interchangeable, e.g. 
BOH (Jer 49. 24) and nrn (Kos 1 3. 1 ) ; so are X and p, as in 377 S 
(IR*6. 34) and B*?p (lb.), rPS (Jes 44. 19) and T\bp (Jer 
29.22),^ (Ex 12.8) and" 1 ^ (Ruth 2. 14) orX^p (IS 17. 17), 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 417 

ynO (Jud 5. 26) and pnD (lb.) ; so arc S and V, as in pT\T 
(Ex 3. 6) and pntT (Jcr 33. 26), HSD (Ps 66. 14) and pED 
(Pp.' 13. 3); so arc n and 17, as in nbnCJX (Jos 15. 50) and 
Ubn27K (IS 30. 28} ; so arc H and p, as in HSD and p2?D (j:^.). 

crrrdpay/xa — According to die Lexicon, il")Ti here is 'separation 
. . . separate place . . . i.e. yard, or space adjoining temple 
on diree sides'. So the meaning shifts from 'separation' to 
'separate place', and this in its turn is explained away as 'yard 
or space'. It is clear from the homologue that the area located and 
measured in die text was covered with a kind of concrete re- 
inforced with stone-chippings. It is not the space that was separated 
into a kind of yard, so that mU means 'yard'. It means nothing 
of the sort. What die text actually tells us is that the area therein 
delineated was paved in a certain way, which gave it its name. 

1iD means 'corpse, carcass', and derives from '[^S] vb. Pi. be 
exhausted, faint'; while p~lD means 'plunder (as snatched away), 
Na 3 . i\ [V. p. 371.) 

c-apticacj — a and - constitute a double consonant, and behave 
as such. Thus, in ct^cLls r »w, > -i and -ul, Z~ Jl stands for bctn 
a and - as a digraoh, or for a alone, while - drops out. On tnc 
other hand : in ITS, "u, G1D, p"lD, JJ, *I», ° is dropped. 

In 1?J, - exchanges dialectally widi 1 — as in yutvla;7\lp — p is 
dropped ; at die same time a terminal 1 is added, as in "l^/dp^df ; 
then T stands for 00. -r — or the y they conceal, as in ceca/STiI, 
ycuwaTj^T/AjjIj ; i6X ^iyc {—y.t, y/£-r-A); caueA^ ;>o/ a /*«*W 
«X^v. DID exhibits die terminal Q ; in piD, p changes dialectally 
with the concealed radical y, as does J in j^, p being absorbed 
by the ,1^. There is a double exchange in ^ : p.' J. and y' P . 

IIR 6. 4 tells us that Elisha's disciples were rending die trunks 
of trees into planks of wood, to build themselves a shack. Ac- 
cording to the Lexicon, the verb ~)U is akin to j\», means 'cut, 
divide', and has no homonyms. More particularly, it means 
'divide in Ps 136. 13, 'cut down in IIR 6. 4, and "cut off', i.e. 
'destroy, exterminate" in Hab 3. 17. Here again, the meaning 
alters from 'cutting' to 'cutting down' and 'cutting off', and 
this is extended to import 'destruction and extermination'. Per 

M31C77 P 



4 i8 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

contra^ it is typical of Hebrew-Greek homology to provide the 
exact meaning and accompanying contextual nuances. 

As to ^pD, in the Lexicon it means 'tear, rend, pluck 1 , has no 

homonyms, and is akin to l ^Jj^ depasture, said of camel 1 . I can 
imagine the fury of my critics had I put forward, as homologue 
to ^D, a Greek verb meaning 'depasture'. Their howl would 
have reached high heaven and reverberated to the ends of the 
world* Aliier, with DID which means 'tear, rend garment*, and 

is akin to * A J chop up onions, etc.' ; and p"!D which means 'tear 
apart, away', and is akin to ^J split, divide. -T. p. 371/; 

ovykXivco — There is complete confirmation of these homologies : 
ovy#cWoff = ouyjcAiTTj*, one who lies with one 7^7 Ps 45. 10; com- 
panion at table *732£7 Jes 49. 20. 

This is a unique set of homologies : 

1. Mark the close likeness between 717 ^-C 7317 — remember- 
ing that y interchanges with k — and the even closer re- 
semblance between 7327 and 7T3>\ 

2. Because die Hebrew homologies incorporate the preposi- 
tion of the compound verb, they 2-cear in the 7L7D arc 
7UD as well as in the 7p; cf pp. 240, 646. 

3. One who shares one's couch sexually might not share it as 
a commensal ; hence the difference in spelling to dis- 
tinguish one ac: from the other. 

4. Usually, tiiere is a similar inflection of the bodies of the 
participants in coitus; but the similar inflection referred 
to in Genesis applied to Jacob's arms. 

5. Si-, like J3", means 'to dwell 1 ; and both, are the homc- 
logues of olk€<ju and osrqviuj) TwC/p being die homologue of 
oiioj/xa and CKrivTj^a. At first sight, therefore, one would be 
inclined to think — as Arabic scholars do — that ,-J^L. is a 
compound of -JC-, with an implied sexual relationship; 
just as the verbs 'cohabit' and 'live with* import such a 
relationship. Nevertheless, Greek proves that the two Arabic 
verbs are of different origin, and that there is no etymo- 
logical connection between them. 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 4'9 

6. Mark that -J"L. is on the scale of JiU, because it is the 
homoioguc of a compound Greek verb. 

However — against the clearest context of solicited fornication 
and shameless prostitution in Jer 3. 2 — the Lexicon states that 72E7 
means 'violate, ravish'; yet according to it *7lS? means '(queen-) 
consort'. Furthermore, an authority is referred to who opines 
that *?2S is a loan-word, and not derived from 72E?. To cap it 
all — again, against a context of obvious boor/ and apportioned 
plunder — it suggests that *77i7 in Jud 5. 30 might be a mistake 

for 7227. 

Then occurs the following entry : '[CP^pv] n -pb abstr. be- 
reavement, childnessness ; — ^"735/ "^r * s ^-" 2 ° : lc ' sons °f 
thee, the bertavetT. For die noun is alleged to be derived from 7Dw 
(the homologue of which is xqpzvoj, -pom). True, part of die 
context aopears to arTord an excuse for the error, but this error 
leads to another which is not warranted in any way. For the 
particular identity of those who arc being requested to make 
room for the 'sons of thee' is not at all clear; ncr is it possible 10 
know or even guess where it is that the place is narrow for iir; 
sons. The X.E.B. has: 'The children born in your bereavement 
shall vet say in your hearing, "This place is too narrow; make 
room for me to live in."' But the plain version runs: 'The sons 
of vour commensals shall yet say in your hearing: "This place is 
too narrow for me; please move a little that I may sit down.'" 

Here is another relevant entry : TI. C?2V] vb. Pi. lay crosswise 
(so, and not root I. 7^2, [vb. be prudent] . . . Ar. jSli bind legs 
of beast, plait locks of hair) ; — Pf. 3 ms. *™~r.$ 73 v Gn 40. 
14 Jehovist; ; W. Gesenius, Thesaurus Linguae Hebraeae, S. R. 
Driver, however, pmdintisfcit, from root l."2.' In fact, .kj^Jl Js-?s-. 

by , i'u 'I , ~ J=-- savs : J *J\j .... U*y l_J 1 J -^i, jjl jjl . . . J5C: 

JUiJU ^Jl •* L-l. *-£- -^ '-±^. o-Li Ut^i. Tlierefore, 
it is not a question of merely plaiting, but plaiting in a special 
way, consonant with ovyicAtVcu: that is, plaiting two locks of 
hair from the front of the head (crosswise) away from the right 
and the left. 

Now JSli, in so far as it means 'fetter the legs of a beast of 



4 20 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

burden*, is the homologue of cVcSccu (lpi> Gn 22, 9) ; but the 
homonym which means 'plait two locks of hair from the right 
and left', is the homologue of axr/KXlvw. These two homon/ms 
arc etymologically different, in spite of tiieir phonetic identity; 

just as *7pl7 and JSli are etymologically and semanticaily iden- 
tical, despite their phonetic dissimilarity. For in *7pl7 the spiritus 
lenis has changed into U, and k into p ; whereas in J^Li the 
respective replacements are ^ and ±1, while S exchanges dia- 
lectally with A, J. 

It is because sometimes Arabic and Hebrew homologize with 
Greek in different ways, diat phonetic similarity between an 
Arabic and a Hebrew word is not a sure guide as regards mean- 

ing. For instance, the fact that -U: and POV are phonetically 

identical, docs not make it likely that n73 means 'strip', or ^L^ 

'send away*. Yet phonetic similarity between an Arabic and 
a Hebrew word of different meanings is an excellent test as to the 
soundness of their homology with a phonetically similar Greek 
word which bears die two meanings concerned. For example. 
ot/AAuj and n*7E? are ohoneticallv similar, and thev both mean 
'send'. This concurrence of phonetics and semantics leads to f J:c 
firm belief that these two words are homologues. But the iiz\ 

that Tt-L: and VO\j or ^Li and H/I? are saeit and pronounced 

alike does not indicate that they — two by two — bear similar 
meanings or share a common kinship. On die other hand, die 

fact that rd-tj T]*?Z\ and ctAAoj are pronounced similarly, plus 

the fact that dTroareXXcj and n*7E7 are die respective comDOunds 

of arcXXcj and 1T7I7, and bear the same meaning as each other — 

i.e. 'send away' — makes it practically certain that the two com- 
pound verbs are also homologues. This is confirmed and esta- 
blished, beyond a shadow of doubt or flicker of suspicion, by 

the additional facts that yjj: means 'strip' and that d7ToariX\cj 

means 'doff' as well as 'send away 1 . 

Accordingly, we may formulate the rule diat — when an Arabic 
homologue of a Greek word happens to be a homophone (or 
quasi-homonym) of a Hebrew word which is also a homologue 
of the same Greek word, then each of these two co-homologues 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 421 

acts as a check on and a confirmation of the accuracy of the 
homology formed by the other with the said Greek word, e.g. 

Two propositions, one particular and the other general, logi- 
cally follow : 

1. JSC-i is as genuine a homologuc of <nr/K\lvu> as 732? itself. 

2. Through Greek and not Arabic is Hebrew correctly inter- 
preted, although Arabic may be useful as a test of the 
accuracy of certain Graeco-Hebraic homologies [v. p. 371). 

(7\'u^ — Contrast die straightforward meanings herein obtained, 
and distinct differences clearly defined — bv reference to Greek — 
with the babel and fantasy which pervade the Lexicon. According 

to it, for instance : n^H means 'divide 1 and is related to ^L^, 'he 

fortunate, happy with one's husband or wife, etc., i.e. have a share 

in happiness*. This far-fetched comparison is completely out of 

place here, but would be ape in relation to % f " 'Job 34. 6) — the 

homologuc of which is rv^q z a^ -^ ^ — and which the Lexicon 
misinterprets as meaning 'wound'. 

C!T^ VijV K7 (Ps 55. 24) means 'shell net halve their da\s, 
i.e. cr.]Qv even half of the normal number'. Of course, this is 
merely guesswork, and very funny guesswork to boot. Nobody 
out of bedlam speaks like that. The N.E.B., however, has: 'thev 
shall not live out half their davs\ This is also a oiece of divi- 
nation, though not an unreasonable effort. But I suggest the 

homologue of Ham in this context is ipTjolCcu, Ar. -,-^^ 1 :'cf. 
<ipt8u€cj) ; similar to Vi^n VVIU TDOftl (job 21. 21;, which the 
Lexicon renders: 'the number of his months, they have teen cut in Ivuo 
'rig. for curiailed)\ but the N.E.B. has: 'if his very- months and 
days are numbered?' 

TCirC ^\\\V1~1U (Jes 30. 28) means 'shall helve unto the neck = 
shall reach to the neck and so divide the man in half. It might 
seem incredible, but die erudite editors not only persuaded 
themselves of die accuracy of this interpretation, but also appear 
to have managed to induce thousands and thousands of other 
right-minded men to accept it. The N.E.B. , however, has : 'rising 
neck-high*. I suggest the homologue of H^H here is ^kw: reach 
a point; lxu>: attain y reach J-r^, J^j — terminal J. (V. p. 371*) 



4 22 XVI 1 1. COMPARISONS 

ct^oAt) — In these homologucs we have examples of die two con- 
sonants ax exchanging as a digraph with S and U, or severally 
with and D; also of L/0 exchanging dialcctally with y, wlnle 
the a drops out. But since :£ exchanges with \ — as in ^Woi'/rin^ 
(HCh 35. iDITTTY?* (IIR 2. 2o)jr>riT$ (lb 21. 13)/^^ 
(IIS 6. 5) — it can cogently be argued that here, too, it ex- 
changes with x alone while the a drops out. Alternatively, that it 
exchanges with a alone — as in cr^xa/NIli 'Dt 4. 19;, o-q^la X2J£ 
(Gn 21. 22 Nu 10. 14), cr7ri'<La>/ r pD^ [Jes io. 14':. aorpiLcj rCZ^'S 
(rrv 31. 27), cTTucar:^^-^/!/ D^ < v Lz 4. : D ? arrupij-ii^ --^ 
(Jes 22. 24), ca-aji'/JjjL?. Similarly with w • which also exchanges 
with a and x, e.g. ca>fnX27 (Lev 18, 12 Jer 5L 35 Midi 3. 2, 3;. 
13 (Prv 3. 8) ; xauaicpw.'CI^ (Nu 1 1. 5), X ow 7yt? (Jes 40. 12 . 
Xpdoi/^KS? (Ex 3. 22 Nu 27. 21 IS 22. 15 Ez 2i. 26 ICh 10. 13 . 

In considering the imerchangeability of a and ±, one should 
remember that between and *£, e.g. ]SD.]D^ (also pro p~±„ 
v. pp. 35-6), 0717rn (Prv 7. 18 dyXatZcu) and ^717 (IS 2. :\ 
Similarly, in considering the similarity between n7jJ17 and L^. 
one should remember that I£ and r J are interchangeable, e.g. 
^l^H (xtotttcj Jos 9. 2: /S Z-£H i'Jes :o. 15 , — ^p IIR 6. . 

The ^ substitutes ;<\ as the H does in the homology vc^Atvu.- 
n7ri T and as 2 substitutes die spiritus asper in oAo>:7^7^ Ley 
5. 15), oAojW7^73 "Jes 2. 18) , and o-W^Z. 

rtXt'cn — n*73 has six other homologues, i.e. kXcJuj (Thr 2. 
1 1 :, >cAaa; (Jer 14. 6( 3 xAcuj (IS 6. 10), x-tuAiJoj Gn 23. 6,, ;rvpcu. 
(Ps 37. 20)3 XP7S& T s 84. 3); tOD has two: x\Wo* (Jer 32- 3 
and ko/AJoj (Ps 119. 101} ; H7U has six: dtipcj : Gn :o. 15, 20 
IR 18. 42), iXavvtu (Gn 31. io), epx :^: "Ex 2. 23, 12. 38 Jos 1 5. 
3\ oAoKaur^aj (Ley 17. 8\ Trvpocu 'Ley 17. 3 Jer 48. 15"., WAAw 
Gn 19. 15, 41. 5 : E7S has two homonyms, both adjectives, 
namely: o\ot (Gn 33. 18 Dt 25. 15 IR 3. 61) and r^'A^cr 
(Am i'. 6). 

In the Lexicon none of the three verbs N*72, 71*72, nVU has 
any homonyms* For instance, both TSp JV17D (Ruth 2. 23. 
TeAcoi) and n^yn HV7D (IlCh 29. 28, ™/>da>) mean 'be complete, 
at an end . . . of action or event / with emphasis on time*. Again 
7v?D means : 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 423 

'be complete, at an end, finished, accomplished, spent . , . Qal . . . 2, b 
ivasU awaji be exhausted^ fail , , . csp, of eyes exhausted by weeping 
La 2, if, strained by looking (fig.) for relief or refreshment, fail, 
languish . . . Je 14. 6 (of wild asses); . . . similarly (sq. b) of S£2 
exhausted by longing Ps 84. 3,* 

Yet H7D in Jer 14. 6 simply means 'enfeeble, with special 
reference to eyes (Aristotle, Physiognomonica 808*9), and has 
nothing to do with weeping, pining, or languishing, or being 

strained in any war. Nor has H7D in Ps 3_l. q anv connection 
with exhaustion ; it is the homologuc of ypvZuj which means 'de- 
sire, long for, crave*. ( V. p. 372.) 

Ti9riy.i has sixteen homologies, namely: 7-£X : "oN, n"Tn,]OD 3 

^ •** y ^»-^^ v***^ v?**" -^**^ ^r^iT ™i^^* •^^••^ ** <*•** ****** **«*>«* 

hCj, 7uj, WJa, Jwj, r u j. [DJ, Hii, Uiw, - J, ii'*/ ? ^|" : : 
]m. Ir is instructive to compare them with each other and to 
classify them. 

The MY ] features in six, the terminal 7 appears in two, the 
terminal I in three, the terminal ft, 17, and "1 once; whereas the 
X and Pi are prosthetic. Thai the *7 in *7ul is terminal is clearlv 
and conclusively proved by collating the two verges. IIS 24. 12 
and ICh 2:. 10. They refer to the same incident, tally in almost 
every word, and die former has 7u2 while the latter has m-1 
instead. Note that while mTH ends in H and j*2u in j, ^j and 
^ have terminal p and . respectively. 

^7 7X 2'^T 1 in Jes 44. 19 is exactly the same as 7N _ . . CtT 
"27 in IIS 13. 33 — both 2^T and G~" being in the Qal, like 
Tr^T in Gn 46. 4 — and the structure of the infinitive is either 
- ;- ? iiKC ;- ^ ;orJ j, axe ii 7. 1 he 2 anG Lne terminal £ inter- 
change here, as they do in Tyj7 H27 (Gn 2:. 20] and r;w[7 H^7 
Jer 4. 29' — rni and I"i^~l being homologies of cdvlj (A): 
irjj mT, Hft*) Ex 15. 1,4; draw the bowstring, the bow m"V 
IIR 13. 17 rm, nftT Furthermore, the river mentioned in 
IIR 5. 12 is spelt niDX, but read HlftX ; and jiCi, thehomologue 
of ftcxr^roi', was also known as *5C, (^' et *5^ ma y w ^ll be a 

homologue of Boxx^ ** an< 3 a cognomen given to o5l# by its 
prc-Islamic critics.) 
The first syllable is dropped in all the homologues, except the 



424 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

last three; and is epenthetic in ]QD — as it is in <p£pftK, and 
as fj. is in Tvp.Tra.vov, etc. — to facilitate pronunciation. 

6 exchanges three times with D, S, E7, and 1"! ; twice with 57; 
and once with "7 and p—cf. OcospVX, flwpafms?, OcatpiutpyD, 
dvpa/Twl ; besides exchanges dialectally with r and x — cf. 
]1QDQ/]QDQ/^'/xa — and x exchanges dialectally with k. 

It is interesting to note in passing that among the Hebrews 
mortgage affected movable property, and was in the nature of 
a pledge effected by way of deposit — very much like t^otf^/DlIL* 
(Dt 24. 10) and pwwrniy (Prv 17! i8) ; p3"lS7 (Gn 38. 17;. 
Like the Greeks, they used to give their hand as a pledge, actuallv 
using the expression TjDD T)Vpn (Prv 6. 1}, literally: ir&ct: 
Xtipa-' Sophocles, however, has : -poodeU x^F" 1 3«f toi- {Philocieles 
942). But a most remarkable philological double somersault oc- 
curred when the European Greeks adapted to their own pro- 
nunciation the .Asiatic Greek ]*n")i? — pronouncing it appapcLv — 
which was itself an adaptation to the .Asiatic pronunciation cf 
their own word, pvaov. What is more, they proceeded to devcloo 
this so-called borrowed word into die verb appcSuivi^rai, when 
centuries earlier the Hebrews had turned the begetter of pvatcv — 
namely, the verb ipvtn (B)— to 2"1L* (Gn 43. V. Thus, in the 
course of numerous generations, the European Greeks could net 
recognize their kith and kin, any more than the Hebrews could 
their ancestors. Therefore, a protracted mutual disavowal is here- 
by turned into immediate mutual recognition; and I call this 
'the philological law of return'. 

There is not an inkling of die homonvms of die homoloerues cf 
rl&npt in the Lexicon, according to which : 

mr; means 'stretch out', and is to be cc.-r.pared with 'o-iA uzd. 
g-j.-.dc . (In fact, the horr.oiogue of o-Ut> is rWctic:, a 'jossible alterna- 
tive.) 

(s.v. bzi) l lifi H c. ace. Is 40. 15 (fig. subj. '"■ ; lift over thee (*?y) i.e. 
offer 2 S 24. t2, but rd. nspj (as parallel \ Ch 2 : . 10) . . . lift (and ley 
upon (by) La 3. 28.' 

In Jes 40. 15, the homologue of *?D3 is S/xxru>, besprinkle. 

'nC3 vb. stretch out, spread out, extend, incline, bend . . . = offer, 
only ^b» Hoi ^X Z^.bv 1 Ch 21. 10 three things do I offer unto thee 
(so rd. prob. also parallel 2 S 24. 12, v. *?V1). * 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 425 

'I. [KTi] vb. lend on interest, or usury, be a creditor (cf. Ar. I—I 
postpone, delay; sell on credit; parallel form of I. TVS} ...)... I K8. 31 
2 Ch 6. 12 v. Xtn Qal ib (5).' 

(s.v. xn) 'ri?N in '2 put on him (require of him) an oath 1 R 8. 3 1 = 
1 Ch 6. 22 . . . correct Massorctic Text xri . . . but sense hardly 
possible'. This appears in the left-hand column of p. 670, yet in the 
right-hand one appears the following: '~bx iz~xrn 1 K 8. 31 and 
he shall lift up against him an oath = 2 Ch 6. 22 (Massorctic Text 
NTT* . . . but sense difficult ; read rather XTllV. Indeed, a house divided 
against itself. 

The homologue here is tvxopai, and the passage means : 'and 
he shall utter an imprecation against him in prayer to curse 
mm . 

c r*"7 n,m. garment . . . compare Syriac . . . appearance ; — 

construct 7,p rrv Prv 7. ro; fig. C2n '7 ^ 73. 6 (v. II. "--).* 

The homologue in Prv 7. 10 is tffjaaa, later Att Brjrra, ff 7 hired 
servant-girl] and the expression 8. yvmj 1 mIIT rrV : occurs in Apollo- 
nius Rhocius 1. 193. 

'II r-.ry] vb. cnveioD oneself . . . <<-? :^ r— "v: 6 73- 5 %,• 
tut or.fr themselves (each' a garb of violence. 7 

The homologies here are: ^irc^/iVi?, Sl'cj "wi*. q.luc.to$ OGTi ; 
and the oassaee reads: 'thev put on a blood-stained coat of 
mail'. I 1 ?"/ "SIT is instead of -2117 1DCIT; and 1*7 r jC*v is the 
MV of ~u3J, meaning 'put on oneself. [V. p. 372.} 

rpoocv — r i"lD has two odier homologies, namely : rpvocpav (Ez 
17. q) and rpJ<ios- (Nah 2. 13}. These nouns derive from dpu-rrrai 
which has vet anodicr derivative, dpvp.ua, the homologue of "1D1D 
■Td.'i. Here we have examples of unsuspected homonyms, and of 
words of different derivation hitherto wrongly treated as cognate. 

Xc.pc.Gcuj — Whether x a P^ aatn xs cognate with z?rti or not, I 
would not know; but I am trying to prove that — far from being 
a Semitic loan-word — it is a variant of several Greek words as 
pronounced on the Continent in Arabic and Hebrew. In fact, 
some of its homologues drop the p } VSTi drops the x, while ^ii* 
begins with the MV o — all in accordance with tested rules of 
homology. {V. p. 373.) 



4 a6 XVIII. COMPARISONS 

According to die Lexicon, "P"in in Leviticus and "pin in 
Isaiah are the same word, respectively meaning 'mutilated' and 
'sharp', and it is so translated in the N.E.B. Similarly, the 
Lexicon states that IHp in Jcr 4. 30 and IDp in Gn 37. 29 arc 
the same word, respectively meaning l mal:c wide, large, eyes, with 
(1) stibium', and 'tear, rend\ The N.E.B. translates the passage in 
the former verse: 'make your eyes big with antimony'. S7"lp in 
Gn 37. 29 is the homologue of p^w^i; while L*~lp in Jcr 4. 30 is 
also the homologue of xpotZw, x/*fjca>, xP t "- vu . ul — '^ e ^"^^ J 0D 
3'- io, 39- 3 — since xp ^ means both lie xith and colour, sic:n. 

XtJXivos — I think this word was borrowed from "TO, the homo- 
logue of o-Xov — as appaBtLv was borrowed from *p-")V (Gn 38. 
17;, the homologue of pvaiov. They are both atavisms. 

XyXos — To lighten their cargo the crew of Jonah's ship did not 
throw overboard die kitchen utensils or the ship carpenter's toois : 
but jettisoned the heavy chests packed with commercial goods 
and personal effects, which constituted the freight. Similarly, the 
"'lZ referred to in Lev 15. 4, 6, 26 was probably a chest. I:: 
my childhood days, chests containing cloth.es and linen were used 
not only as wardrobes, but also as settees in modest Jewish homes 
in Jerusalem and Cairo. {V. p. 373-' 

Xpdcn — K"lp and 7X3 involve the consonant vowel metathesis 
between p and a. 

X changes dialectally into "T, e.g. x^-Wos 1 ~77 ; and into 2\ cz. 
uirn/S'Sj (Ex 1. 5}. £ also changes into T, e.g. Z^vfliw (Jer 
48. 45; ; |X2 (Jos 17. uV3# (ICh 13- o\]t (IS 31. :o\ X p^ 
also means: "furnish the use oj 2, tiling, i.e. lerj, usu. in a friendly 
wav, ScvtlLoj being the word applied to usurers' ; but die homo- 
logue for lend is in the TSZTl—TXZTl (Ex 12. 36}. The homo- 
loeues o( Bav€i£<jj are: j~i 1 "7 , m7n, Xuj, n~Z, "j~j; cf. tokil,^. 

xprjfia — Mark how H, n, and D interchange. The Z in HOD pre- 
serves die x, while the p is dropped or absorbed by the 1271*7. On 
the other hand, the 7 in 7\72 r 7 and the J in LJ dialectally replace 
the p, while die x drops out. The Z in ES3 and "1S3» like the v 
in JuUkj — which corroborates 57X3— exchanges with p. These 



XVIII. COMPARISONS 427 

three homologucs, together with IDE, OOp*?, ^~]pfr and ^L^, 
illustrate the prefix-suffix metathctic phenomenon, 

KHp/O in Jes 4. 5 means *thc scat of an oracle', from lOp 
(TIR 3. io)/x/nJ£aj; the meaning 'convocation, sacred assembly' 
— ascribed to it by the Lexicon — is not justified by the context. 
Nor is nX'Hp a 'proclamation', but an 'oracular or prophetic 
utterance' — <jTi- Lastly, JTIpQ in IS 6. 9 and 20. 26 is generally 
accented to mean 'accident, chance', a homologuc of Kvpua, 
from Kvpto, Kup^cu/N^p (Ex 1. ioj/mp (Gn 44. iq) ; but it 
possibly means *a strange and unusual phenomenon*. ( I". p. 374.' 

X^\evaj — Just as H interchanges with x, here and in xp^fiara' 
CHm, so does D interchange with the spiritus asper in ^-ap/THH 
and cj^/nZ). In fact, most interchanges are reciprocal. 

vuYr- — CO and IL-*_ are formed bv droooins the - in 6, while 

^17 and Aii are formed by dropping 6 — the second and the 
second ^-, as well as the * and o, exchanging with \% e.g. 

%'ciJcj 7CZ? ; 73 r r/ l£j', vr£Co^c; TIO- (IIS I.22\ and yipt^'.* 

The 2 in wD2 is the MY 2. and it indicates that 6v\^ must he 
derived from dji'x^- This is corroborated by the homology 
cii-corvvcuat wDjH (Ex ^ i . :7*:. The Lexicon would have us read 
lZTCm instead of C^wDj in Ez iq. 20, an emendation which 
fails :o clarifv an obscure passage. (V. d. 37-1-; 

In short, the Lexicon is typical for its failure to recognize 
the existence of innumerable homonyms; its reckless emenda- 
tions of the text; its perverse and fantastic exegesis; its false 
etvmologies; its distortion of any meaning of any word to 
meet the various reouirements — or suooosed reouirements — 
of the different contexts. Common words and ordinary passages 
excepted, the A.V. and the X.E.B. are equally unreliable, 
their pa?es teeming with innumerable errors. 

Students of this book will be left in no doubt as to the 
urgent need for the present philology of the Bible to be funda- 
mentally overhauled and revised, and for a new translation to be 
undertaken, in the light of the theory herein expounded. Because 
this theory is inherently sound, and because it alone offers the 
right methodology whereby to discover the correct interpreta- 
tion of biblical words. 



428 

XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL 
HOMOLOGIES 

LXIL The following is the last, largest, and most varied of several lists of 
explained and text-supported homologies. Taken together \ these lists ajford 
boundless opportunities for testing over and over again the validity of each 
Proposition^ and for discovering further homologies. 

If one reads a random number of these homologies aloud, one 
after the other in quick succession, they sound pretty chaotic and 
even cacophonous, owing to the frequent change of place by the 
Greek suffixes, and the constant interchanges wliich involve 
consonants, vowels, and vocalization. Yet when examined 
individually, one by one, each homology appears to be covered 
by one or more Propositions, which account for almost every 
difference that exists between its homologues, and show that 
these differences are frequent to the point of regularity. In the 
result, it becomes evident that perfect order and euphony reign 
throughout, and that one and all these Graeco-Hebraic, Graecc- 
Arabic and Graeco-Hebraic-Arabic entities exhibit the whole 
kaleidoscope of the philological phenomena herein dealt with — 
phonetic, morphological, and semantic — some familiar, others 
not so familiar. Thus, there jostle each other prosthesis, aphesis 
and aphaeresis, apocope and syncope, rhe cropping of certain 
letters from Greek homologues, the addition of terminal letters 
to Hebrew homologues, the splitting and joining of words, 
consonant-vowel metathesis, change of place by affixes and 
change in the order of words, nominative and genitive homo- 
logies, single and multiple homologies, ordinary and atavistic 
homologies. At one extreme homologues are met with which 
sound and look alike, at the other the resemblance between them 
is concealed beneath complex and sopiiisticated camouflages. 
There lies in between these two groups a vast number of homo- 
logies of varying degrees of difference in sound and structure. 

The validity of Propositions is tested by subjecting individual 
homologies to strict and systematic analysis. For instance, take 
a particular homology and find out : whether the meanings of 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 429 

its constituent homologues arc congenial one with the other and 
agreeable to the text or texts referred to ; which letters of the 
homologues tally; which interchange, and why; by which points 
of vocalization are the vowels replaced, and why; which letters 
of the Greek homologue are missing in its Hebrew partner, and 
whv: which letter or letters have been added to the latter, and 
why; which letter or letters have changed place, and why. This 
process has to be pursued relentlessly; nothing must be permitted 
to escape notice, nothing must be admitted that is not accounted 
for. 

For the discovery of new homologues, it is a good exercise to 
try and find out the homologues of cognates of the Hebrew word 
in hand. Another good exercise is to compile a personal list 
of complete homologies. A third is to compile lists of kindred 
verbs and their derivatives; for instance, verbs relating to sight, 
motion, food, and so on: e.g. HTH, HDU, mX~1, T3, HUE?, 

*pv, Tin, D^n, ^sn, rr:vn, pin, n^is, hd???, ninn, 

T^/E, lTTT etc. A fourth., to seek corroboration in other homo- 

logies, in reduplication or parallelism, in other biblical texts, and 
in Greek passages. 

The texts referred to in suocort of meanings have been care- 
fully selected, not only for their aptness lis a vis the particular 
homologies concerned, bu: also in relation to their contexts. It 
is in this sphere that die identity of one language with the other 
is repeatedly and conclusively proven by single and multiple 
homologies, homologies with one or more meanings, with delicate 
shades of meaning, or even with opposite meanings. Homonyms 
and homophones multiply, while Arabic fellow-homologues often 
afford corroborative evidence of great weight and decisive 
authority. Sometimes — as with homonyms and such homologies 
as ^pn;7r€pu\ca — the context alone decides the meaning, so that 
the choice of the appropriate text to match the meaning becomes 
of vital importance. On the other hand, when it happens that a 
biblical text resembles a Greek passage, there is no difficulty; 
the choice is ready-made. Read in context, every other homo- 
logy shines with exceptional semantic sparkle, and the cumulative 
brilliance is intellectually dazzling. So that as one goes along one 
becomes more and more convinced that those who spoke the 
language of the Prophets had a good command of the tongue 



430 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

of Hellas, and a clear perception of its subtleties and expressive 
character. One or two examples will suffice. 

IK and -nari'ip resemble each other— account being taken T;i 
consonant-vowel metathesis, apocope, and the interchange of 2 
with 77. These two homologucs share no less than eight meanings. 
Greek and Hebrew apart, arc there in mankind any two differa:: 
languages where such phenomena occur between any word m 
one of them and another in the other? ill? sounds uncommonly 
like and means precisely the same as oci-yej. D:d Hebrew ov 
any chance borrow it from Greek, or vice versa? Again. -1^ — 
in view of accountable ciiiTercnccs — resembles v,W— cj and bear; 
two of its three meanings. Is this a coincidence? Similarly, vXr 
resembles arrdcu, and only through that resemblance :s it poss:b:e 
to exolain rationallv the exuression T-£ r Xr. Is not this s:e::> 
rxant? Now the verb r IN homoiceizes with —-ecu, and r Xn 
with €77i77V€cj. The former expresses two shades of brcatnir.g. 
while the latter means two oooosite kinds of breathing. Ir. the 
circumstances, Jcs :2. : becomes intelligible. So does anc::;er 
verse in Isaiah, 32. 12. thanks to the homolcgy T£C xotttcj. D: 
not t;:ese three examples point to the identity c: the two languages 
even more emphatically :::an the other :our 1 And these are c::.v 
a few reliable witnesses among thousands. 

Comparisons ought to be made with the Septuagint. the 
Li.xiczn, the A.Y., the X.E.B. and or :hc principal Jewish com- 
mentators: V/ Un, p"~"! and X~iiL* ]2X. among other authori- 
ties and a verdict reached in respect o: every homology 
included in the said lists. Only thus would gradually be un- 
veiled the deep mystery which shrouds the biblical vocabulary. 

In fact, numerous Hebrew words have mere than one myitery 
behind them, and not until they are resolved can oae beg::: t„ 
understand the Bible. Take. \ov instance, the entry s.ii. "XT. 
IXT G-dw. The Greek verb is doubly intriguing. First, it has tw: 
entirely different meanings, 'breathe' and 'enjoy'; secondly. :t 
has two other meanings: 'draw in, suck in', and 'draw ngnt . 
•puli'. How c-duj came to liave tiiese various meanings is no 
concern of ours, and the question need not detain us. What 
orimarilv concerns us is the mvsterv belund "7S r !XT, because 
one does not breathe or suck in shadows. The solution of the 
conundrum confirms the soundness of the homology ^XT/a-co,. 
and one can at last see clearly the picture over the strange device : 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 431 

<l ?S nXUT 1 "7DUD', which has for more than two millennia lain 
hidden in the obscure cellars of linguistics. It is that of a slave 
w } 10 — having worked hard and long out in the open field, probably . 
bare-headed, barefoot, and half-clad, exposed to the scorching 
summer sun — is now enjoying the shade. 

The other mystery touches the relation of ^jXS? to 2XC, two 
sli^htiv differently Dronounced words, with two distinct meanings, 
vet each identical with a third word, cr-dm — a lot shared by- 
many other Arabic and Hebrew words participating in multiple 
homologies- At this early stage of the analysis you pause and 
ponder whether all the Israelites, everywhere and at all times: 
from Moses to the Maccabees, and from Dan to Becrsheba, 
invariably pronounced 2KV 2Xw? and r |X^7 ^Kw — in view of the 
liability- to confusion of the labial letters 2 and D — or some o: 
them, somewhere, sometime, pronounced 2X3^ r jXw? and/or vice 
versa. Having posed the question, it matters not what answer, i; 
any, vou give to it. Your simply posing it ipso facia qualifies you to 
penetrate the biblical palimpsest, i.e. to appreciate that ~1m1 is 
7H1 and that both are poos; that n™Q is the same as m7C^ : 
and that both are identical with i-txtip-qLLz and unrelated :o 
H7T; that jlHV is a variant of jT22D, and tiia: both are vananti 
of Jioyo-r's", that n;~^ is a word with two meanings; tna: 
there are three kinds of ITT: one like IT~7, the other like *ZZ\ 

and the third like HITJ, 7™ and is-*. 

True it is that in our present state of knowledge we cannot 
be sure whether or not ZXt? and ^jXi? were ever confused one 
with the other. Yet the possibility of such confusion is not an 
idle speculation, in view of the actual confusion of "Vr-r^ US 7. 7 
with "?? r ^ ICh 17. 5, ^:j<n Jer 17. 10 Job 5. 27 with ^5?. For 
an Ashkenazi would pronounce ^wD r ^ 'lCw\ ^pJ} ^?V, an ^ 
{non-extant) "Vpnn ^---0 — contracted into ^^H, And that 
is oreciselv what the exiles who returned from Babvlon literallv 
did fXeh 6. 12). In fact, the homologuc of ~)pn is oxottcuj: 
examine consider; inquire, investigate (\V) — and that of "l^PI, 
in Xeh 6. 12, is SiaaKorreuj : examine or consider well; inquire, 
investigate (W). So that HT'SX], there, is mpilXI — the n/D 
being occluded by the w^"7 into the p/D, and the D*7I1 turning 
into "HX (cf. Dt 13. 15 as regards 113111). Besides, it is pertinent 



432 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

to point out two similar homologues of arrdcj, i.e. HnO and ^HD, 
which differ respectively from the other two — the being sub- 
stituted for the E7, and the n for the X. 

A word as to the context of Vi ^KS?^. The homologue of Hip 
in the second half of the verse is cither <fA-i'£o> {hope to do or hope 
or expect), or cVcAir&u {buoy up with hope), or KareX-i^w {hope or 
expect confidently), or cVeArouai {have hopes of). So Job laments his 
fate : he has been allotted periods of futility, and apportioned 
nights of toil — a life of servitude, alternating between spells of 
relief from hard labour and prospects of working for a wage. 
Therefore, the Greek explanation fits in beautifully; but the 
factor of parallelism has misled commentators to interpret r |X~ 
as meaning 'aspire'. 

I am afraid Greek scholars will not be able to reap a bountiful 
harvest from this new branch of Greek literature — certainly not 
a harvest comparable to the one gathered by Western Europe 
from the rich literature of ancient Greece retrieved from oblivion, 
which ushered in the Renaissance — for two reasons : one, the 
Bible is a comparatively small book; it includes among its 
varied contents no tract on agriculture, astronomy, engineering, 
medicine, navigation, or any other art or science. Unfortunate! y 
we have no treatise on botany or zoology by King Solomon, 
although he is said to have discoursed on plants and animals 
(IR 5. 13). Two, the Hebrew language has been drastically 
impoverished and largely forgotten, through crushing defeats, 
brutal occupations of the Land of Israel, fratricidal internecine 
conflicts, wholesale deliberate destruction, captivities, dispersions, 
genocidal massacres, expulsions, forcible conversions, violent 
suppression, cruel persecution, assimilation :Dan 1. 3}. Neverthe- 
less, they will be able to glean one or two ears which escaped the 
raiding reapers, and a few berries which eluded the gargantuan 
grape-gatherers. 

Yet in the light shed by the lists herein compiled, and they 
are bv no means exhaustive, the Hebrew dictionaries and the 
numerous translations of die Bible will have to be radically revised ; 
the bases of Hebrew and Arabic etymology will have to be com- 
pletely recast; and the Septuagint itself will be tested and cor- 
rected. Moreover, the development of monotheism must now be 
studied against an Hellenic background, while it is manifest that 
the roots of the belief in Jesus as the Son of God reach far back 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 433 

to Hebrew-Hellenic antiquity. People might nowadays call their 
children Daniel, John, Tom — as they do Dick or Harry — without 
reference to any theological concept. Not so in olden times : pmiT, 
"ll^mD, iTHS, imD, have distinctly thcistic overtones. The 
first is the homologue of-dtoyevrj? {sprung from <W)j the second 
homologizes with -afr AiosfOeov (servant or son of Zeus/God), 
while the third and fourth do with 77a fs* <dtos\ And it is as well to 
remember that TlSrHD was older than Sinai, and that the first 
recorded piTiiV and TiTli) were coevals of King David and before 
the Temple (cf. Luke 1. 13, 57-63). Clearly, the two verses, Ps82. 
6-7. now acauirc a oaioable dimension: there were undoubted!'/ 
men in Israel who — like the King of Tyre nearby Ez 28. 2, 6, 9; — 
believed themselves to be gods, of divine descent, and immortal 
(cf. ICh2g. 23). Indeed, monotheism had to fight off the influence 
of atheism as well as that of polytheism (Jer 2, 28 Ps 14. 1). As 
a matter of historical fact, the hard struggle on its behalf only- 
triumphed as late as the advent of the Hasmoncans; but the 
harder struggle for the soul — for what lies beyond the daily bread, 
for the Kingdom of God, for Jerusalem, for the spiritual heritage 
of Israel — went on ,' witness the records of the Xew Testament [. 
and continues to our cay among Jews and Chrii:;a:is alike— freeh- 
and vigorously, even as Job's high-level debate wit;: his com- 
forters was conducted. 

.YoU: The following list does not cover pp. 102-6, 1 35—67, 
174-284, 631-80. A few words, not included in the book, are 
listed for convenience. The letters t and m after a page figure 
respectively indicate: text and meaning. 

K~ c?*d?: :\ 7X ; e.g. X"r, i.e. *?N "I-*, bur possibly 



'1 ! 



23 



-K /IX dyof. (ay a/,- :czJcT y chief Gn 4. 20, 2 1 Xu 3. 24, 

3°>35J«9-5>".2:Xeh n-13 ^24,31 ; = £-yo^ 14, 37 

„ -a-rnp : father Gn 32. :o IIS 9. 7 ; grandfather Gn 32. 
10, 49. 29 IIS 9- 7 HCh 32. 13; esp. as epithet of 
Zcusjes 63. 16 Jer 2. 27 Mai 2. 10; respectful mode 
of addressing persons older than oneself IS 24. 12 
I IR 2. 12, 5. 13, 6. 21 ; mctzph. t father, author Jer 
2. 27 Job 38. 28; ^r^iroAceufflS^in^Kjos I 7. I 

onr nnp ^ax iCh 2. 50 ms-rra *ax , . . enh-rrz *za 



434 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

lb 2. 51 ]T3731 - *3N lb 9, 35 ; m p\., forefathers Nu 20. 

15 IIR 14, 3 Jes 43. 27, 58. 14 IlCh 28. 1 ; parents 

Jcr 7. 18, 13. 14, 31. 29 (28) 14, 69, 73, 99, 122, 326, 330 t 

2K ^(iTt? : voice from hcaicn, oracle; of the interpreter of 

dreams Gn 45. 8 69 

2X ^i/roV : plant, csp. garden plant or tree Job 8. ! 2 Cant 

6. u 73, 80 

"X ,~\3X €v: well] in Compds., implying abundance^ 

prosperity, ease (e.g. CSTZX ,Cm2X) 14, 114, 122-3, l2 l 

*72X 6Biv<jj, -vvOu>, 6cKujQj } 317-18 tm; "T^X d~o66lycu } 

arroifiOtvvduj, Kara6clu> 87, 3 1 8 lm; TUXm J-o- 
<*>8tvvQuj } d-o66U+uj 87, 318 tm; "T-X d-ofa'.Uuj 
3 I 7 tm ; m?X arro5oA7j 3 I 7 tm ; *72X f 7: Xy acici ^ 
317 tm; *T?X coc:t{; 317 tm; ]^-X aoa:*:caOi 

317 tm, 319; ~IZK 6oLra^u} 7 -Taoj, -ti£<u Prv 3 1. 6 

318 tm; "3X oeirdi Dt 26. 5 Job 31. 19, 310 :m; 
"3X («Y) dtStor, to cct 49, 318 tm 

TiZH ,pi2X ,H72X J^tSTji, Icngthd. poet, form .*u5en **u\- 22, 31 t, 44 , 
68, I2i, 266 tm, 317 t, 31S tm, 3:9, 333-4 t, 387 t f 393 : 
E-T2K Tra^o?: :\ TK, flCX Ob 12; cf. Dt 32. 35 Ob 13 

Prv I.26, 17. 5. [-X^-, -a,*.", --: ---. c " x . 

-V"; — it, a/X, 5 C ? — I 29 t; nZNaiVL^ouct: :•. 7rr; 86:, iiotm 
nZX-j ,mxn aya^Tjcrti: dya—cun ajjection CI. cyarrcLj : 

rffjir*) Gn 3. 6 Xu 1 :. 4 Ps 119. 20 72, 136 :rr. 

^-X rroTTot : exclam, of surprise, anger or pain Prv 2 3. 29 62 

C1ZX <*>drvTj: manger, crib Jes I. 3 "3 

Ci^l<2 6drvajfjia: = ocr/i'oy, Dim. of dcrv-n, .f^S. Jer 

50. 26 60 

''ZX /3H apa ye (cja = ^ jc ; y€ is an enclitic Particle, 
giving emphasis to the word or words which it 
follows.) — <lpc: ir.tcrrog. Panicie, implying anxiety 
or impatience ; alone, i: simply marks the question, :he 
nature of which is determined bv the context 2" :, 20 : 6* 

*^-X t&Tjfios, t<pa£o$: [rpn) one arrived at adolescence (i.e. 
the age of 18 years) ; generally, boy, e.g. biczx v cf. 
^?*? t?^ 1 ? - youthful prime \ youth Job 9. 26 j 1 27 

'N*2X ,]13 7 y -n 2X torjpos *H\iou: originally, a person 
who, when about sixteen or eighteen, was attached 
or dedicated to the worship of the Sun-god 28 t, 121, 123, 

125, 128 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 435 

mix A7T2X ,:T3N <<^tj ( So? .dios : originally, a young man 
dedicated to or a gift from Zeus IR 14. 31 ICh 3. 10 
IICU 13. 20 123,336 t 

rKTZN dyaGos, ~dov: wdl-born \ brave \ good, capable; 

good, in moral sense ICh 8. 1 1 82, 122 

bc^X tempos Oeov: originally, prayed for, or appren- 
ticed in the worship of God IIS 3/4; v. VfcTIX 122 

7p?r-X Z6t}2o<; Mo\ax- originally, a follower or gift of 

" Moioc'h Gn 20. 2; c. bx'ZX 128 

Cyrix cJvoo?: well-disposed, kindly . friendly Jud 4. 6 123 

"V-X <Ly6i: v. 2X IS 21. G Ps 63. 31 [a play on words: 

TZX.ayos/^ou>, "?YJ 'udaxo>/ox^ of ] ^ ' nv l - l D 37°~9 

au3joroy: poet. Adj. immortal, divine Ps 132. 2, 5 37, 39, 108 



BoC-i 



j.o. 662 tm 



40 



:— o? : y. C^C Jud 5. 22 Jer 47. 3 
-.*zx Jiporo? = appporos, sup. Gn 49. 24 Jes 1. 24 37, 39, 100 

"V^IX itoutpos : generous [cf. HTi.ri] ; eiVajpr;- : av.;- 
.-rrfii/rf [cf. TS7 ,pr] ; tvrrovs : feet of foot [cf. ~*~X] 

ICh 2. 28 :2 -i 

*T"ZX ,t:S €(."6^009 -.generous IS 26. 6 IIS 10. 10 : li-rzot 



1 ' - - -- *"i"i v 



-r • ' /J: 



60 



"ir.*;x tttoroj: *arv .'0 Aw: IS 22. CO 

"|2X" Ka-voopat: Pasi., to he turned into sn:o-:e, onrr.i :o 

ashes }cs 9-17 °° 

pZX ^caTri-o^: 5/?;o>:^ Jes 5. 24 [corroborates Karri-coiizi} 6o : 77 

np2K Karrvtaua: incense Cant 3. 6 [corroborates p-X] 

j-X AuT-/£: Dim. of Aoq» (poet. Xoun, j/o/.\r:, generally, 

n 29. 2; €WTJ 30j *y-T l -" 

}r>2 ]IX .Vayi^rtf At(?oj ? ^ [prefix-suffix metathesis in 

order of words, :\ n^rx] : /A* rca*/*.' Jos 15. 6 301 inn 

-1ZX ,rn=X a3apral 7 rrripov, rrr€ P v^ 5 6 > 94 — * 

enrx ,Srri2X cupvpa, later -p*/ia : (^picrica*) invention, 
discover/, thing discovered not by chance but by though! ; 
that which is found unexpectedly [much like "Eppatov 
(prop, gift of Hermes, i.e. unexpected piece of good luck, 
windfall, treasure trove irrn)] ; foundling Gn 17. 5 121 

Tjn^X €L*Acr/(a>; praise, honour ; bless, praise a god; 



436 XIX, CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

TTpccKwdoj : make obeisance to the gods or their 
images; esp. of the Oriental fashion of prostratmg 
oneself before kings and superiors Gn 41. 43 A i 16 

D^aK €uy<LWos: very calm IIS 18. 18 123 

1UX ayi/prr;* 127 tm 

mUK ,mi apyvpis : = SpaxM 7 ? (drachma, worth six obols, 

p:m) Ex 30, 13 IS 2. 36 Esr 2. 6g 63, 81, 92 

blH o^Ao* : generally, maxr, multitude ; i\ ^23? Job 38. 28 ; 

D^?JX dyopaiV Jes 15. 8 93 

]biX axot^oj: rush^ reed, rushbed; land measure J c$ 58. 5 

Job 40. 26; v. TZp 77 

]3X ayy€u>y: vessel ; jar or irar* for water Ex 24, 6 Cant 

7-3 3 3 

rpX ayaflo*: 0. 2Tw^X Ez 12. 14; tqttos, ov: place, region 

lb 38. 6 64 

i:x dy^tpuj: gather 1 assemble] of things, co/fcc/, jja^ir 

Prv 6. 8 43. I2 7> 3- 6 

^O^IX yvprov [an atavism] : = <ikv6ov (,CT3 , r jC ,*?DD 
rnSO .^IX ,JVm£3 .rnES) : n*/>; KpaT-jp: (Kcpdyi-vpt) 
mixing vessel, esp. bowl, in which wine was mixed with 
water, bowl of wine to 

^niX x€Lpa7r\T}d-ns : filing the hand, handful Ex 2 1. i3 57, 56, 6c 

mix ypa6-q : r. p. 113 CO 

::k ,iin ,-nn 27 t, 30 t, 42 t; nx ,xns 28 t 

trnnx ayo/xu* 355 l ~> 377 

S*HX ,211k fayflos -.fellow, of various shades, freq. with 
a tinge of red; in Ep, mostly used of fair, golden 
hair j of complexion ; after Horn, of all kinds of 
objects, of gold Xu 19. 2 IIR 3. 22 Zach 1. 8 Cant 
5. 10; cf. Gn 25. 25; v. 2HT .772U 56, 67, 93, 310 

P"TX ASujvis : Adonis [possibly an atavism, the horr.o- 

loguc of 171^09] 3 ! ^ 461 IC;I > 33*-3 : - 

}i Svvaros: (Swc^a;) strong, mighty , powerful , influential ; 
oc Sward, the chief men of rank and influence (Q*mX IR 
22. 17); Swicrrrp: lord, master y ruler, of Zeus; 
/leSco;^: (ji<Boj) guardian, ruler, always of Zeus; 
generally, ruler frix Gn 15.2) Gn42-3o, 33 Ex 23. 
17 Dt io, 17 Jos 3. 1 1 Mai 1. 8, 3, 1 Ps 1 14- 7; 
Trdaras (ndoftat) : owner Gn 39. 20 IR 1 6. 24 86 t, 326, 330 t 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 437 

rVIlK 5«x o€, Sid ravra, Sid. rotho 169 tm 

f"TX totc, To*ca: fl/ tfw' lime, then Dan 2. 15, 17 64 

~nx ,*YHK ,m*7X ,~n oSopo?: skin; S^poy: ;im, A«fc; 

Seppir : skin ; Sopa (A) : skin when taken off, hide Jud 5. 

25IR19. 19 Jon 3. 6Micha.8Zach 13. 4 Esth 1.6 15, 66, 8i, 

100, 326 
"}3T7 mix Sopd aaru'pou : the J*in of a Itffc 15 t, 57 

"TIN i^p, d^Spo? 8 2 . 28 5"7 tm 

]X3H n-'TX atywf anjp : Virgil's vir gregis 82, 285-7 tm 

D1X cvTj'p, aiOpoV 63, 67, 76 t, 82, 285-7 tm, 289 t 

E1X ,Pi21X yij Gn 2. 9, 4. 2, 8. 1 3, 28. 15, 47. 20 Jcs 

14. 2, 32. 13 Ez 11. 17 Am 7. 17 Prv 30. 14 92, 290 tm 

C^X t*S«cma; favflor 3 IQ J » 4 ot ^ 

pX £*3coo*: bottom, foundation, base of anything Ex 26. 

19 Job 38. 6 Cant 5. 15 49 

TTX r,ldcos, adeo?: unmarried youth [= HSutvis] 128 

u*P~ ,P"PX ^cSeos- ^toy: originally, an acolyte a: the 

temple of Zeus, or his gift IR 1. 5, 8 128 

X^T^- <£"3p«S" SiK-acrra; -Jurors, gentlemen 0/ the jury 58, 82 , 286-7 tm 
PI*!? -P--P11 Zpa-XH-l '■ : '- 71 * 1 ' UK £sr '■ 6 9> 8 " 2 7 ^O, 69. 7 8 > IO ° 

— n ,m iX " / " 

2TTTX ,-*>" ,i11TX ,2M1T ^eip : hand and arm, am Jcs 52. 

10 Job 22. 8-9, 31.22 Dan2.32Esr4. 23IICI132.8 30 t, 46,. 

47, 66, 60, 99, 169 tm, 258 tm 
"in-rx o W Aov 3 J 5 trn 

ZmX cycTra^cu, Ep. and Lyr. for dyairduj : jAotr objection, 
generally, for* ; drri«; seldom of sexual love, for 
cpdut (but a. iratpas to be fond of them IR 1 1. 1-2) 
Gn 34- 3, 37. 3 44, 49. 9 r > IOO > Io8 = 3- 6 > 33=. 334 <> 3 Sl 

nznx ayasTj : /aw Cant 3. 10 73» 334 ' L 

2'PX iyc^TjTos- 91, 102 tm, 107-8, 327 

-yX~ dycmj/ia : darling, of a person ; generally, a>/i£rt.' 

Jcr 30. 14 Ez 16. 33 Hos 2. 7, 14 69 

Vnx avAiJ : opencourt before the house, courtyard Ps 1 32. 3 ; 
generally, <rourr, As// Ps 132. 3 ; court of temple IR 2. 
2Q, 30 Ps 15. 1 ; any dwelling, abode, chamber Jos 22. 8 
IR 12. 16 30 t 

ouAij: toi* or place for passing the night in Gn 12. 8 
Dt 1. 27 Jer 6. 3, 35. 7 [cf. auAtgo/uu: (avAiJ) lodge, 
pass the night Vnx Jes 13. 20; v. ]V?] 3° l 



438 XIX. CATALOCUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

*7nx <f>GXov: race y tribe, clan (pi.) Jud 6. 5 Ps 78. 67 66, 73 

*X ov : the negative of fact or statement ; used sometimes 

with the ellipsis of a definite verb ; not (W) Prv 31.4 30, 66, 334 t 
:nK fans: v. 2X Dt 18- 11 Jcs 29. 4 69, 291 t 

TX~*X ,TX~*0 teal tot* ; eren then or (at the beginning of 

a clause) and then Lev 26. 41 Jos 1. 8 IIS 19. 7 64 

"PX TTvpoaXovj -6avov: small wood for burning Jcs 7. 4 

Am 4- i r 62 

™X c5oj, oToj: cf. eye —a a* 0-1 *::; 

^X .TK ,7*X otj : dat. pL or^o-i ; Lat orw ; sherp, both of 

the ram and the ewe Ex 29. 22 31 t. 37, 39, 3:^ : 

"7^ 70/UaKi? : perchance Gn 16. 2, 32, 21 G: 

C7*X 0A09: whole 1 i.e. jq/i and sound Ps 73. 4 49, 67 

=^X ,C7X fl j ( u rai. IR 6. 3, 1. 6-8 Ez 8. 16, ^o. 7. -i3 

IlCh 29. 17 6- 

-7 : K dXV Jf : (£Uc*7-X, flu/; ow/p 1 ?, then, therefore) 

concessive, at all events Job 13. 3; but then lb 13. 4, 

however lb 2. 5 J2~ 

"-_X <pavAo-rnj: meanness, poorness, badness Prv 18. 13, 

19. 3; ^*S ccivAof : ineffectual, bad Jcs :o. 1 : 65. .1:5 ; 

I .N .. . -X { i . 1 r K / • cvraitt? : power, mignt ; m ncm. crsn, c: 

bodily strength Gn 49. 3 Jes 40. 29 Job o. 26; r. *^-n 5:. 

:) c^StV : pangs cr threes of birth ; ^lX"p d ^cf tioiVLj:' 

, ,% ^X) Trdro? ;/[-] [sufnx-prefix metathesis], of a 

child (literally, my stress of pangs of childbirth' 

Gn 35. 18 Dt 26. 14 Hos 9. 4 57, 62, 20: 

2 % 2X do Ji-tj, £hv\Tj : pain of body ; pain of mind ; £nV;\ distress 

'pi.) ; = <T;*3ta 59, 290 ::r. 

]*X ,j"X ,]X Hpucjv Gn 41. 45, 50; f. p-X 124 c. 312 : 

? , cittj, auarc ^--]' - ''ccwj reckless guilt or j:;. X 1 - 23. 21 

Ps 55 . m ' J 4 : 

?£*X ,T2 £696$ boiler; 1666? ^pvcos refined gold *2 -" ; 

TSiX^ # TC*2 crrec^o* : boiled down ; a. i'vol-coV' renned 

^WTS13 ("7' [72*X2, possibly 'from 'Eo^ac^'] 1 16-17 tm ? 334 
*V2*X aTTupoj : uncooked ; a, xpvolov {unsmelied piece of 

gold) unsmelted y opp. a-rr^iflo?; a. xP vo ^i of nuggets, 

or gold-dust TCK C"D 116-17 tm 

]2^X KarrdyTj, arra^ : chariot Ex 1 4. 25 Xah 3. 2 [calling 

the part for the whole] 60 

p-X rax t£oj : mdt* swift; 0oa£cu : move quickly t rush, dart 

Prv 19, 2, 28- 20, 29. 20 51, 63 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 439 

tw 4^\ ~nx opduj : v. ran 101, 337 tm, 406 t 

~TXH avarrvpit,^ ; tKTrvpotvut : kindle Jcs 27. ! I Mai i . 10 

Ps 18. 29 5 6 - 6 - 

-nx ,iix ,rmx ,"nxa ,rmxa ^'o?, 4>ws 47, 65, 101 , 290, 337-8 tm 

— HX ,~nx ,"~nx . — IN ,-"~lK f rpTjf : Lacedemonian youth 
who had completed his twentieth year (cf. Xu 14. 
29,26-4) " 127 

"VX -/= : land, country; city; estate, farm Gn 1 1. 28; cf. "T37 68, 290 tm 
5> -C-pifre Ez 5. 2 62 

rrrx .rmx .mx ipihpa, i*&pa : Jta6k IR 5. 6 ICh 32. 

28 IlCh 9. 25 76 

nix .mix ,vnix Ji6> eiV^v Ex 31. 2 IIS 1 1. 3. 8 123 

Vititk .Vx*nx eipyjv Qiou Esr 8. 1 6 ICh 6. 9 122, 125. 128 

(*"i*N) mx o/m'w: r. nxi 

CHiX .Moat : ,4p<£ personified as the goddess of destruc- 
tion and revenge ("X Zach 5. 3) ; the 'Epu-vcs 
(avenging deities} say that ApaC is their own r.nrr.e 
Ex 28. 30 Xu 27. 21 Dt 33. 8 Esr 2. 63 121 

"",T*.X a-€v8vvuj : make slrcight, restore ; guide aright, direct, 
gorerr., rule; x-cropt'ocj : metaph., keep s-rzi?k:. set 
cright Jcs 45. 2 3: t 

vx ,:x 'T"X .rs\ «W, rdre: ifore Ps qo. ::. 12.1. ^. 

126. 2" loxvs: might, power, vigour Ps 70. 3 24 t, 28 t. 64 

I"X Ccctu-xos: hyssop Ex 12. 22 Xu 19. iS IR 5. 13 Ps 

51.9 4 6 , 49 

JIX ovs-, tiros': *ar Dt 5. 1 ; from resemblance :o ^: «r, 

Afijii/tf Prv 20. 12 257 tm 

-nx ,-*nx -qt8<os: u. - ~K; e.g. rrnx 122-3, 128 

nx ,r*nx Kraat^: ta&r Gn 24. 29; .rfjvr lb 24. 5o 23:, 

87 :, 299, 333 t ; 384 
T"X ci-np, avSpos 285 tm; HX ,*fHX ,711 os\ «ij 1 3, 38, 

44, 75 t, 1 16, 169, 264, 290 tm, 361 tm, 389 
^ZTS "7HX tv&cxa: eleven Dl I. 2; ff. 1W *"-* 38Q t 

1HX (ryoivof : w. ]a:X Gn 41. 2 Job 8. 1 1 77 

T~X « X a», oxc'0tu : AoW, holdfast IR 1.51 Cant 3. 4 Esth 
1 . 6 ; of a woman in travail Jcs 1 3. 8, 2 1 . 3 ; of arms 
and clothes, bear, wear I ICh 25. 5 ; hold or keep in a 
certain direction Job 17. 9, 23. 11; extend, reach to 
IR 6. 6 ; stay, keep back, check, stop Neh 7. 3 53 



440 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

rnnx ,Tnx Aa^o?, *o?: allotted portion; portion obtained by 

lot, share Lev 25. 46 Nu 27. 4; cL ovola 56, 92 

-7HK ijifleos: *. "HK; e.g. mnX l2 3 

TsT- ,mns iji'foos 4ioV: granted by Zeus IIR 1. 2 

HCh 20. 35 128 

rrnx Atos rjideos: a gift of Zeus IS 14. 3 122, 128 

riCnX ^DTIK ayaffo's, oO: v. DIB^X IS 22. 9, I I 82, 122 

Tp2rnx ijitffo* A/oAdx: originally, a young man dedi- 
cated to the worship of Moloch, or his gift IS 2 1 . 2 128 

H2*7nx aSaftc^ (Zafidaj) : properly, unconquerable ; Subst., 
adamant, i.e. the hardest metal, prob. steel \ diamond 
Ex 28. 19; cf. ^n2 49 

XTiCuK ^TiljriCX ,~^n aifidrTj: = XeKav-n 'dish, pot) 

Gn 21, 14, 42. 27 Esr 6- 2 95 im 

^v? * % "1 4 J^ nerd 171-2 :m 

,, «iV: v. *TnX 36: :rr. 

„ tU 169 :m 

n ,jinnx ucrrtpos: of Place, coming after, behind 
Gtx 24. 61 Jud 3. 22 Cant 2. 9; last Dt 1 1 . 24; of 
Time, next, later than Gn 5. 4, 9. 28; ukjtzto*: of 
Time, last Ex 4. 8 N'eh 8. i3; 01 vare^oi posterity 

J« 4*- 4 57, 75 : 

^"5 ^"J** ra 'x a ^c^?: *^X a (quickly 7 presently, forthwith) ; 

strcngthd. ra^a tVcj? Ruth 2. 2 c^ 

~^'*~?? -HVjfrj? Esth I.I "2 

prx 6B6v7j:Jb:e linen Prv 7. 16 38, 280 : 

^rx ocrir: r. 2X J« 19. 3 65 
wCX T7 a kto oj : fasten, close; stop up, caulk Prv 17. 28, 

21. 13 6:, 67 
*1wX TTorfpo?, ko-: 0/i£ or other ', either of two; dptcrcpd: 

(with or withou: x € ^p) ^A hand Jud 3:5 Z2 
*X rj: dat. sg. fern, of relat. Pron. 09, tj, c 7 in adverb. 

sense ; of Place, xrtrrA tray, whither, where Gn 4. 9 

IR 13. 12; of Manner, how, as Jcr 5. 7; r. ~X 38 

>> ,^IX TT^f, ttoO : where? Gn 3. 9, 22. 7 61-2 
*X y^: p. DTX ,"HX 38, 55, 92, [is t, 320 
TX 7rd8o$: accident, misfortune, calamity 29 t, 6 1 , 93 

rPX Alas: Ajax IIS 3. 7 12: 
~rx 17 iff co?, contn ztdeos, affco? ; of the dt&ptol sent to 

Delos; raxcly as fern. ijtffoj : v. *nK 122, 128 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 441 

Vnrx T}t8*7} BaaX : an unmarried young woman attend- 
ant at the temple of Baal, or his gift IR 16. 31 128 

7TI"^X ,nt ^X oaye : who or which, with emphasis IS 0- 18 

IR 13. 12 Jcs 66. 1 Jer 6. 16 Esth 7. 5 76 tm 

T*5 'T n ^TJi *H : intcrro S- P^ticlc ; of Manner, in what 
way? ', how?, how in the world, wherefore? Gn 26. 9 
IIS 1. 5, 14, 2. 22 Jer 12. 5 Ps 137. 4 Ruth 3. 18 
EccI 2. 16 ICh 13. 12 ; of Sp&cc, which way?, whither?; 
less frcq. like ttoG: where? Jer 3, 19; cf. £tu>9 271, 49. 69 

r;^x ,nirx ,n33^x orrq, o^, Ep. orr^ (better written 
o7rj] t o«rj) t Jtra, orrrra : Adv., rclat. and indirect 
interrog. ; of Place, by which or what way, in which 
or what direction or part; sts. nearly = o-ov where 
IIR 6. 13 ; of Manner, in what way, how, asDi 1. 12 
Cant 1. 7, 5. 3 Thr :. r Esth 8. 6 27 t, 34 :, 39, 42 t, 47, 

49> 53> 402 

b'X ,ri7*X .r^X dopxeir, a£or, £op*xLs-, iopKOs : a* animal 
of the deer kind; roe, gazelle, antelope, dorczs; — 
tooxa\l<;\ aioAo^: quick-moving, nimble; speeded. 
striped, mottled ;\V; IIS 22. 34; auAoV: pipe, fute 

Ps 22. 1 5 3 > 79, 9 6 tm > 3*4 

*rx ~7X t zTH ,cbx .nsrrVx .nrz^x ttvAc^ , -^ua : <^v- 

way; frcq. separated from the house or temple to 

which it gave entrance; gatetower, gatehouse; ttvAtj, 

7r£W: £af* Ez 40. 16-40 62 

r^.rx tJJcAAa: hurricane, squall; 0J«X\at, prob. thunder- 

storms Ps 29. 9 59 

^"X .nVx oj^^Aeta, -Aijat?: di</, mrcaifr, uj<r; Ar/£, service, 

advantage Ps 22. 20, 88. 5 66, 93 

]TX fuAor: /r« Dan 4. 7 

r;:^X .nrcx S^T/ia, ror [both nominative and genitive 
homologies] : fear, terror; pi. <£o3oc *al 5. r!r.2*K 
"51 [pref.-suf. phenom.] Ex 15. 16 Dt 32. 25 58 

E*!TX 177*^ 28, 637-40 tm 

^X ,]X ,TuX iVa : m which place, where Ez 13. 15 Cant 6. 1 28, 341, 38 

riS*X jcc&ifo?: basket; Boeotian measure, containing 
nine Attic chocnices, Le. about two gallons Ez 45. 
11,13 [To this day, basket is referred to in Egypt 

both as -Uj and *il] 46, 60, 78 



442 XIX, CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 
HD^X Snrq : v. ^X ; onov, ttou : where? i\ HD^X Jud 8, 1 8 34 t s 39, 

4 ~ tj 47, 4 °~ 
P*X ainj/), avSpo?, avdpurrros 63, 75-6 t, 82, 285-7 tm, tj39 t 

„ €t$ : v. nx ago m 

,, ocaaro? 76 t, 290 tm 

„ ,~7X TjiQeos: v. ~1TX; eg. rTOU'^X 124, 128, 312 

r,V2'^TK Tjidcos vtQaios: a gift of the Spouse (Baal) 

IIS 3. 8 122, 126, 3: 1 

*7T ,^X TjWeos JtoV: originally, a worshipper of Zeus 

or his gift IS 16. 1 ICh 2, 13 122, 128 

~WX ,~71X Tjideos : c\ ~2TX 12 2, :23 

• xvrx rjlOtos Btov: originally, a person gran:ed by, or 

devoted or dedicated to God Prv 30. 1 128 

]IVX cuStor sq tm 

„ airio? : culpable, guilty Prv 13. 15 (?) 40, 68 

„ €Oa6o$ : bottom , foundation , base; sea-bed (\V) Ex 

! 4- 27 49, 

,, dOdvaros, 6dris: v. 2K Job 12. 19 65 

^X ef o^o* : standing out from , raised above, most eminent; 

frcq. in Horn, in pi., ffoxi as Adv., especially, above 

others, beyond compare Dt 16. 15 j.o 

j, qua:, ou^; ov is used before consonants, ovx before 

vowels with spir. lenis, ovx before vowels with spir. 

asper Jon 2. 5; ~T3 Ez 28- 15; i\ "K 32 t, 49. 320 

*^X /1T2X i^dpos: hated y hateful; hating, hostile; as 

Subst., enemy J cr 6. 23 ; €x&po? is one u:ho hes been 6L\o$, 

but is alienated; one ivho has long beat clierjiied and 

refuses to be reconciled job 30. 21 326 

*?DX Aayetv: eat 3 devour; eat Ex 34. 28 Dt 8. 10 [&*yciv t 

tadiut, €&d<jj 7 €Ocj — all homologues of "X — are 

associated verbs respectively used in diiTerent 

tenses] 40, 43, 65, 67, 86 : 

bzK ,r^zx, nhzK /?rs2 ^ixa ,1-11:5 ,~?-r o^a : 

/doJ, victuals Gn 1. 29, 6. 21, 41. 35 IR 5. 25, 19. 8 

I ICh 2. 9; v. cnx/tStafia 65, 69, 70, 71, 73 

'?*J KaraKatoj : 6z/77i completely ; eVc- : tfirm a/z ik surface t 

scorch Ex 3. 2 Nah 1. 10 

„ Karaifiaye tv : devour f eat up 86 t 

n?2X ^atxres 1 : burning Ez 15, 6 73 

*?X ,*?X~ m H\u>s 38, 92, 128, 309-10 tm 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 443 

]TVS Vx *Hi\io$ 'Yrrepuuv 12 1, 124-5, 3 10 

*7X # VX- >X ,lf?X ,DM^X ^oV, 0coV, cios, d€Vi : Cod, the 
Deily Gn 1. i, 21. 33 Ex 15- 1 1 Dt 32, 15 ; one set in 

authority IIR 24. 15 Jcs 44. 6, 60. 7 Ez 17. 13 Ps 29. 
1 job 41. \J\judgc Ex 22. 8 31 t, 59, 76, 83 t, 121, 123-4, 

128, 303, 320 t, 330, 352, 390 

*7X o\o<; : every Gn 3O- 40 49, 124 

7x ,~7X ,~7n d, 77: definite or prepositive article Gn 

17. r 7 24. 65 Jud 6. 20 Ez 13, 1 1, 13 67, 75 t, 299 

TX ,~7 -3t : an enclitic post-position : joined to names 
of Places to denote motion towards that Place [prcfix- 
suflrx phenomenon] ; oTxcde : to the house ~"7 
IlCh 8- n, 42 t, 73, 34 t; €iV o, 30 t, 84 t T c6 i, 
169 cm. 320; IttI 170:771; iv 170 cm, 423; *.■- : :\ 
fX 28, 34 t; rrapd I 72 tm ; -pd> 62, ! 73 tm; C-rtp 
28 : : 174 tm; d^', rd 318 tm 

tx ,7r oJ: :\ ix Gn 22. 12 Ez 28, 15 67, 334 t 

-ou: ;i\^r* IS 27. 10 34 :. 62, 67, 100 

'-X- <?«> : :■. ^ 

7X~ ,"7X -oAl-9 ; of Number, Tra/jv ; of Size, Decree. 

Intensitv, murA ic.;. niTTTX /XV'T; 128 

~z:tx 77 yi : 6o$ : cAtf//; : gj:psu:n ; cement Ez 1 3. : 1 . : j 67, 75 t T 2ag 

"7X -oAL-oatOaAor : working with great art or j/;:;V. :*ry 

skilful Xu 1 1. 26-7 61 

"■•-•^^V* »^^^^v» %«^~^**^ *4x**^^^^ > * / 

77i^rA Gn 25. 4 IIS 5- 10 ICh 7. 10, 14, 7 20 :. 01 , 1 25, 3 10 tm 

r;7x y 77X dpdofiat: poe:. Verb, pray to a god; more 

freq. in bad sense, imprecate, curse Jud 17. 1 IS 14-24 23, 67, 326 

m7X dsd : Orarcr, esp. for evil; curse, imprecation: mostly 
in ph Gn 23, 28, 24. 4: Dt 29. 11, 13, 18-20 III 3. 
3: Ez :5. 59 Ps 10. 7 23. 39. 42 1, 47, 326 

I*n?X rju^- : hero ; the Fourth Age oj men. between 
Zaiiiovts and av8paj-ci ; heroes, as objects of ivcr.hip ; 
esp, of local deities, founders of cities, patrons of 
tribes, etc. Gn 6. 2, 4, 30. 8 Ps 82. 6; :•_ 7X 14 

7X ,n7X Joe, ofSe: demonstr. Pron., this, formed by 
adding the enclit. -S* to the old demonstr. Prom d, 
rj t r6 y and declined like it through all cases. dS«, 
like oirroc> is opp, €<th-os y to designate what is nearer 
as opp. to what is more remote] but oSt refers more 



444 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

distinctly to what is present, to what can be seen or 
pointed out, though this distinction is sts. not ob- 
served ; of Place, to point out what is present or before 
one Gn 9. 19, 32. 18, 33. 5 Dt 1. 1 ICh 20. 3; of 
Time, to indicate the immediate present; airtWvpai 
T0A09 troy toS" tjStj UKarov I, wretch, have been 
perishing now for these ten years, Sophocles, Philo- 
ctetes 312 (c£. Esth 4. 1 1) lb 9. 27 75"^ l 

^K ,xV?n (Sou : iSou is aor. 2 imper. Med. of ooatu ; but 
Z&ov, as Adv., lol behold! : with Nouns and Prons. ; 
in the imper., esp. in offering a thing, take it.' Dt 1 1. 
30 Jos 10. 13 Dan 2. 31 -7 l 

WS . V^K ciSwAop : image of a god, idol Lev 26. 1 Jes 
19. 3Hab2. i8Zach 11. i7Ps9 6 - 5.97- 7 Job 13- 
14 (yXtsn-Tos is secondary) 3 l T » 3^, 1 l - 

pX m-eAe'o : elm Gn 35. 8 Jes 44. 14 Hos 4. 13 62, 352-3 t 

jsnbx .rupj^K tfcoyeiijf : bom of Cod; 0*6? iyiwrpi : God 
begat, created, engendered {the bearer of the 
name) IS 1. 1 IIS 21. 19 4°. 59> J -9 

-"'■JK .-7X «i>jv: r. — -X; V, ?X cico, 122, 127, 1 69 trn 

~X'7X fO O ct'pijf: originally, God's young mam given 

by God as a gift to his parents ICh 5. 24 01, 128 

rr^X .'Tr^X Jtoy e'pTji': originally, Zeus's young man, 
a person given by Zeus — not Ze.i>s 8c6s «Vo> tan: 
my god is Zeus IR 17. 1 HR 1. 5 I2 5> I2S 

?pa*7X d€os fiov Moa6 x ia-ri : Moloch is my god ; or, 
and more likely, ciprqv rou MoXox- originally, a 
young man (Lacedemonian youth who had completed 
his twentieth year) dedicated to, adherent of or 
granted by Moloch Ruth 1. 2 l2 & 

23T7X .Vxroy tlpr\v yaptrov : granted by the •husband' 

or 'soouse' (i.e. Baal) ; cf. r.^T .Kirr 83 :, 125-0 :, 128, 

415 ' 
!D*'7X KaAXi-n-ovs, TTO&6-;: with beautiful feet Gn 36. 4; 

-rrcnj: blessed with fair children 60, 61, 128 

7D"7X .inbD-bx ,C7D"7X etamv n\ouru>vos : granted by 
Pluto (god of the nether world as the wealth gwer) 
ICh 3. 8, n. 35, 15. 18; TroAy^TjTor : much loved; 
TToAJ^iAoy: dear to many 62, 12 5> I28 

ittrVx .ViC-ns Atosjdeod cipnv: granted by Zeus/God 

Nui.5,3-35 61,122,125-6 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 445 

iss^tt /JDsVk .mas Ex 6. 22 N T u 34. 25 Zeph 1. 1 122 

Kp^K ci'p^v tou Scow IIS 23. 25 6l 

"CrVx *£AAa\-: /&//ar Gn 10. 4 133, 300 

c^x ,cVx .c^x gl'Atj: r. ^rrx £ z 40. 16, 21-2, 2^-6. 

29-3 i, 33-4, 36, 4 8 "9 6 7 

HdVk a^aAAa: sheaf; ouAoy; com sheaf Gn 37. 7 69 

nift*"bx ,r» 10T37 ddavaala : immortality ; aflavaro? : undying^ 
immortal; of things, etc., everlasting, perpetual Prv 
12. 28 Esr 2. 24 49, 59 

HiS^X 'I^K aya^to* : ;mmcrried 1 single, prop, of the man, 

whether bachelor or widower Gn 38. r 1 Jer 51.5 34 t, 68 

xbjpK .nbybx o /i€y c ^ 2 £^ :r:1 ' 2 99> 3°° 

nt^Vs ^VNmTTV mfoo* Stov: devoted or dedicated to, 

or granted by, God IIS 2. 18 Jer 29. 3 125, 128 

*!?*? xtAia> : a thousand Gn 20. 16 Ex 12. 37 Ps 90. 4; 
XiAoV: green fodder for cattle > esp. for horses a::d 
beasts of burden, forage, provender; pasturage Ps 50- 
10 56 

rrpVx aXKiLLos : j/ou*', brave, of men and things Prv 

30. 31 297 

x?rv?x ,rr 27 t 

EX uTjrTip: mother; in titles Gn 3. 20 Jud 5. 7 57. 60, :oo-i, 326 

EX ,n^X ,2X7 ,ZV Acoj : pi., n;^n or people; men, i.e. 
soldiers, both of the whole army and smaller divi- 
sions Gn 25. 16, 23 Ex 1. 9 \u 21. 29 Dt 20. 1-2, 5, 
8-9 Jos 7. 3, 3. 1, 9-1 1 Jud;. 2-8,9, 3 5 ns l8 - 7, 
19. 41 IIR 13. 7 Jcs 13. 4, 51. 4 Ez 17. 15 Joel 2. 5 
Ps 2. 1, 9. 9, 1 1 1. o, 148. 1 1 Prv 1 1. 26 39, 55-6, 92 

„ „ „ M Sfji+ot : people, common people, rank end 

fie, opp. officers; in a political sense, the sovereign 

people^ the free citizens ; die popular assembly Gn 23. 1 3 

Jos 8. 16 IIS 22. 28 Job 12. 2 Thr 1. 1 1 ; ;■. =X 58 

£X ay, <€■/), *a, clx ay : if so ]?~EX Gn 25. 22, 43. I I ; 

Horn, has generally *T <€ 7 if thus H^'CX IS 14, 9, 10 85-6 t 

„ el: if whether Gn 4, 7 Ex 19. 13 Lev 3. 1, 27. 20 

Jos 22. 22 Cant 7. 13 Ruth 3. 10 Thr 1. 12 Eccl 

12. 14; Kal €i even ifZR O Jer 2. 22, 22. 24, 37. 10 

Ruth 3. 12; ci ^ except; unless (W) Ps 127. 1; 77: 

or Gn 27, 21 12, 35 t, 85-6 t, 100 

„ ,^X tJ: or Gn 24. 49 Jud 20. 28 HCh 18. 5, 14 



+46 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

CX tJ: in truth, of a surely; frcq. strcngihd- by the 
addition of one or two other particles, as Z apn 

mc-nx Gn 17. 17; v. px .12 

HEX ,nri7pX S/ioiTj ; female slave, serving woman, only in 

II. in Horn. Gn 21. 10 Ex 21. 32 Dt 12. 12 58 

HEX ci/xta: (cSfu>s) shoulder, i.e. (apparently; an*/* of a 

building Gn 6. 16 Jcs 6. 4 57 

,, <Lfios: the shoulder with the upper arm : <LU\-^ being 

the lower) Gn 6. 15 IS 17. 4 57 

pcx ,]}X :A^i^ojv: the Libyan <>« Jer 46. 25: :. 7* 12: 

px 7j /xtjV : p^v y a Particle used to strengthen assevera- 
tions, verily, truly ; 77 p^r, /wu/ verily, full surely ; later 
in strong protestations or oaths Xu 5. 22 D: 27. 15 
IR k 36 Jes 65. 16 Jer 11. 5, 28. 6 Xeh 5. 13, 8. 6 50, 93 

pX rtdrjveuj: take care of tend, nurse; nurse, suckle: ler.d 
as a ?iurse, tend, foster Esth 2. 7; Pass. Jes 60. 4 [cL 

KTt?)€l±OV€UCij\ 00. O^, 75 I 

pX ,npX rt^Tji'di, ~rr} : 2/7* who nurses or br-ngs tip, 
foster father \ nurse Xu t 1. 12 IIS 4. 4 IIR : o. 1,5 
Jes 49. 23 Ruth. 4. 1 5 [ci~ ^775^^^^] 5?~ r:0 - 64, 9 2 

pX daiuujv = 3a7~utyi- 'knowing, experienced :.•: a ::ur.2 
knowing, skilled in ; cf. aui^ ( cx pl- ky Gran::::. ai — 
oaluiuv, for Sanson', skiljul) Cant 7. 2 58 

=1=X # =;^X ,n:EX M7 j», Ep. F ai/; original ^ has 
prob. been changed to fteY: used absolutely to 
express certainty, videed, of a truth, synonymous 
with prjv (v. pX) Xu 22. 37 Jos 7. 20 IIR :ci. 17 
Job 19,5; Kai ur^, sis. simply ro add an assevera- 
tion ; freq. to introduce something new or cesero ng 
special attention -ItX'^x Job 19. 4. 34- 12 
=itx*^K Gn 18. 13 ni^x-n; Gn 20. 12 rirx"- 
Job 36. 4 c;.-xn -3 IR 3. 27 3 1 : 

7-X aluarotis; blood-red, of blood; = alu-i-rrpOf Jtood- 

stained) Zach 6. 3, 7; r. pr:n 28 t 

^X aa-i'Cofiai: *. V?n 1 10 tm 

f tVoi/ : (pres. €-a> is used by Xicandcr . . . the pres. 

in use is <f>rjf±i, \€yu>, ayopevaj . , ., the fut. (j^j 

tpui (fut. of <Tpa/ (B)), the pf. opt;**; ;p«£, «j> p ; 

proclaim^ order or command, promise; 6rjfil: say, ajprm, 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 447 

assert , speak; think, deem, suppose; cTpai (B) : say, 
speak, tellGn I. 3, 26, 2. 18, 3. 1,3, 16, 18. 17, 21. 1, 
31. 16, 32- 21, 38. 11, 44. 4 Ex 2. 22, 5. i, 13, 17, 
15. 9 Xu 22. 16, 23. 19 Dt 9- -5 76 t, 86 t, 1 m, 1 17, 424 

mSK ,I"T)£X ,^QX ,"1EX e-o*; wordy utterance, speech, 
tale ; pledged word, promise, one's word] word of a deity, 
oracle; 6-rjfia: that which is said, word Gn 4. 23 Xu 
24. 4 Dt 32. 1,2 (cf Job 29. 22) Jcs 29. 4 Ps 12. 7, 
19. 4, 15, 77. 9, 1 19. 38 Prv 16. 24 Job 22, 28 r e 1-12 

^^.p ,"*2N pfjpa. : that which is said or spoken, word, 

saying Ps 19. 4 Esth 1, 15, 2. 20 6o ; 73, 1 1 1 

H£X ,m£X pijcis : saying, speech; answer, resolution^ 
declaration Gn 4. 23 Dt 32. 2 Jud 5. 29 Ps 119. 123 
Prv 22. 2 1^ 30, 5 Thr 2, 17; -popprjaiz: previous :.*:- 
struciion or warning] <-o?: r. ^21 1 1 1, 415 t 

"i£X apapria : failure, fault, error; guilt, sin Job 20. 20 381 

— \ZH ,~HpX }x€tpa£\ young girL lass; in later writers 

masc, boy, lad] e.g. "2X .TTT^X 128 

n^X Ktuutpici: Cimmerians, a nomad people of the 

steppes, who invaded Asia Minor 60 

^~x ,n^:x ,:msK Jto> utipat ICh 5. 33, 9. 4. 24. 23 1 28 

rrx ^ue>c :< (?€>: i\ Vl=rx xxix tm 

r:x ,]X ttol' i-u: :\ Vx Ji:d 19. 17 IS 10. 14; cf JVq br-2 : 68 

n:x ,x:x ^a, <£raf 136 cm 

n^ZX oltoV: c\ 2X Dan 4. 11 52, 73, 80 

r^x ,ktvx ,t:x ,xr:x anjo, d:-8po* 63, 82, 285-7 cm, 289 t 

r:;x b6va$ : pole-reed, smaller than the *cL\apo? Jcs 3, 1 53, 290 tm 
~z^l crera^oj 1 prop. Frequentative of crreyuj, sigh 

deeply; generally, sigh, groan Thr 1. 8, 21 409 

nn:x ,np:X o-r€vayua: sigh, groan, moan Ps 31. 1 ; Thr 

1. 22 ;s n -'p) 4°9 

*:x ,"r:x ,n:x eytu : Pron* of the first person — tyu^, IlL<.> ; 
streiigthd. eyajy* Gn 3. 10 Ex 20. 2 Jcs 43. 12, 15 
Dan 2. 3 47'8 

*:x ,rr:x vaG?: ship IR 10. 11, 22, 22. 29 Jon L 3 Ps 

48. 8, 107. 23 HCh 20. 36 1 74 r 

rrix f rr:xri 6B6vrj : :>. px ; cf. ordmypa Jcs 2g. 2 Thr 2. 5 59, 93, 409 
CIX ayayicaf a* : force, compel, csp. by argument ; con- 
strain Esth 1.8 57> I0 9 
^IX rrv€ai : breathe ; i/tt£/> <jq.k€luv -nvtloirres breathing over 



^a XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

their shields, i.e. unable to repress their rage for war 
(Hesiod, Scutum Herculis 24) , to <ru /xr) -nvevcrgs *V5<'f to$ 
on whom then brecthest not favourably (Callimachus 
Epicus, Epigrammata 10. 3) IR 8. 46 Ps 79, 5 61 

*px ^IXHII iirtnviw : breathe upon, blow freshly upon, blow 
fairly for one; mctaph^yiiiwur; blow furiously upon; 
metaph., excite, inflame against Dt 1. 37 Jcs 12. 1 6: 

np!K <rr€vay(±a: u. "iIX Mai 2. 1 3 Ps 79. I r 409 

W?| vo<jd£u>: (woo?) to be ill; also in Med- IIS ! 2. 15 107 

ITUX voarfpos : diseased; unhealthy ; unwholesome ; voou/Stj^ : 
sickly; unwholesome, pestilential Jcs 17. 1 1 Jer 17. 16, 
30. 12 Mich I. 9; dvTjKearos : damaging beyond 
remedy, pernicious J er 17. 16 Job 34. 6 61, 102 tm, 107 

G*TCX TTtvdrjpa: lamentation, mourning, (pi.) Ez 24. 17, 22 61, 73, 

. t 2QO im 

pjux ,nnK ,nx ,nn:x ,px ,(^{) v^x ,(w- : !* ; rx ,=nx 

nmx au: Mau Gn 12. i i, 29. 4, 31. 6 Jud i 7. 2 

Ez 13, 20, 34. 31 Job 1. io, 8, 5 Dan 2. 3, 29 34 : 

pCX 7rd8os: that which happens to a person or thing; 
incident, accident; experience, good or bad; :r. bad 
sense, misfortune, calamity Gn 42. 4. 38 Ex 2:. 22 ? 23 G:, C"? 

r ;CX adpot^cn: gather together, collect, muster; get her for 
oneself, collect round one Gn 6. 21, 2Q. 7 Ex 3. 16 \u 
1 1. 1 6, 32, 21. id, 23 Dt 1 1. 14 Jcs 1 1. :2 Ez i i. 1 7 
Joel 2. 16 Mich 2. 12 Prv 30. 4 IlCh 24. : : 20 

"1CX hiuj (A): bind, tie, fetter; bind, keep in bends; 
mctaph., bind, enchain; hinder from a thing Gn 39. 
20, 49. 1 1 Xu 30. 3 Jud 15. 12, 13, 16, 21 IIS 3, 34 
IIR 7. 10, 17. 4 Jer 40. 1 Ez 3. 25 Xeh 4. 12; aetpdeu 107 :m. 



"7 * ^ 



TCXH KaraStuj (A) : bind fast, put :n bonds, :r:pnjj- Gn 
42. 16 (So) 

TCX ,"HOX ,110 Scro?: that may be bound; *<*: fastened 
Gn 39. 20, 40. 5 Jud 16. 2 1 Eccl 4. 14; c€ipafo* f 
-polos' 23, 107 tin, 113-14 

~nCX ,TOX ,Tijb ,T0:2 S^a/xoV: band, bond; in pi., £o/!</i, 
chains Jcs 52. 2 Jer 5. 5; in sg. collectively, bonds, 
imprisonment Jud 15. 14 Jer 37. 15 Eccl 7. 26; metaph., 
a bond of the laws Xu 30. 3; in sg. collectively, 
bonds, imprisonment Gn 40. 5 107, 1 13 



XIX- CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 449 
f]K Kai : even, also Gn 40. 1 6 Dt 33. 20 IS 2. 7 Jcs 40. 24, 

44- *5» i9Job 6. 27 Cant 1. 16 (— k, c/3) 4 8 > 59 

*.-fv (*«) kci even "O ^X Prv 15. 1 1, 19. 7; *ai «f <rr*7z 
i/CK ^X Job 36. 29; C'DX dpjS/: arfdW to IS i. 5 60, 1 63 tm 

*]X ttvotj: breath; ttvotj 'H6c.laroio the breath of 
Hephaestus, i.e. flame Gn 27. 45, 30. 2 Ex n. 8 
Nu 25. 4 Dc 29. 19, 32. 22 IIR 24: 20 Jes 30. 30, 
48. 9 Ps 78. 21, 124. 3 Prv 14. 17, 21. 14, 27- 4 
Cant 7. 9 Thr 2. 6; ava-: of the nose Ps 1 15. 6 300 t 

„ ci«i: pi., o-f./^Gn 3. 19, 19. 1 IS 20. 41,25. 23 61 

"3X0 6--rqaifj.os : for roasting Lev 2. 4 °9 

TICK «T7a>SoV '• enchanter, a charm for or against Jud :3. 14 
IS 23. 6, 30. 7 Hos 3. 4; tVevouTTjs: robe or garment 
worn over another IS 2. 28 ( — v) 4§ 

CDX dcxivi^oj: disappear, be missing Gn 47. 15, 16 Jes 

16. 4, 29. 20 Ps 77. 9 { — v, £,-0) 5 1 ' 379 : 

CCX ,*3 3EX otto>s-, o. «: however Nu 13. 28, 23. 13 

' Am 9. 8 49 

CEX rd-oj: region; the universe divided into three 
" Two. Dt 33. 17 Jcr 16. 19 Ps 2. 8 Pp.- 30. 4 '' --] 
C'CSX -obolv: dual of -0J9, -0S0V, /oof ; prop. />??! 

.'/i* c/l\7* downwards Ez 47. 3 (-fX, o/C ; 
n?SK ooir: «r/j<r7!/Jes 30. 6 Job 20. 16 93 

^jDX cfiTTf'x^" surround, cover, enclose Jon 2. 6; cuot£ci'va# 50 

-1SK reopa: ^A/j Gn 18. 27 Nu 19. 9 ( — r) 60 

1SX odpos, 6d~ : commonly, a wide cloak or mantle 

' without sleeves IR 20. 38, 41 ; v. 1XD _ 3o 

«-»-i«v» • - ao. 8q tm 

}THDX ir7Ttp<juOv •+"> - 

sr.S .2XT.D ,C71pN at©vt3ia>? (a2©v-7jScV, -ddi/i : rdddady 

Xu 6. 9, 35. 22 Jos 10. 9, 11. 7 Jcs 29. 5, 30. 13, 

47. 1 r Jer 51- 8 Hab 2. 7 Prv 6. 15 Job 9. 23 Ecc! 

9. 12 LV4. 13 HCh 29. 36; v. pp. 361-2 82 

'"TEX ."TSX ;iaax<^ T 7 : crm-pit [cf. Latin axilla}: 'pi/' 

corTi^rJcs 41. 9 Jer 38. 12 39 

Vsx Mon'^i : £u* «**av, Jtow mm? ; /ay aj"fc ; £"-' a-""?? 
7>om oneself, avoid ; />u* 67/crr oneself; reserve, keep back ; 
put bv (W) Gn 27. 36 Nu u. 17, 25 Eccl 2. 10 39 2 » 4 2 3 

bSX Trapd 5 7 2tm 

1SX ,b^X 9Tjcraupi'Cu> : store, treasure up, lay by; hoard; lay 
up treasure ; Pass., to be reserved: Jes 23. 18, 39. 6 Am 
3. IO; cf. Tidrjfii, a^o- 39 2 » 4 2 3 

«SiCT7 Q. 



6a 



J; 



450 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 
1XTX ,nsv 6r)<javp6?: store Dt 28. 12; mctaph., Jes 33. 

6; treasury Jos 6- 19, 24 Zach 1 1. 13 IlCh 32. 27; 

granary ICh 27. 25; cf. Oijaavpc^cj: 7UX ,1SX ,12-1 59, 7^ 

n*Tp>K <£Ao£: of precious stones Jcs 54. 12 79 

2~1X Kpurrruj : Aufe oneself, lie hidden, keep covered, esp. 

for purposes of concealment Dt 19. 11 Jud 21- 10 

Prv 1. 1 1, 7. 12, 23. 28 Job 31- 9 Thr 3. 10, 4. 19 46 

I"1X tfr/ov: of women's uuork^ weaving Jud 16. 14 ci. 

IIR23- 7) 49 

]C:iX ,jmx iW^; <r/*M of purple IlCh 2. 6, 13 46, 50, 63 

]SI1X ,XIUnx iWpynuc : purple clothing Jcr :o. 9 Dan 

5- 7 3- r * 5°> 6 3> 63 

TiTX ayyor: vessel \ vase IS 6. 3 48 

^"TyiX poSotLf : rose-coloured Gn 10. 18 40 

tcyubVk .minix ,nmx ipvua 34 t, 80, 349 tm 

nnx ,nrnx 3 * L 

HTHX ,miX IrrrroTpootZov. place for horsebreedutg, stud- 
stable 31 1 
nx apKevdos: Phoenicia:: cedar Jud 9. 15 IR 5. 13 353 
rnx iZpa : any period fixed by natural laws and revolu- 
tions, whether of the year, month or cay Gn i3. : 1 50 
rnx epxouai 384 tm 
nnTX dpxrj ; mX jcc'AtvCoj 384 tm 
"I1N '^^ deploy; in form Dim. of t?7j/> ;waj: of prey, 
of a Hon) a-i/J animal, freq- of elephants Gn 49. 9 
Xu 24. 9 Jes 1 1. 7 5;, 59, 80-1, 92 
Vx w ,x 5pos BtoG the Mount of God Jes 29. :, 2. 7 122 
^X rrpocTTj/ccj^ : freq. in Part, as Adj., befitting, proper, 

meet Esr 4. 14; ov ^pcarjxov it is not fitting 62, ! :2 

m2^X 6dppaKov: generally, remedy, aire; a mear+s cf 
producing something Jcr 30. 17, 33. 6 Xeh 4. 1; 
riSIIX/apjccaij: heip 7 aid I ICh 24. 13 : 12 

Q^l[j2 SIX dpfioz pootv\ joining of two rivers G:i 24. :o 129, 133, 



300 



7*1K .XSTX .npiX <pa: earth 35 t, 75 t, 77 t, 83 t, 86 t, 131 t, 

j J 9> j*o 
11X dpa'o^: c V™ Gn 12. 3; mx Nu 22. 6; nx 

<ar- : 02// c/ou'/i curses upon, curse, execrate Gn 5. 29 68, 326 

mXQ Kardpafxa: curse Dt 28. 20 69 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 45 i 

rnx (Zpa: = rd iLpaia, the produce of the season, fruits 
of the year IIR 4. 39; mM< in Horn., part of the 
year, season; mostly in pi, the seasons Jes 26, 19 50 

xncrzrnmx ,xno;?nrnx Apra^'p^ Esr 4. 1 1, 7, 1 52 

-nrx ,~i^x -qtdeos: p. *nx 122, 128 

bxyr ^X^X ,^>n?X ^ K 1?K ^nipX 7^0* 0eoS: 

God's man Gn 32. 29 Xu 26. 31 ICh 4- 16, 7. 1 1, 

25. 2 66, 1 22 

?X idos : custom, habit Dt 33. 2 (m m») 

wK ^oj : there is \ Zkw, barbarism, jj I (Iraqi vernacular) 28 t, 290 tin 
-rx ,--H ,T»X ^dtos: :\ ~-~X 122, 128, 312 

*7Z^X rodeos 'HMov: the Sun-god's gift Gn 46. 21 123 

Vyz^X Tji3€oz BdaX: adherent, follower of Baal, his 

rna.n, his gift ICh 8. 33 {cf. IIS 2. 8) 122, 128, 31 1-12 t 

" ri " f 7*? ^r&V: Athens Jos u-22 1 29 : 134 

nrx yxnrn, -fuvaiKos : woman, wife t spouse ; female Gn 2. 

23, 28. 9 Xu 31. 18 IIS u. r 1 Cant 1.8; cf. dvBpU 75 t, 82, 

1 io, 1 12 t. 288 tm, 333 t 
nrX tKacrrq Ex 26. 3 Ez I. 9 200 tm 

rrrx ta-rLa.ua] Kviaa : steam and odour of fat which exhale 

from roasting meat, smell or savour of a burr.! sacrijzce 60, 73. 

268 tm, 300 tm 
1~x r^ Ad^off: : t . rrn Hos 13. 7 79 ? 302 tm 

"TrX JSc?: way, road ]cb 23. 1 1 367 tm 

li3K ttolV, ?To86s:foot Ps 17. 5, 37. 31, 40. 3, 44- 19 

Job 31. 7 79. I2 5 

X.:r-X ^JStjihj: Athene IIR 17. 30 121 

7*CrX crra6v\^ : £i*/:cA of grapes Gn 40. 10 Jes 65. 8 

Cant 7. 8, 9 37: 4° 

i:::s *a*d6i: o. ens Gn 10. 3 52, 93, 400 

zrx Gwo€tLr : 710/ /a percent, to be ignorant of; go wror.g by 

mistake Lev 2. 4 62, q3 

dd€riu3\ deal treacherously with, break faith with; 
dapooti : go wrong ; to be ignorant of what is right t 
act amiss; draw breath, inhale Lev 5. 23 X T u 5. 6 Jud 2 1 . 
22 Jer 2. 3 Ez 25. 12 Hos 4. 15, 13. 1, 14. 1 Hab 1. 
1 1 HCh 19. 10; C7X dd^TTjfia 67, 92, 98 tm, 1 19 tm 

i!xLtn y $€<jj : crumble away, vanish, disappear Ez 6. 6 
Joel 1. 18 53, 6 ? 

C?H atnos : culprit, responsible; guilty Gn 42. 21 49 



452 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

*]BfK .*\VOX ^TO ,n??0 Biairts : filled with the words of God, 

inspired Dt 18. lojos i k i Jcr 27. 9 Dan 2. 10 47, 59, 77, :-2 

TOS7X doTrtV; 0*1*07, BrffTj 4n :m 

nDI?X fa»0oV 366 tm, 401 

n^X dptfdaj : 50 straight ; flourish Prv 9. 6 634 

~1?X Kar- : £«/> straight f set right Jes 9. 15; cpdtd^ui; 
fiaKapt^ui: bless, deem or pronounce happy Gn 30. 13 
Mai 3. 12 634 

irx ,~)?X ,n^X # mrx dv^>, dvSpos; dvcptds 285-6 tm, 288 tm 

"irx dvrt 168 tm; d<rr€p, wire 76 tm, 1311, 290 tm, 
414; on 290 cm; o<jrt9 76-7 tm, 291 tm; 6rrou y 
QiTQirntp 290 tm 
*1CX ^3 irreihrfTtep 290 tm 

T?X ,rn*WK ,*17X ,m^X dcrr7jp: star; 6 rd> ^oaoSt'rar 
(dcrr7jp) the planet Venus IR 14, 23, 15. 13 IIR 17. 10, 
21. 7, 23. 6, 7 Jes 17.8, 27. 9 IlCh 34.4, 7; fv\ov: 
tree Dt 16. 21 Mich 5. 13; da<rjpd: ('So? n tlLv 
Kaa-raviutv a certain kind of chestnut ; da*pa: Bpvs 
dxaprros* a barren tree, a tree without fruit 121, 233 :. 

290 tm. 4C2 
X2H 3?X QiLpa$ y -axeTo^, -dxiov : breastwork, pcrcpet Esr 

5- 3> 95 c - *^X°* 2i-l 

?T2r.7K ^arrx 31 r, 4:7 

r.X drro 1 69 tm 

rx d, rd: et. Vx 28 t, 75-7 t, 86 t, 131 t, 174:; ck 

1 69 tm; cVt i 70 tm; ^crd 171 tm 
V^2HX Tfidtos- BdaX: Baai's present to the parents of 

the bearer of the name IR i 6. 31 122, 123,3:: 

PT.K flijAeia (ores; : jA*-cw ( — X, 0/n, AT 47, 50, 3^3 

Vcn ,Vbjix x S<r '«V«/ ^/pc xxix :m 

CPK at?: rAou 34 : 

]^T,X ,ninx «5rov 349 tm. 387; "2 drd i68tm; drro 29 t, 

168 tm, 383 t, 389 t; Bid 169 tm; cV 131 t, 170 tm, 

383 t; £77: 83 t, 170 tm, 389; €v: v. *2X 1 14-15; 

TrpoV 173 tm; 7T€pi 172 tm; uird 174 tm 
TX3 ?rd/>o*: means of passing a river ; freq. of rivers Ps 

55. 24; cf.Job 33. 28 79 

fJ ,"1X2 ,113 ,H12 6p€ap, Ep. <f>p€tap: an artificial well 

Gn 16. 14, 26. 15, 37, 24 Jcr 6. 7 31 1, 81 

^23 BafivXatv; rrdprroXv? [pronounced f}dfi3o\t* in 



Q2, 300 


4 2 > 


73 


9 2 , 98 


tm 


63, 


93 


73. 


80 


89 


tm 


89 


tm 




60 


381 


tm 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 453 

modern Greek] very great, large , or numerous Gn 1 1 . 9 
Dan 4, 27 

13 £<zyo?, Sdyrjfjia : tf- 73X Dan 1 . 5 

"713 dStretn: cf. da/ioaci; 17. DWK 

*T3 pd5So<r: rot/, wand; shaft of a hunting spear Ex 

„ <WoV: &. 3K Ex 30. 34 
~n3 d^ooTaTtoi 
*7"T3 an-ocrraSd 

T T 

V"T3 «5StjAo*: adulterated, base Jcs 1. 25 

C*T3 r^tdrta : tf. C^HZ ; cf. ^aSStV: fivaatvov evdvua 
ifalocrov, choice garment of fine linen [this word 
Ls an atavism] 30 t 

V^X32 /T^tZT} opi^uj'. divide or separate from, as a border 
or boundary) part, divide Gn 1.6, 14 Ex 26. 33 Lev 
20. 2^. Nu 8, 14, 16. 21 Ez 22. 26 Esr 6. 21 63, 67, 250 

p~T3 tmatctvT} : repair, restoration IIR 12. 6-7 

wH2 ouiBos: a rush-mat used for sleeping on 15 t 

~Pn^ 6<2tSpo9 : bright, beaming Job 37. 21 59 

r/7nis 30 : 

n^rtZ r Z~2 fifjpa: = -pd^arc {cattle) ; 3dajcnua : in pi., 
failed beasts, cattle; sg., of a Hn^k £*aj/ Gn 6. 20 Mich 
3, 12; v. riQ2 44, 80, 385 tm 

]^3 acy«y 2 9& tm > 3°° 

X13 palrta: £a in compels. ; go, go away, depart; come, 

arrive ; have sexual intercourse [v. 7J73] ; rrpocrBcLvtjj : 

step forward, advance ; advance in age Gn 6. 13, 19. 23, 

24. I, 38. 9 IIS 14. 32 Jon 1. 3 14, 43, 46, 62, 75 t, 86*7 t 

IC-r: t laSaLvaj : causal in aor. 1, make to go into, put 

into Thr 3. 13 
K133 dyn3ad[LOS 
,, dniSadpov, fiddpov: raised seat or chair; throne IIR 

16- 18 

„ SvauTj, hvdpTi : setting of the sun Dt 1 1. 30 

71X123 ovrtvois: planting; generation^ production, growth 

Lev 25. 15, 20, 23. 39 Dt 22. 9, 33- 14 Jer 2. 3 Prv 

8- 19 72 

H3 <££*; xmtpoijsla 237 tm, 290 t, 337 tm 

Vl32 itXtjct^tj: = rrXTjpvpls {flood, deluge) Gn 6. 17 70 



14, 


75> ' 


345 


69, 


175 


tm 


70. 


175 


tm 
70 



454 XIX - CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

H0130 7raTTjcr/xd? : trending on, trampling 70 

Hp13 laiio) (for Siwtcj) : (Suij^oj, fiu>Ku>) rout) pursuit 

Xah 2. 1 1 /S 

ma rdfos: grave, tomb Jcs 14. 15 Ez 31. 14; nmi 63, 294 tm 

?T3 atScoftat, alaywu* : to 6* ashamed, feel shame 46, 96 c, 109 

H73 ,772713 atSoi? 37, 50, 257 tm;- D'TPISQ atSoia 5t, 

259 tm ; Htf13 dxpo3vGTia 96 tm ; n:*?3 atax"" 7 ) 3 1 t ; 

DZ73 TToois 3IOtm; m3 tLS*: = HD (a.p.}-r5« 
TT3 aprra^cu : J*L££, plunder Xu 3 [. 32 63 

HT3 ap7Tci(rroV : earned away] --aKTos : gotten by rapine, 

stolen Jcs 42. 22 oj 

T3 ,riT3 apTra/Tj: iAz/if seized, booty, prey Jcs 10, 6 Dan 

1 i. 24 29 t, 03 

TT3 occiput: scatter like seed, strew; Pass, to w scattered 

or dispersed 29 c, 69 

*llr Sic- : scatter or spread about; squander 29 : 

n^nis 30 : 

]H3 fiaaavtveu : £af to iAr to.' Job 23. 10 56 

j*j3 3aaafta^o^ : torture Ez 21. 1 8 56, 381-2 tm 

]n3 ]ZX 3aaartr7jy Ai';?o* : = ^acai-o? ['ouchstcne''- Jcs 

23. 16 (t\ ]n= ]=K; 56, 30: tm 

nnz o/pcai 37, 46, 50, 85 :, 3y ? 109 tm, 326. 402 

TH3 xa£?-: flu/ ib:rn by force, destroy; raze to the ground \ 

demolish 87, 109 :rr. 

•VH3 acperd?: chosen 7 elected IIS 21. 6 107 

Tn32 ,^n20 d©<up€jia: fAai which is taken away as the 

choice part Ex 15, 4 I IR 1 9. 23 70 

"VJT3 rjldtos, adeo* : J. "ITX ; cf. <dpo9, kovqq* A". 124 t, 312 irr. 

m*H3 Kovpo<ruvrj : youth r yoJithful prime Eccl I 1. 0, 12. I 
Kr33 odcypa: saying 3 word y utterance Nu 30. 7 70 

Hw- rrtar^ucj : fr^.', put faith in y rely on a person, thing 

or statement Ps 1 18. 8, 9 Prv 31. 1 t 16, 46, 67, 84-5 

"53 ,nn03 ,|^nC3 maro^: pledge, security, warrant; 

confidence IIR 18. 19 Jes 30. 15 Job 12. 6 73 

riw32 y r;nD3C ,D3Q Tzicrtupa: = 7Tt<rr6v } yap. Jes 20, 5 

Jer 48. 13 Prv 14. 16, 22, 19 70 

*T3 Sidy S. x u P^* v l °9 cm 

p3 ,p32 7T€7rvu^at: Ep. pf. Pass, with pres. sense, to £* 
^rutf j in aor. opt, Pass., Trvvdclrjs d/cdfiro:.- under- 
stand it Jes 10. 1 3 Dan io, 1 61 



6i> 74 

73 

7^-3 

68, 412 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES +55 

p23 TTtTTTvyLtvos , ttiwtqs : wise, discreet^ prudent, under- 

standing Gn 41 - 33 Prv 17. 28 
nrz rruirrrj : understandings wisdom Jes 1 r. 2 Prv 3. 5 
nrcn rrti-vais : prudence Prv 10. 23 
p? Bui 169 tm; fttaoy 291 tm; ftcra 171 tm, 330 
m^a £pui, 777, ttoAis-: ^* ""*W Esth 1. 2 
*V? ocVoy: house y temple ; reigning house ; family ; palace 

(\V) Gn 12. 15, 17 NU3. 24 Jos 7. 14 IIS 5. 11, 7. 

5 IR 9. i, 11. 28, 14. 10 HCh 24. 7 13, 2c^2, 24 t, 26, 39, 42 t, 
49> 73, 77, 83 t, 101, 109 tm, 170 tm, 310, 319-20 t f 326 
*n*7 r*2 olkos AT}pTjT€pos: the temple of Dcmetcr Gn 

35- l 9 ^9 

QT7* JV2 olkos altZvos 319 m; CTHj? JV2 oiko$ reXeos 
319-20 m; pa^j? JV2 01V0? tc'Acos 319m; r." nerd 
r 7 1 tm, 381 tm 

-V2 5t7-cl: second letter in the alphabet 

-T«r luana, rd: generally, clothes IIR 23. 7 

]rri -ordt> : rAa^ which one drinks, esp. of wine Esih 1. 5, 

7. 7, 3 

n-2 <cyicwcj : shriek, wail, lament or wzVfc o:rr one dead 

Gn 29. 11, 50. 3 Dt 34, 8 Jud 21.2 IIS : . 1 2 Ruth 

1 - Q ; la\i<u : cry t bewaiL shriek 
H" *22 ,r*C2 wroj/cLrroi' : shrieking 3 wailing ; lamentation 

,W) Gn 35. 8 [c[. Bcjcxv'- Bacchante], 50. 4 Esr 10. 1 ; 

el. }*€&Ti;^2jBdKxos v/4--, 8ixi*)l ^ a Xl : ^'tfi/ 
T?2 -^?^ alpioj : choose, prefer ; *f- : choose for oneself [cT 

<;2ip€raj? : ybr choice 7 for preference] ; €<£- : choose as a 

yjxzessor Lev 27. 26 Dt 21. 16 
rrii-2 t^ciptros : picked out, chosen^ choice Jes 28. 4 Hos 

9. 10 

^r ^77: *o'Jes 26, 14 Ps to. 4, 6 

n2 , 72 rrATjiiTj 

r'*72 ppoyxidZaj : ^ui> <A«rn Jer 5 1 . 34 

r *?3 ZpvyX 13 * : £"'/>. *ff«f A/ Jcr 5 1 . 44 

„ jSouArj : council of elders, senate Gn [4. 2 
nS7? a-oAwd/z/iaTos 1 : many-eyed [a euphemism for the 



21 
30 t 

73, 80 



00, 320 



3i ', 77-8 



34 



103 :rn, 107, 203 tm 

too 1, 309 cm 

46, 378 t 

379 t 

4 11 
172 tm 

344 f m 

57 

57 
378 



456 XIX. CATALOGUE OF CENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

prophet who was of weak eye-sight, Nu 24. 3-4] 

Nu 22. 5 121 

p73 £v\a£ : guardian, keeper, protector Nu 22- 2 45, 1 2T 

HD2 /JtJ/xq, /Jaj^ds-: raised base or tribune to speak from 

in a public assembly, etc, ; raised platform, stand, for 

chariots; mostly, altar with a base IR 3. 2-4, 1 1. 7 41, 43, 

78-9, ioo-i, 378 t, 385 tin 
p ,n2 y6vo$: that which is begotten, child, ojfspring, son 

Gn 4. 25, 11. 29, 19, 8 Prv 17. 2; cf. ^afs- 131 t, 289, 291 : 

,, rrdrrajv: in addressing a person, mostly as a term 

of endearment or familiarity, kind, gentle Gn 43. 29 

IS 24. 17; y*Vor 61, 291 tm 

,, 6ut6v: v. 2H Gn 49. 22 * 73, 80, 291 tm 

C-TX-p ,^K-p ,CTIX-p ,K71K~p dvdpujTros, 6^^ a^p 63, 67, 82, 

289 tm 
ViX"p o <po$ uScVojv ?roVor; v. px 57, 61 , 291 tm 

p£K~p Afsajvtdri^: son of Anion, King of Judah 

Zeoh 1.1 -^ 

nci-p .Tinn-p ,^2?-p /^-? - p ' O^npCo^ : son of 

Homer Gn 10. 3, 34. 2 ICh 4. 37, 6, 31 73, 291 :m 

2^Z?T fp) adilyovo? Gn 37. 3 20 1 *m 

«T£2n-p :\ ^on? ICh r 1 . 1 1 1 2 5 : 

ps"r-p ,V?Vr~p [Jro^ua^Tis : son of Ptolemy Esr 

2. 42, 46 
T!"P 291 t 

KV?f-p ,nVs-p IlrjXt&qs: son of Pelcus Nu 16. 1 
mzx 6dot? (A) : appearance Ex 25. 9, 40 Dt 4. 16, 17 

Jcs 44- 13 Ez 10. 3 

-22 rrdaiy: £/. ^V2 E2 30. I 7 123 

"^23? 2 {r7T€p 174 tm; "*?- uerd 172 tm; -rrp6s 26, 173 tm 
"1**2 ^ol?? Ex 22. 4 Nu 20. 4, i i Ps 78. 48 40, 663 cm 

/^2 fatvo*, /Ja in compds. : of the male, mount, cover; 
= 6u\€tv y of sexual intercourse Prv 30. 23; rc'oua* : 
£f.', acquire , possess Jes 26. 13 
„ ,?yj <rrvy<aj: Atf/*, abhor; detest (W) ; Pass., £* A- 

rejterf 28 i 

VS2 ,rr?S2 £ouAtJ : :>. 3?2 Jos 15. 9, 29 ICh 4- 33 378 t 

„ .VS2" *//Aw [i>W/^2? (A/a, as in aXjdttainnX)] 92, 100, 

121,1 23-5, 1 72, 288 t, 29 1 on, 304- 1 2, 330, 402 
„ TaoTar (rrao^iat) 29 1 tm ; ttoXlttjs 1 24, 29 1 tm, 378 ; 



/ 2 
* * j. 

72 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 457 

ttoois 291 tm, 310 tm; rroXvs 124, 128, 29 1 trn, 

310 tm 
-Vsa ttoAi^: v. srrbyn I2 8 

^T753 7To\v€tBT]fj r ajv: knowing much] TJXtoetS^s: like the 

suit, bright and beaming; 'H\td&7}$: child of the sun 125 

]^7H 7^3 77o\vy\<jjacros: many-tongucd 124, 128 

JV*2Ta jy 77o\vfjL7]Ti$ : of many counseb 1 28 t, 2911m 

O^T^D Jt rroXvppayfjs: of rivers, violent 1 28 t 

^T!?? ,> 77o\uK€pa<;: many-horned 128 t 

*?*" ,, TToAJao^o^: t^ry a ^ 44, 128 t 

"1^? ,, ?7o\v&pi£: with much heir r2j. ; 128 t 

^373 dypios: wild, savage Ps 73. 22, 92. 7 Prv 30. 2 29 

„ 3ov$ 40, 662 tm 

"^S- TTvpouj : i\ "11X Nu 1 1 . 3 Jcr 20- 9 42 t, 44, 87, 93 

T?2 # "V*zn €K7Tvp<jcu<jj : 6i£rn /a ashes, consume utterly 

Ex 22. 5 IR 14. ro, 16. 3 HCh 28. 3 66 ? 87, 196 tm 

T^TZ Kara3i3puj<jKiij : ££/ ;/£, devour', Sic-: m/ i/p, consume 

Ex 22. 4 56 

?S2 yrjtfvAAtV, yafl- : spring onion Nil I I- 5 326 

^"^3 f n2S c£:roaoj£cu ; jj;-£ or preserve from 29 t, 3 I t 

*?2 Xprjpa: money, price Gn 37. 26 Mai 3. 14 Ps 30. 10 3*8, j.26 

"VJI Qpacato : fence in, hedge round, hence with colla:. 

notion of defence, secure, fortify Dt 1. 28, 28. 52 1:2 

rp.22 opevue : boom placed in a harbour; contrivance 

for catching fish Jcr 4g, 22 Am 1 . 12 1 29 

^S2S ,"!^2 ,^nsri <f>payuos: fence, hedge, fortification 

Nu 13. 19 Dt 4. 43 Nah 3. 14 Thr 2. 2 Jer 49. 22 

Am I. 12 70 

TS2 ,2*^.22 ;£pjjpa: treasures, property, sub stance Job 22. 

24, 25 _>;^ ( M /3, x.' s /^) 3^3, 426 

s £r St^cy: half Ex 38. 26 37, 4.6 

T?r dmipttu: distinguish 34 : 

T?2 3q0s xx ix t, 40, 83 t, 662-3 tm 

mj?2 ,ri"]ip3 laropla: inquiry Lev 19. 20 Ez 34. 12 78 

^£2 «Vi£ijT€a* : j«A d/?*r Nu 16. 10, 35. 23 IS 19, 2; 

xishfor lb 14* 4 Nch 5- 18; make further search for 

Hos 2, 9 Cant 3. 1 ; request Ps 27. 4 Esth 2. 15; 

demand, require Dan 1. 20 75 

"12 «tv/x>'? 66, 77, 291 tm; ^}K T2 dydparrros 289 tm; 

~)2 irar*- 291 tm 



00 


* 


42 t, 290 


29 ; 


03 


663 tnj 


40, 5°- 57 


* T * 


30 r, 4*: 55 


^^ * 





45 B XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

Xnn ,m: /? t /?poi<7*<u : eat 7 eat up; u. "1373 27 t, 86 

„ 7T€pdcj : intr., penetrate, pierce, of a pointed weapon 

Ez 23. 47 
„ 4><p<u: generally, create, form Gn 1. i> 27 

7JC13 TTpoppTjois: previous instruction, proclamation; in- 
struction, order, public command (\V) ICh 16- 7 

ntt-ia /Souy IR 5. 3 

""'2 /"H3 poSo^ts-: rose-coloured Zach 6, 3 
,, ,, 77ap3iafos : spotted Gn 31. 10 

m2 ,rilT3 KUTTaptCGoSi -lttos : cypress 

T1? #*?T~1D 7T€piOx:\€pos ; very hard; cf. dSaua? 

HT2 <f>apfiaK€vs : poisoner Jes 27. 1 

N^|2 /JapuV : Aracy in weight, in Horn, mostly with coilat. 

notion of strength and force Jud 3. 1 7 IR 5. 3 Ps 73. 4 405 : 

m2 pTjrpa ; fpdrpa, pta> (epi) : verbal agr cement , bargain, 
covenant ; compact, treaty ; of the written lairs of 
Lycurgus, which assumed the character etc compact 
between the Law-giver and the People Gna. 9-11,15. 18, 
17. 9-10 Dt 9. 9 20, 40, 46, 50, 109 i, 310 :, 22° 

~P.2 ,"]H2nn Kar€vA<r/€w : strcngthd. for €l-Acv*qj 41, 
^3; H312 euAoyia, tvtpytca 43, 115 tm ; "^"12 
evAcr/7jroV 104 :m 3 i E4-15; *P- -rpocKwiuj i : 6 tm; 
^|T2 ,*]*P apdpov xxviii tm, 257, 258 

?~12 ^darpuxo* : thunderbolt, flash of lightning 2 2 '? 

6X6^: flash Dt 32. 41 Ez 1. 13 Hab 3. 11 79 

i<"]2 paiawV, paOTj 93, 329-31 :~ 

"i^n i^aipitu : choose, select (W) 41 : : 

2X2 ,C*73 dauTj, oSutj : scent, perfume 24 :, =0 

*^*2 arSpdr, dtTjp; TTocrdi) 2S5-7 tm, 2C0 im 

TT2 14scj : 6oi7, seethe, of meat and the like; -eacoj: 
soften, ripen, or change by means of heat ; wi Ez 
^4- 5 Joel 4- 13 334 

TS2 r b^27} <£- ; 60 1/ thoroughly ; ttcrrtaacu : cook thoroughly ; 

of plants, n£*/i Gn 40. 10 Dt 14. 2 i, 16. 7 Thr 4. 10 334 

TT2 vrrcp 39, 174 tm; ^t72 6ihl{tD 90 tm 

r."2 f n*72* ,n232 7rd<7i? 82, 12 1, 123-4, 1 26, 1 28, 304-7, 

310-1 1 tm, 41 1 
„ $vcns: the characteristic of sex, esp. of the female 

organ IS 20. 30 3:0 

ai'Bcis 310 cm 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 459 

rctn alaxvt^ : shame y dishonour Hos 10. 6 (v. ^TC) 310 t 

rn fSavd, yvmj : woman 83 t 

irrr-nn .snirna 23 »., 28 t, 400 t, 415 t 

-V.2 ,~V13 iJWeoff, ^ctij: r. T7K ,2X 126 

7KW2 /^NinD rtlBcosfaaris 8toG Gn 22. 22 Joel I.I 128 

n^Jia aSaros: untrodden; mctaph., pure, chaste; maiden^ 
girly virgin ; irajAos- : young girl, maiden ; cf. —apdivos ; 
maiden , virgin; ad>8opo$: unmarried; ijffloj: rrapdevos 
Gn 24. 16 62, 108, 1 12 

P^v? TT^r^ai^ (yij) : (land) of rocks [Petra] IIS 2. 20 300 

HJC 3oauj: cry aloud y shout; of things, roar, houL as the 

wind and waves Ex 15, 1 37, -^ 

m>G ,*pX3 ,n*Kl £017 : loud cry J shout , in Hem. mostlv 
4c*//* rry; of things, roar of the sea; aid called for , 
succour J ts 24. 14 Jer 48. 29 Job 37, 4, 38. 11 42 t. 78, 326 

mXZ yavpos : exulting in; haughty, disdainful Jes 2- 12 
Job 40. I 1 ; mxi yaupoTTjs- : exultation Jes 9. 8 Ps 3 1 . 
19 Prvag. 23 57, 415 t 

*i .Kn ,xn ,rrx; /ii /1 ,rjc: y^ ya ;a: c\ i« D: 34. 5 

IIR 2. 16, 23. 10 Jer 7. 31 Ez 6. 3 Zeph 2. 14 92 

~XZ \vouai: loosen; of men, release, deliver, csd. from 
bonds and prison, and so, generally, from difrxultv 
or danger ; set free, release by payment of ransom 7 
redeem Gn 48. 16 Ex 6. 5 Lev 25. 30, 49 Jes 52. 3, 
9 Ruth 3. 13 3 8 ? 46-7, 67, 326 

7>C ,VVZ ktjXlBocu : stain, soil; metaph., defile t rjlly 14, 24 t, 38 

*?^V *^3?2n Kara-: strcngthd. for ktjXlBooj 28 t, I 16 

^ 5f/xa, Sdua; fiujfLQs: v. 7122 Ez r 6. 24, 3 1 , 43. : 3 77, 79, 385 t 
rj yufov: M* whole body Ps 129. 3 23 :, 29 c, 77, 79 

^^ ,n*2i«l uoocj : /(/f ^. rju<f Ai^A ; metaoh. f elevate, 

exalt; Pass, /o £* exalted Ez 17, 24, 31. 5 Job 30. 27 46, 94 t, 

326 
^i i'(io; : height IS 174 Am 2. 9 Prv 16. 1 8 29 t, 3! t, 40 

opos 1 , opfoy (written opSos), tJpor, ovpos: bound- 
ary, landmark^ pi. ; pillar (whether inscribed or not) ; 
boundary- stone marking the limits of temple-lands 
Gn 10, 19 Dt 3. 16, 19. 14; €<6cpta: boundaries 46, 50 

nr^i irvt'ov: milk Job 10. 10 38, 80, 326 

3T21 Kvp^lov : Dim. of kv/j3tj (A) I (drinking cup, bowl 

nr r£), small cup Jer 35. 5 39, 79 



n 



4 5o XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 
V2J .m^ni ,rH3J Kvpu>$ : lord, master ; guardian, trustee ; 
fern. Kvpla: mistress of the house Gn 16. 8, 27. 29 IR 
15. 13 Jer 29. 2; cf tyopos, p. 215 42 ** 69 

]3i m^or, ££or 68, 94 t, 3~ 6 > 347-8 tm 

sai ,nyna ,py:u £/**: *. nai IS 13- 3, 16 Jer 16. 16 

ICh 16, 39 3 1 t* 35 2 tm 

121 ,—nm icopo^ (B), *oupo*, Ku>po$: boy, Lid; from 
K€ipcj y of one who has cut his hair short on emerging from 
boyhood Dt 22. 5 4°> 6 9> * - 8 

^im::: *o/>os 0eou: the name indicates that its bearer 
was God's gift to his parents who had prayed for his 
birth, or worked an apprenticeship as an acolyte 
in God's temple, or was a worshipper or follower of 
God Dan 9, 21 12S 

a ctto/tj, -ya: roo/; = reyry, Wyor US 1 1 . 2 Ps 102. 8 22-3, 3l 

77: k€vt€cd : of bees and wasps, sting ; generally, prick, 

stab Gn 49- 19 (~) s 7 

"TTITiH crvy-: pierce together J er 5. 7, 16. 6 07 

n~n o^tf^, -^9: AanJt, rfyittf by the side of rivers 31 t, 46, 326 

*71 alyloKos: Dim. of aff : £C£f Ex 23- 19 37^ * 

771 *771 # 7^Tiri ,77IT.n iicyoAJvoj, jieytdu^cu, Ksraueya- 

Ai/vtu, -^a/xai, fir/a.\i^oiict; 7171 ^teyc? ~4~5 ^ - G - 

29-30 t, 38, 56, 75-6 t, 92, 296-7 tin, 301 ; irr 7*7; 

;xeyaAojT€;>09 296 tm, *99; n3"77I ucycAaAicn9, 

nxrn V7: ^eya-W^rt^ 297 tm, 299; ,^7; .n7V7i 

Virp ,*?7;23 txeytdos 56, 296 tm, 298 tm, 30 1 
Vti ^Ai} 3 ! 5 L ~ 

~71 *Vko7ttgj: ra/ (trees) ou* a/" a wood, fell; cut down 

(W)Jcsg. 9 ^ co 

^4 f iTia yuro^: a. -: IS 31. 10 23 u 29 t, 32 t, 43, 46, 320 

:t: ,:na ^teyas : i'. Vn: ; alternatively : 1 - ' ~r-^ :" - CT" - '' 

riyefuuv 23 <> -9 6 tm > 2 ? 3 

JTts Zxvdwv (y?j) : the land of the Scythians 129 : 

Tin IkvBtis: Scythian ICh 11. 34 !=9 ' 

nVa ,m*71 «Aaor?: (eAatwcu) driving azvay, banishing, 

expulsion (W) IIR 24. 15, 25. 27 Jer 28. 6, 46. 19 

E233. 21 Ob 20 /8, 8: s 406 

"in S«5oj : /«ir, dread 4 2 * 



o 



XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 461 

"VCD ,m^» ,rwan So>a \fear; object of fear Jes 31. 9, 

66, 4 Jcr 20. 4 Ps 34- 5 Prv 10. 24 7 

nu Kvptu* : Ai7, light upon ; m«f with, fall in with Ps 5. 5 25, 29 t, 

399 
„ oIk€cj: inhabit; colonize, settle; intr., dwell, lire, of 

persons, families, or tribes, have their abodes, settle- 
ments; of cities, to be rituaUdGn 32. 5, 35- 27 Ex 12. 
49 Jud 17. 8, 19. 16 IIS 4, 3 Jes 11. 6 Jer 49. 18 
Ps 61. 5 Ruth 1. 1 29 t, 75 i, 399 

1W ,m^ oiKTjtia : dwelling-place ; in pi., building, house ; 

store-room Gn 17. 8, 37. 1 Hag 2. 19 Job 18. 19 7° 

miM ot^arioi' : Dim. of otxrqpa, SUp. ]oc\ I. I 7 70 

TUB dytp/ids: ^' call-to-crms of the Greeks against 

Troy Jcr 6. 25, 49. 29 7° 

"Vi deploy: in form Dim. of £rjp (A*art of prey, esp. a 

lion) Gn 49- 9; Kopor: r. "1-i 25, 57, 66 

"H Trpoaxojpoy : neighbour, inhabitant, colonist Ex 3. 22 

Job 19. 15 ^ 62 

TVi-H-l iyclpofiai: rouse, stir up; rouse or stir oneself 

Jcr 30. 23 ^ 29^ 

TT; Troxd^oi, -t^cu : shear wool; = ttocuj (shear) 38, 46, 326, 

636 tm 
n*I rroVor, TrttVor, tt£**oj, tt€<o? : (ttoclu) fleece ; /s<r. j : Or 

fu/7 0/11W 636 tm 

"t: fcaroj: (s«^) A«iti, skated, planed; of stone, A/iit:; 

of horn, polished; of elephant's cars, smooth Ex 20. 

25 Ez 40. 42 ; cf fvo-ros 5 2 

Vt: drrrra^aj : J/za/cA aire/, carry of; plunder; pillage '\\ ; 

Gn 21. 25, 31- 31 Jud 9. 25, 21. 23 Jes 10. 2 Prv 

4. 16, 29. 24 Job 24. 2 63* 67 

Vti t r%bn dfmayrj: seiz^re^ robbery; thing seized, booty, 

prey Lev 5. 21, 23 Ecci 5. 7 63 

-TS rpo^o-UiV, Tpi£iW*s, rofcAAtff : grasshopper or /i?rxri 

Joel 1. 4l 2. 25 3^ 

STl pi'fa : rwt, mostly in pi. Jes 1 1, 1 Job 14, 8 50, 63, 68, 78 

"IT: Si<d£uj : judge; decree as punishment; condemn; ordain 

her slaughter Esth 2. 1 58, 85 t 

„ <adaip<<D : as a law-term, condann Ez 37. 1 1 46, 85 t 

„ orrapcaacu : tear, rend; rend asunder IR 3. 25-6 Ps 

31. 23; cf. <7xi'C<u: »cr IR 3. 25 53, 93 r > 4*7 



4 &2 XIX. CATALOGUE OF GENERAL HOMOLOGIES 

TT3 oTrdpayiia: piece torn ojf, shred, fragment , mangled 

corpse Gn 15. 1 7 Ps 136- 13; cf. a\'i'crir 4171 

Tmri £<qp<i: aridity \ fn/w : dry 21 t, 23, 38^43 

T2 paxi